Carbon nanotubes, consisting of rolled graphene layer built from sp2 units, have attracted the imagination of scientists as ideal macromolecules and their unusual physical and chemical properties make them useful in the fabrication of nanocomposites, nano-electronic devices and sensors etc. In this account, the current status and prospect of carbon nanotubes is described with a special emphasis on the safety issue of carbon nanotubes. Even though many challenges to be solved remain, extensive and intensive efforts in both academy and industry will clear out those problems soon and finally enable carbon nanotubes to play a key innovative material of 21st century in numerous industrial processes.
The excellent and characteristic capacitor performance of pure single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which differ from conventional activated carbon electrodes, is reported. SWNTs with little bundling showed higher specific capacitance than activated carbons. High operating voltage can be expected for pure SWNTs without metal contamination and graphene edge structure.
[ Cf/C-Cu ]composites were fabricated by infiltrating molten Cu into different Cf/C preforms prepared by chemical vapor infiltration, resin impregnation and carbonization. The microstructure and properties of the composites were investigated. The results show that Cu in the composites filled the pores and showed network-like distribution. Compared with homemade J204 brush material and certain grade pantograph slider from abroad, the composites have higher flexural strength and better electrical conductivity. The friction and wear properties of the composites are better than that of J204, and closed to that of the abroad material.
In this work, effects of carbon matrix on sliding friction and wear behavior of four kinds of C/C have been investigated against 40 Cr steel ring mate. Composite A with rough lamination carbon matrix (RL) shows the highest volume loss and coefficient of friction, while composite D with smooth lamination/resin carbon matrix (SL/RC) shows the lowest volume loss. The worn surface of composite A appears smooth, whereas that of composite C with smooth lamination carbon (SL) appears rough. The worn surface of composite D appears smooth under low load but rough under high load. Atomic force microscope images show that the size of wear particles on the worn surface is also dependent on the carbon matrix.
Various silanes, amino silane, vinyl silane, TESPD, and ZS (TESPD/zinc soap complex), are added into chlorinated isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (CIIR)/hard clay/carbon black (CB) compound and they are investigated with respect to the vulcanization characteristics, the processability, and the mechanical properties. In hard clay/CB filled system, only ZS silane added compound shows both lower Mooney viscosity and extrusion torque while vinyl silane added compound showed only a lower extrusion torque. All the ZS added compounds showed the lowest viscosity among them. The silane added compounds showed an increased modulus. In 'fatigue to failure' count test, the ZS added compound showed superior counts compared to other silane (amino, vinyl, TESPD) added compounds. The mechanical properties were significantly increased when the S2 and ZS were added into CIIR/hard clay/CB compound. The ZS added compounds showed a significant improvement on elongation modulus.
Various silanes, amino silane, vinyl silane, TESPD, and ZS (TESPD/zinc soap complex), are added into chlorinated isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (CIIR)/soft clay/carbon black (CB). The vulcanization characteristics, the processability, and the mechanical properties are measured. In soft clay/CB filled CIIR system, there are no significant changes in Mooney viscosity among compounds. Vinyl silane added compound shows a low extrusion torque. All the silane added compounds shows an increased modulus. The mechanical properties are significantly increased when the S2 is added into CIIR/soft clay/CB compounds.
Crushed, depitted peach stones were impregnated activated with 50% H3PO4 followed by pyrolysis at 500℃. Two activated carbons were produced, one under its own evolved gases during pyrolysis, and the second conducted with air flow throughout the carbonization stage. Physicochemical properties were investigated by several procedures; carbon yield, ash content, elemental chemical analysis, TG/DTG and FTIR spectra. Porosity characteristics were determined by the conventional N2 adsorption at 77 K, and data analyzed to get the major texture parameters of surface area and pore volume. Highly developed activated carbons were obtained, essentially microporous, with slight effect of air on the porous structure. Oxygen was observed to be markedly incorporated in the carbon matrix during the air treatment process. Cation exchange capacity towards Cu (II) and Cd (II) was tested in batch single ion experimental mode, which proved to be slow and a function of carbon dose, time and initial ion concentration. Copper was up taken more favorably than cadmium, under same conditions, and adsorption of both cations was remarkably enhanced as a consequence of the air treatment procedure. Sequestration of the metal ions was explained on basis of the combined effect of the oxygen functional groups and the phosphorous-containing compounds; both contributing to the total surface acidity character.
Multi-elements doped TiO2 was prepared as a new photocatalyst in order to decrease the band gap of TiO2 by sol-gel process which can provide the large active sites of TiO2. Multi-elements were doped by using a single precursor, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEATFB). By the benefit of large specific surface area of TiO2 prepared by sol-gel process, catalysts showed initial fast removal of dye. The photoactivity showed that the doped catalysts significantly promote the light reactivity than undoped TiO2. The commendable photoactivity of prepared catalysts is predominantly attributable to the doping of anions which may reduce the band gap.
Study on the removal of Acid Green 20 by adsorption on indigenously prepared activated carbons from cow dung, mango stone, parthenium leaves and commercial activated carbon have been carried out with an aim to obtain information on treating effluents from tanneries. The effects of various experimental parameters have been investigated by following the batch adsorption technique. Adsorption data was modeled with the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Removal of Acid Green 20 was found to be favorable using Biomass ash and could be considered as alternatives to commercial activated carbon for the treatment of tannery effluents, especially for the removal of dye(s).