The present work is aimed at evaluating the kinetics and dynamic adsorption of methylene blue by CO2- activated carbon gels. The carbon gels were characterized by textural properties, thermal degradation and surface chemistry. The result shows that the carbon gels are highly microporous with surface area of 514 m2/g and 745 m2/g for resorcinol-to-catalyst ratios of 1000 (AC1) and 2000 (AC2), respectively. The kinetics data could be described by pseudo-first-order model, with a longer duration to attain equilibrium due to restricted pore diffusion as concentration increases. Also, AC1 exhibits insignificant kinetics with fluctuating adsorption with time at concentrations of 20 and 25 mg/L. However, AC1 reveals a better performance than AC2 in dynamic adsorption due to concentration gradient for molecules diffusion to active sites. The applicability of Yoon–Nelson and Thomas models indicates that the dynamic adsorption is controlled by external and internal diffusion.
The results of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) demonstrate that the volatiles captured by diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology contain hydrocarbons and their derivatives (72.2 rel. %). We have identified aliphatic (paraffins and olefins), cyclic (naphthenes and arenes) and oxygenated (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids) hydrocarbons, as well as nitrogenated and sulfonated compounds. Water, negligible amounts of CO2 and Ar were also detected among the volatile components.
Based on the M06-2X density functional, the catalytic oxidation of CO by O2 over Mo-embedded graphene was investigated in detail. The model with molybdenum atom embedded in double vacancy (DV) in a graphene sheet was considered. It is found that the complete CO oxidation reactions over Mo-DV-graphene include a two-step process, in which the first step prefers to Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism and followed the progress of CO oxidation with a remaining atomic Otop. Compared with the structure of Mo atom decorated at the single carbon vacancy on graphene (Mo-SV-graphene), the catalytic activity of Mo-DV-graphene is weaker. The present results imply that the catalytic activity of Mo-embedded graphene for CO oxidation can be improved by increasing the ratio of single vacancy (SV).
A two-level full factorial design 22 with three replications was employed to assess the effect of the incorporation of PSF into the epoxy matrix and the surface treatment of carbon fibers on the work of adhesion (WA) and the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of carbon fiber–epoxy composites. The IFSS was determined using the microbond (or microdrop) micromechanical test, and the work of adhesion was estimated using two different procedures: (1) using the Owens and Wendt method, and (2) from the Dupre–Young expression using the contact angle θ of a cured epoxy resin on a single carbon fiber and the surface energy of the cured epoxy resin. It was found that the treatment of the carbon fiber with the silane-coupling agent appreciably increases its polar component because of the nitric acid oxidation and the chemisorption of the silane-coupling agent onto the carbon fiber surface. Also, the O=S=O group present in the polysulfone chain resin fairly increases the polar component of the epoxy–PSF blend. The results show that the wetting of the silane-treated carbon fiber by the thermoplastic-modified epoxy resin is better, thus increasing the fiber–matrix adhesion. It was also found that there is a similarity between the trends of both, the IFSS and the WA results. Also, from the ANOVA results it was also seen that both the incorporation of the PSF to the epoxy matrix and the surface treatment of the carbon fibers and their interaction were statistically significant to the IFSS and the WA.
This research combines the liquid carbon precursor infiltration process for carbon/carbon composites with the fabrication procedure for organic, carbon-matrix friction materials in automotive. In the densification process, different liquid carbon precursors and numbers of densification cycle are adopted to investigate the influence on physical and mechanical properties, microstructure and tribological behavior. Experimental results indicate that the infiltration of liquid carbon precursors could improve the physical, mechanical properties and tribological performances of organic friction materials. The open porosity decreases with the number of densification cycle. Both bulk density and hardness increase with the number of densification cycle. The resin-based specimens show higher hardness and lower open porosity than those of the pitch-based specimens after each densification cycle. The tribological measurement of specimens with different carbon precursors shows that the pitch-based specimen shows lower and more stable friction coefficients and exhibits lower weight losses in comparison with other carbon precursors. Morphological observations show that a large area of smooth lubricative film was easily presented on the worn surfaces of the pitch-based specimens, whereas it was seldom observed on the worn surfaces of the preform specimen and resin-based specimens.
Petroleum-based impregnating pitches were prepared from pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) using a two-step heat treatment without a separation process. The pressurized heat treatment, the first step, was used to improve the properties of the pitches and enhance the product yield by promoting the cracking and polymerization of the components in the PFO. An atmospheric heat treatment as the second step was used only to synthesize the impregnating pitches from the liquid pitches prepared during the first step. The prepared impregnating pitches had the properties of a commercial petroleum-based impregnating pitch. The impregnation performance was evaluated by HT-XRD and an impregnation test. The HT-XRD results showed changes in the stacked structure of the pitches at the impregnation temperature. The bulk density of the carbon block was increased to 14.3% and the porosity was reduced by 10.3% after the impregnation/recarbonization process. The high reaction temperature during the first step induced the formation of quinoline insoluble (QI) components during the second step of the treatment, and the QI components adversely affected the impregnation process.
A new deformation micromechanism operating in the carbon cathode for aluminum electrolysis termed a ripplocation has been proposed in this paper. The creep deformation of semi-graphitic cathode was measured using a modified Rapoport equipment at 965 °C with cryolite ratio = 4.0. The characteristic of the defect was obtained by analyzing TEM photograph of the carbon cathode with different testing times. The results indicated that basal dislocations, bulk ripplocations, kink bands and delamination cracks appeared in succession in the first two stages of the creep deformation. Ripplocations in the carbon cathode make a layer of carbon atoms to glide relative to each other without damaging the in-plane bonds. Ripplocations could also attract each other and result in kink boundaries. The creep strain of the carbon cathode could be accommodated by kink band and delamination cracks during aluminum electrolysis. A more comprehensive understanding of their micromechanics behaviors is very important and could deeply influence our current knowledge of the deformation mechanism of the carbon cathode for aluminum electrolysis.
In this study, pitch crosslinked by oxygen function groups was made into activated carbon (AC) and pore structure was observed. The oxygen functional groups were introduced by the addition of waste PET for pitch synthesis. Activation agent ratios used to obtain the AC during the activation process were 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 (pitch:KOH, w/w). The oxygen content in the prepared pitch was characterized by elemental analysis. Also, the molecular weight of pitch was investigated by MALDITOF. Specific surface area and micropore volume of the prepared AC were determined by the argon adsorption–desorption analysis and calculated using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller and Horvath–Kawazoe equations, respectively. Micropore fraction of PET-free AC was smaller than that of PET-added AC. At high activation agent ratio, mesopores were created when the micropore structure collapsed. However, in the PET-added AC, due to the oxygen crosslinking effect, the micropore structure and micropore size were maintained even at a high activation agent ratio. Therefore, PET AC was found to have a higher micropore fraction than that of PET-free AC.
In this study, activated carbon with well-developed mesopores was fabricated using kenaf short fibers as a representative biomass. Concentrated phosphoric acid was selected as an activation agent to create highly developed porous structures, and pore development was observed to occur in relation to the weight ratio of phosphoric acid and kenaf. The pore characteristics of the kenaf-based activated carbon were determined using the N2/ 77K adsorption isotherm, and its microcrystalline structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction. The highest specific surface area (1570 m2/g) was observed when the weight ratio of phosphoric acid to kenaf was 3:1, and the highest mesopore fraction (74%) was observed at 4:1. The carbonization yield was 45–35%, which is higher than that of commercial activated carbon. The production of porous carbon material by this method offers high potential for application because it can be controlled over a wide range of average pore diameter from 2.48 to 5.44 nm.
To enhance the thermal properties of epoxy composites, expanded graphite (EG) was oxyfluorinated and embedded into epoxy resin as a reinforcement. The maximum thermal conductivity was obtained for epoxy composites with oxyfluorinated EG, representing a 62% increase compared to that of neat epoxy. Additionally, the glass transition temperature (Tg) and integral procedural decomposition temperature of epoxy composites with oxyfluorinated EG show the increase of 6% (4.4 °C) and 106% (264 °C), respectively, which indicated the improvement in thermal stability. These results can be attributed to the interfacial interaction between epoxy and oxyfluorinated EG, which formed strong interfacial interactions between the epoxy resin and EG due to the presence of oxygen- and fluorine-containing functional groups in oxyfluorinated EG.
Graphene and Fe3O4 were bound by electrostatic attraction and prepared by effective reduction through microwave treatments. As a result of fabricating graphene with Fe3O4 as a composite material, it has been confirmed that it contributes to the structural improvement in graphene stabilization and at the same time, it shows improved electrochemical performance through improved charge transfer. It was also confirmed that the crystalline Fe3O4 was uniformly dispersed in the rGO sheet, effectively blocking the reaggregation due to the van der Waals interaction between the neighboring rGO sheets. The structural analysis of prepared composites was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometer. Electrochemical properties of composites were studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Fe3O4 (0.4 M)/rGO composite showed a high specific capacitance of 972 F g−1 at the current density of 1 A g−1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte, which is higher than that of the pristine materials rGO (251 F g−1) and Fe3O4 (183 F g−1). Also, the prepared composites showed a very stable cyclic behavior at high current density, as well as an improvement in comparison with pristine materials in terms of resistance.