A simple, but effective means of tailoring the physical and chemical properties of carbon materials should be secured. In this sense, chemical doping by incorporating boron or nitrogen into carbon materials has been examined as a powerful tool which provides distinctive advantages over exohedral doping. In this paper, we review recent results pertaining methods by which to introduce boron atoms into the sp2 carbon lattice by means of high-temperature thermal diffusion, the properties induced by boron doping, and promising applications of this type of doping. We envisage that intrinsic boron doping will accelerate both scientific and industrial developments in the area of carbon science and technology in the future.
We fabricated a Li-S battery with post-treated carbon nanotube (CNT) films which offered better support for sulfur, and investigated the effect of the surface properties and pore structure of the post-treated CNT films on Li-S battery performance. Post-treatments, i.e., acid treatment, unzip process and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) treatment, effectively modified the surface properties and pore structure of the CNT film. The modified pore structure impacted the ability of the CNT films to accommodate the catholyte, resulting in an increase in initial discharge capacity.
In this study, graphene oxide(GO) was used as drug carriers to amorphize poorly watersoluble drugs via a co-spray drying process. Two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and ibuprofen, were investigated. It was found that the drug molecules could be in the graphene nanosheets in amorphous or nano crystalline forms and thus have a significantly enhanced dissolution rate compared with the counterpart crystalline form. In addition, the dissolution of the amorphous drug enwrapped with the graphene oxide was higher than that of the amorphous drug in activated carbon (AC) even though the AC possessed a larger specific surface area than that of the graphene oxide. The amorphous formulations also remained stable under accelerated storage conditions (40°C and 75% relative humidity) for a study period of 14 months. Therefore, graphene oxide could be a potential drug carrier and amorphization agent for poorly water-soluble drugs to enhance their bioavailability.
To formulate folate receptor (FR)-specific graphene-based electrochemical electrodes, a folic acid (FA) derivative attached with two pyrene molecules on the glutamate tail of FA was synthesized. The resulting pyrene-functionalized FA (FA-Py) presented the spontaneous noncovalent binding on chemically reduced graphene oxides (rGO) through an π-π interaction. Ultrathin morphology, high water-resistance, and preservation of intact FR-specific pteroates from the rGO/FA-Py assembly allow this assembly to be exploited as robust and FR-specific electrochemical electrode materials. The limits of detecting rGO/FA-Py modified electrodes were found to be as low as 3.07 nM in FR concentrations in cyclic voltammetry analysis.
Surfactant-wrapped separation methods of metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can result in large changes in intrinsic physical and chemical properties due to electronic interactions between a nanotube and a surfactant. Our approach to synthesize SWCNTs with an electronic feature relied on utilizing carbon nanorings, [n] cycloparaphenylenes ([n]CPPs), which are the fundamental unit of armchair type SWCNTs (a-SWCNTs) that possess a metallic feature without any surfactants. To obtain long tubular structures from [n]CPPs, the host-guest complexes formed with well-aligned [n]CPP hosts and various fullerene guests on a silicon substrate were pyrolyzed under an ethanol gas flow at a high temperature with focused-ultraviolet laser irradiation. The pyrolyzed [n]CPPs were observed to transform from nanorings to tubular structures with 1.5–1.7 nm diameters corresponding to the employed diameter of [n]CPPs. Our approach suggests that [n]CPPs are useful for structure-controlled synthesis of SWCNTs.
A citric acid functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite was successfully synthesized and the structure and morphology of the nanocatalyst were comprehensively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction patterns, atomic force microscopy images, scanning electron microscopy images, transmission electron microscopy images, and thermogravimetric analysis. The application of this nanocatalyst was exemplified in an important condensation reaction to give imidazole derivatives in high yields and short reaction times at room temperature. The catalyst shows high catalytic activity and could be reused after simple work up and easy purification for at least six cycles without significant loss of activity, which indicates efficient immobilizing of citrate groups on the surface of graphene oxide sheets.
An imprinted potentiometric sensor was developed for direct and selective determination of gabapentin. Sensor is based on carbon paste electrode adapted by graphene oxide that is decorated with silver nanoparticles and mixed with molecularly imprinted polymers nanoparticles using gabapentin as a template molecule. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Under optimal experimental conditions, the studied sensor exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity with LOD of 4.8×10–11 mol L–1. It provided a wide linearity range from 1×10–10 to 1×10–3 mol L–1and high stability for more than 3 mo. The sensor was effectively used for the determination of gabapentin in pharmaceutical tablets and spiked plasma samples.
TiO2-doped activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were successfully prepared as capacitive deionization (CDI) electrode materials by facile ultrasonication-assisted process. ACFs were treated with titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) and isopropyl alcohol solutions of different concentrations and then calcinated by ultrasonication without heat-treatment. The results show that a certain amount of anatase TiO2 was present on the ACF surface. The specific capacitance of the TiO2-doped ACF electrode was remarkably improved (by 93.8% at scan rate of 50 mV s–1) over that of the untreated ACF electrode, despite decreases in the specific surface area and total pore volume upon TiO2 doping. From the CDI experiments, the salt adsorption capacity and charge efficiency of the sample with TTIP percent concentration of 15% were found to considerably increase by 71.9 and 57.1%, respectively. These increases are attributed to the improved wettability of the electrode, which increases the number of surface active sites and facilitates salt ion diffusion in the ACF pores. Additionally, the Ti-OH groups of TiO2 act as electrosorption sites, which increases the electrosorption capacity.
In the present work, a comparative study of the mechanical behavior of two series of elastomeric composites, based on carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber (X-SBR) and reinforced with rice bran carbon (RBC) and graphite, is reported. Hybrid composites of X-SBR filled with RBC-graphite were also investigated in terms of the cure characteristics, hardness, tensile properties, abrasion resistance, and swelling. It was observed that the cure times decreased with the incorporation of a carbon filler whereas the torque difference, tensile strength, tensile modulus, hardness, and swelling resistance increased compared to the neat X-SBR revealing a favorable characteristic of crosslinking. Dynamic rheological analysis showed that the G' values of the composites, upon the addition of RBC-graphite, were changed to some extent. This demonstrates that the presence of a strongly developed network of fillers will ensure a reinforcing characteristic in a polymer matrix.
The present study aimed to prepare a novel efficient flame retardant additive for polypropylene. The new flame retardant was prepared by chemical grafting of melamine to graphene oxide with the aid of thionyl chloride. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis proved that melamine had been successfully grafted to the graphene oxide. The modified graphene oxide was incorporated into polypropylene via solution mixing followed by anti-solvent precipitatio. Homogeneous distribution as well as exfoliation of the nanoplatelets in the polymer matrix was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a significant improvement in the thermo-oxidative stability of the polymer after incorporating 2 wt% of the modified graphene oxide. The modified graphene oxide also enhanced the limiting oxygen index of the polymer. However, the amount of improvement was not enough for the polymer to be ranked as a self-extinguishing material. Cone calorimetry showed that incorporating 2 wt% of the modified graphene oxide lowered total heat release and the average production rate of carbon monoxide during burning of the polymer by as much as 40 and 35%, respectively. Hence, it was concluded that the new flame retardant can retard burning of the polymer efficiently and profoundly reduce suffocation risk of exposure to burning polymer byproducts.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding is an important issue in modern daily life due to the increasing prevalence of electronic devices and their compact design. This study estimated EMI-shielding effect (EMI-SE) of small (8–14×17 mm) Hanji (Korean traditional paper) doped with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and compared to Hanji without CNT using 2H (92.1 MHz) and 23Na (158.7 MHz) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) peak area data obtained from 1 M NaCl in D2O samples in capillary tubes that were wrapped in the Hanji samples. The simpler method of using the variation of reflected power and tuning frequency by inserting the sample into an NMR coil was also tested at 242.9, 158.7, and 92.1 MHz. Overall, EMI shielding was relatively more effective at the higher frequencies. Our results validated that NMR methods to be useful to evaluate EMI-SE, particularly for small, flexible shielding materials, and demonstrated that EMI shielding by absorption is dominant in Hanji mixed with CNT.
Free-standing electrodes of CuO nanorods in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are developed by synthesizing porous CuO nanorods throughout CNT webs. The electrochemical performance of the free-standing electrodes is evaluated for their use in flexible lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The electrodes comprising CuO@CNT nanocomposites (NCs) were characterized by charge-discharge testing, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance measurement. These structures are capable of accommodating a high number of lithium ions as well as increasing stability; thus, an increase of capacity in long-term cycling and a good rate capability is achieved. We demonstrate a simple process of fabricating free-standing electrodes of CuO@ CNT NCs that can be utilized in flexible LIBs with high performance in terms of capacity and cycling stability.