본 연구의 목적은 Y-Balance Test(YBT)를 통하여 무게부하 증가가 동적 균형에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 하였다. 연구의 대상자는 20-30대 남녀 성인 18명(연령: 23.17±1.72 years, 신장: 172.46 ±9.84 cm, 체중: 73.39±11.44 kg 다리길이: 88.89±5.69 cm)이 실험에 참여하였다. 동적 균형 측정을 위하여 YBT를 통하여 도달거리와 종합점수, COP 변인들을 측정하여 결과를 도출하였다. 연구결과로 YBT 시 후내측과 후외측 도달거리, 종합점수에서 무게부하일 때 동적 균형이 향상되었다. COP 결과로, 전방 도달 동안 전후진폭, 좌우 COP속도, COP 면적은 오른발에서 무게부하 시 동적 균형이 향상되었지 만, 후내측 도달 동안 차이가 없었고, 후외측 도달 동안 좌우진폭은 왼발에서, 전후 COP속도는 왼발, 좌우 COP속도와 COP속도는 좌우발에서, COP 면적은 좌우발의 무게부하 시 동적 균형이 향상되었다.
Background: Core muscle weakness occurs due to trunk asymmetry and spinal malalignment after stroke. Core exercise is being implemented to improve trunk control and sitting position in stroke patients.
Objectives: To investigated the effects of core muscle electrical stimulation on trunk control and dynamic balance in stroke patients.
Design: Quasi-experimental study.
Methods: A total of 30 stroke patients were recruited and divided into two groups: experimental group (core muscle electrical stimulation group) and control group (sham core muscle electrical stimulation group). Trunk impairment scale (TIS) was used to measure trunk control. BioRescue was used to measure sitting dynamic balance.
Results: In both groups, all TIS scores and sitting dynamic balance abilities were improved increased significantly after intervention (P<.05). Changes in TIS scores and sitting dynamic balance abilities were significantly greater in the experimental group than the control group (P<.05).
Conclusion: It was found that core muscle electrical stimulation can be used as an effective method for trunk control and balance recovery in stroke patients.
Background: Despite its high prevalence, interventions in plantar fasciitis remain inconclusive. To improve the daily life of plantar fasciitis patients, it is necessary to identify appropriate interventions to improve pain and foot pressure and balance. Improving the interventions for plantar fasciitis is one of the main goals for rehabilitation.
Objectives: To investigate the changes in pain and static-dynamic foot pressure and balance through the evaluation of 42 plantar fasciitis patient before and after the foot stretching and joint mobilization interventions.
Design: Randomized controlled trial.
Methods: The 42 subjects of the study were divided into a stretching group and a joint mobilization group with 21 subjects being assigned to each group. The results before and after the experiment were analyzed by applying stretching and joint movement interventions for a total of 6 weeks.
Results: Before and after the intervention, there were significant improvements in the pain index and static-dynamic foot pressure and static balance in both stretching and joint mobilization groups. However, the between-group comparison indicated no significant differences.
Conclusion: The stretching and the joint mobilization can improve the pain and static-dynamic foot pressure and static balance in plantar fasciitis patients.
Background: Scoliosis can be caused by postural changes. The effects of Schroth exercises and Kinesio taping for scoliosis have been reported independently, but there are few studies on the effects of combining both methods.
Objectives: To investigated the effects of Schroth exercises and kinesio taping on the Cobb angle and dynamic balance ability in patients with scoliosis.
Design: Quaxi-experimental study.
Methods: Participants were divided into the taping (n=3) and non-taping (n=3) groups. Pre-tests for the Cobb angle and dynamic balance were performed prior to the first intervention, and post-tests were performed after the intervention was completed. The non-taping group performed Schroth exercises for a total of 12 35-minute sessions thrice a week for 6 weeks. Meanwhile, in the taping group, Kinesio tape was attached before performing the same exercises and was maintained for 24 hours after the exercises were finished.
Results: In the taping group, there was no significant change in the Cobb angle and dynamic balance ability pre- and post-intervention (P>.05). Similarly, there was no significant change in the Cobb angle and dynamic balance ability pre- and post-intervention (P>.05) in the non-taping group. Furthermore, there was no significant difference upon comparing the two groups (P>.05).
Conclusion: Kinesio taping combined with Schroth exercises did not give additional benefits in terms of the Cobb angle and dynamic balance ability than that in the application of Schorth exercises alone.
Background: Although several studies have reported functional improvements after forward walking training on a treadmill and after backward walking training on a treadmill, there is a lack of immediate effects data, investigating spatiotemporal parameter, neuromuscular recruitment. Objectives: To compare the immediate effects between forward and backward walking on treadmill training, present study measured muscle activities of the lower extremity, gait parameters, and dynamic balance.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Methods: The twenty-four asymptomatic young male subjects were participated in this study. Subjects have performed 15-min of forward and backward walking on treadmill. Before and after treadmill walking, the gait parameters were measured with the GAITRite. The dynamic balance abilities were assessed with the Y-balance test. Muscular activities were collected from the tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, and rectus femoris during forward and backward walking.
Results: Muscular activities of the biceps femoris and tibialis anterior were significantly different between forward and backward walking conditions, which were higher with the backward walking (P<.05). Compared to the pre-measurement, the normalized dynamic balance composite score of the post-measurement was significantly higher with the backward walking (P<.05). Regardless of the treadmill training method, there were no significant differences between pre and post measurement, both the stride length and step length (P>.05).
Conclusion: The performing backward walking training has positive effects for dynamic balance.
Background: Individuals with calf muscle shortening may have decreased dynamic balance. Objects: This study aimed to investigate the effect of mobilization with movement (MWM) and myofascial release (MFR) on kinematic changes in dynamic balance in individuals with calf muscle shortening.
Methods: Thirteen participants were randomly assigned to the MWM or the mobilization with movement added myofascial release (MWM-MFR) group. The MWM group received treatment with only MWM, whereas the MWM-MFR group was treated with MWM and MFR. Pre- and post-intervention passive range of motion (PROM), maximum reaching lengths, and modified star excursion balance test (MSEBT) results were compared for all participants. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis.
Results: The results showed significant within-group differences in ankle PROM, but no significant between-group differences. The maximum reaching length in the MWM-MFR group in the posterolateral direction was significantly different before and after the intervention (p = 0.005). This group also showed significantly reduced ankle abduction in MSEBT during the posteromedial direction section 3 (p = 0.007) and posterolateral direction section 5 (p = 0.049) compared with the MWM group.
Conclusion: Combined MWM and MFR intervention improves ankle stability in the coronal plane during the posteromedial and posterolateral forward mo
Background: Foot drop is a common symptom in stroke patients. Tape applications are widely used to manage foot drop symptoms. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of static and dynamic balance and gait on foot drop using kinesiology tape; however, only few studies have used dynamic tape application in stroke patients with foot drop.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of dynamic taping, which facilitates the dorsiflexor muscle, on static and dynamic balance and gait speed in stroke patients with foot drop.
Methods: The study included 34 voluntary patients (17 men, 17 women) with stroke. The
patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 17), wherein dynamic taping
was used to facilitate the dorsiflexor muscle, or the control group (n = 17), wherein kinesiology
taping was used. Before the taping application, velocity average, path-length average,
Berg balance scale, and timed up and go test (TUG) were recorded to measure static and
dynamic balance, whereas the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) was used to measure gait speed.
After the taping application, these parameters were re-evaluated in both groups. Repeated
measure analysis of variance was used. Statistical significance levels were set to α = 0.05.
Results: Except for the 10MWT scores in the control group, significant differences were
noted in all the parameters measured for static and dynamic balance and gait speed between
the pre and post-test (p < 0.05). However, the parameters showed significant interaction effects
between group and time in the TUG and 10MWT (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: These results indicate that compared with kinesiology taping, dynamic taping
used in chronic stroke patients with foot drop had a more significant effect on dynamic balance
and gait speed.
이 연구의 목적은 8주간의 플라이오메트릭 훈련이 대학 태권도 시범단의 순발력, 동적 평형성 및 관절 위치감각에 미치는 영향을 분석하고자 하였다. 태권도 시범 전공 대학생 20명을 훈련군 10명, 통제군 10명으로 분류한 후 운동군은 주 3회, 60분, 8주간 플라이오메트릭 훈련을 하였다. 측정 변인은 제자 리높이뛰기, 제자리멀리뛰기, 배근력, 동적 평형성 및 관절 위치감각으로 사전 사후 측정하였다. 연구 결과, 제자리높이뛰기와 멀리뛰기 및 배근력에서 유의한 운동의 효과가 있었다(p<.05). 동적 평형성은 후방 바깥 쪽과(p<.01) 후방 안쪽에서(p<.05) 유의한 운동의 효과가 있었다. 관절 위치감각은 왼발 15°와(p<.01) 45°에서는(p<.05) 운동군에서 유의한 효과가 있었다. 이상의 결과 8주간의 플라이오메트릭 훈련은 태권도 시범선수의 순발력과 동적 평형성 및 관절 위치감각에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.
이 연구는 65세 이상의 골관절염을 앓고 있는 여성 노인(실험군: 67.2±5.4세; 13명)과 건강한 일반 노인여성(통제군: 66.73±9.7세; 15명)을 대상으로 12주간의 요가 운동 전.후의 평형성(동적평형성 및 정 적평형성)의 변화를 알아보고 골관절염 노인여성의 요가 운동의 효과성을 알아보고자 실시되었다. 이 연구에서 측정된 동적평형성 및 정적평형성은 시각정보(개안, 폐안)의 유무에 따른 2번의 측정이 진행 되었다. 동적평형성 측정은 Spacebalance 3D, (Korea) 기기를 이용하여 측정하였고, 정적평형성 측정 은 주로 사용하는 발의 눈감고 외발서기로 측정하여 결과를 도출하였다. 12주간 요가 운동에 따른 동적평형성(폐안)은 골관절염 실험군(p(.05)에서는 유의한 증가가 나타났으나, 통제군에서는 유의한 변화가 나타나지 않았다. 또한, 동적평형성(개안) 측정에 따른 변화는 실험군(p(.001) 및 통제군(p(.05) 두 그룹 모두에서 유의한 향상 결과가 나타났다. 정적평형성 결과 두 집단(실험군, 통제군) 모두 시기 별로 유의한 향상이 나타났다. 이 연구의 결과로 12주간의 요가 수련은 골관절염을 앓고 있는 여성 노인의 평형성을 증가시키는 유익한 운동임을 알 수 있었다.
Background: Ankle sprain is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries in the sports population or during usual daily life activities. The sprain can cause functional ankle instability (FAI), and it is very important to treat FAI. However, the optimum intervention method for FAI has yet to be determined.
Objects: This study investigated the impact that virtual reality (VR) training program on balance with ankle kinesio taping for FAI.
Methods: Twenty-two people were selected for the study and randomly divided into the experimental (n = 11) and the control group (n = 11). The experimental group had attached kinesio taping on the ankle and then implemented a virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes a day. Nintendo Wii Fit Plus was used for the VR intervention three times a week for four weeks. The control group performed only two measurements without intervention.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences in overall, anterior-posterior (AP), medial-lateral (ML) index of the static balance, and significant differences in overall, AP, ML index of the dynamic balance when taping and VR exercise were applied at the same time (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in overall and ML index of static and dynamic balance compared with before and after assessment between the experimental and the control group, and found differences in AP index of static and dynamic balance (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Kinesio taping may not influence the balance of FAI as great as people expected. VR approach does not affect the static balance of FAI, but it influences dynamic balance in overall, AP, ML index. The authors suggest that VR-based exercises can be used as an additional concept in clinicians for FAI or as part of a home program because the exercises still have limitations.
Background: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) causes a reduction in the balance of the lower extremities. Static and dynamic balance were evaluated separately to confirm the decrease in balance in patients underwent ACLR. The commonly used methods include the Biodex Balance System (BBS) for static balance and the Y balance test (YBT) for dynamic balance. No study has evaluated whether the static and dynamic balance of the involved side recovers as much as the uninvolved side one year after ACLR.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate the recovery of static and dynamic balance between the involved and the uninvolved sides.
Methods: The BBS (overall, anteroposterior index, and mediolateral index) and YBT (anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial) of 58 patients underwent ACLR were measured one year postoperation. Both sides of the BBS and the YBT were compared using the paired t-test.
Results: All the index of the BBS showed no difference between the involved and the uninvolved sides, while all the scores of the YBT showed a significant difference in both sides. The YBT anterior result was 54.64 ± 5.62 cm in the involved side and 56.90 ± 5.41 cm in the uninvolved side (p = 0.001). The YBT posterolateral results were 90.12 ± 10.51 cm and 92.34 ± 9.85 cm (p = 0.013). The YBT posteromedial results were 93.72 ± 8.84 cm and 96.14 ± 9.37 cm (p = 0.002).
Conclusion: A year after ACLR, the static balance showed no difference, while the dynamic balance showed a significant difference in the involved and the uninvolved sides. The static balance of the involved side recovered as much as the uninvolved side, but the dynamic balance did not. Therefore, dynamic balance training should be considered in the rehabilitation program for patients underwent ACLR.
Background: Many trials have been conducted the methods and types of intervention of form rollers, but no research has been done yet that mixes the methods and types of intervention. Objectives: To analyze the effects of myofascial release on the improvement of range of motion (ROM), flexibility, pain pressure threshold, and balance. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: All subjects measured ROM, flexibility, pressure pain threshold, and dynamic balance by pre-test. After pre-test, subjects were randomized that static-vibration foam rolling group (n=12), dynamic-vibration foam rolling group (n=12), general foam rolling group (n=12). For the intervention, 3 sets of 90 seconds were applied to each group, and rest time was set to 60 seconds between sets. In the post-test and follow-up test after 10 minutes, all three groups were measured the ROM, flexibility, pressure pain threshold, and dynamic balance. Results: The results of comparing ROM, flexibility, pressure pain thresholds, dynamic balance ability appeared higher significant difference in the prepost- 10 minutes follow up test in comparison between time in the intragroup (P<.001). As a result of comparing the change of pre-post-10 minutes follow up, static vibration foam rolling showed higher significant difference compared to control groups (P<.001). Conclusion: Through this study, when foam rolling is applied within the same intervention time, static foam rolling can be expected to have a better effect than the existing dynamic foam rolling as well as vibration foam roller can expect better effect than general foam rolling.
Background: Flat-footed persons with collapsed medial longitudinal arch lose flexibility after skeletal maturity, resulting in several deformities and soft tissue injuries. Although arch support taping is usually applied in the clinic to support the collapsed arch, research on the use of different types of tape for more efficient arch support in flat-footed persons is lacking.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to examine three conditions (barefoot, kinesio tape, and dynamic tape) and compare their effects on static and dynamic balance in persons with asymptomatic flexible flatfoot.
Methods: Twenty-two subjects (9 females and 13 males) with asymptomatic flexible flatfoot participated in this study. The subjects performed the Y-balance test to measure the composite reach score. The subjects also performed a 30-second standing test to measure the center of pressure (COP) path length and a walking test to measure anteroposterior and lateral variability using the Zebris FDM system. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance compared the three conditions applied to the subjects’ feet for each balance variable.
Results: The composite reach score significantly increased following the application of dynamic tape compared with barefoot and that of kinesio tape compared with barefoot. There was no significant difference in the COP path length during standing among the three conditions. Anteroposterior and lateral variability during walking significantly with dynamic tape application compared with barefoot.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that, in persons with asymptomatic flexible flatfoot, application of kinesio tape and dynamic tape may be effective in increasing the composite reach score in Y-balance test, whereas application of dynamic tape may be effective in reducing anteroposterior and lateral variability during walking.
Background: Hemispatial neglect is defined as the failure to attend, report, respond, or orient toward meaningful stimuli provided in the contralateral side of a brain lesion. Objects: This study was conducted to find out the effect of dynamic trunk equilibirum exercise for stroke patients with hemi-spatial neglect. Methods: This study included 21 stroke subjects, randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. The exercise program consisted of 5 sessions of 20 minutes per week during 4 weeks. The line-bisection test, the Albert test, the balance function score, the Berg balance scale, the postural assessment scale for stroke and the modified Barthel index were measured before and after training. All data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 for Windows. Between-group and within-group comparison was analyzed by using Independent t-test and Paired t-test respectively. Results: The results of study were as follows: There were significant differences between before and after intervention in both group (p<.05). There were significant differences in the line-bisection test, Albert test, balance function score, Berg balance scale, postural assessment scale for stroke and modified Barthel index between the experimental group and the control group (p<.05). Conclusion: Dynamic trunk equilibrium exercise had a positive effect on patients’ neglect, balance ability and activities of daily living. Further studies are required to generalize the results of this study.
Background: Deficits of both ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) and dynamic balance are shown in persons with chronic ankle instability and the elderly, with the risk of falls. Objects: This study aims to investigate the relationship between DFROM and dynamic balance in elderly subjects and young adults. Methods: Fifty-nine subjects were divided into three groups: ankle stability young group (SY), ankle instability young group (IY) and ankle stability older group (SO). We recruited three old subjects with ankle instability, but excluded them during a pilot testing due to the safety issue. DFROM was measured by weight bearing lunge test (WBLT) and dynamic balance was measured via star excursion balance test (SEBT) in anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial directions. The group differences in WBLT and SEBT and each group’s correlation between WBLT and SEBT were detected using the R statistical software package. Results: The dorsiflexion range of motion was significantly different between the SY, IY, and SO groups. The SO group showed the highest DFROM and IY group showed the lowest DFROM (SY: 45.88±.66˚, IY: 39.53±1.63˚, SO: 47.94±.50˚; p<.001). However, the SO group showed the lowest dynamic balance score for all SEBT directions (SY: 87.24±2.05 ㎝, IY: 83.20±1.30 ㎝, SO: 77.23±2.07 ㎝; p<.05) and there was no relationship between the dorsiflexion range of motion and dynamic balance in any group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ankle DFROM is not a crucial factor for dynamic stability regardless of aging and ankle instability. Other factors such as muscle strength or movement coordination should be considered for training dynamic balance. Therefore, we need to establish the rehabilitation process by measuring and treating ROM, balance, and muscle strength when treating young adults with and without ankle instability as well as elderly people.
Background: In previous studies regarding flexible pes planus, Foot orthosis, special shoes have been used as interventions for correcting malalignment and intrinsic muscles strengthening exercise have been regarded as interventions for foot function and supporting medial longitudinal arch during walking. However, some recent studies reported that strengthening extrinsic muscles as well as intrinsic muscles is more effective and active intervention for flexible pes planus. In particular, the tibialis posterior muscle of foot extrinsic muscles plays essential roles in maintaining the medial longitudinal arch during dynamic weight bearing and balance. In addition this muscle acts longer than other supination muscles during the stance phase in the gait cycle.
Objects: This study aimed to investigate the effect of foot intrinsic muscle and tibialis posterior muscle strengthening exercise for plantar pressure and dynamic balance in adults with flexible pes planus.
Methods: 16 young flexible pes planus adults (7 males, 9 females) were recruited and were randomized into two groups. The experimental group performed foot intrinsic muscle and tibialis posterior muscle strengthening training, the control group performed only foot intrinsic muscle strengthening training. All groups received strengthening training for 30 minutes five times a week for six weeks.
Results: The experimental group had significantly lower plantar pressure of medial heel area than the control group in stand (p<.05). The experimental group had significantly higher dynamic balance ability than control group (p<.05).
Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence to suggest that foot intrinsic muscle and tibialis posterior muscle of extrinsic muscle strengthening exercises may improve plantar pressure distribution and dynamic balance ability in adults with flexible pes planus.
Background: Deficiencies in the ability to maintain balance are common in elderly. Augmented feedback such as knowledge of results (KR) can accelerate learning and mastering a motor skill in older people.
Objects: We designed this study to examine whether one session of Wii-Fit game with self-regulated KR is effective for elderly people, and to compare the effect of two different timings of self-regulated KR conditions.
Methods: Thirty-nine community-dwelling elders, not living in hospice care or a nursing home, participated in this study. During acquisition, two groups of volunteers were trained in 10 blocks of a dynamic balancing task under the following 2 conditions, respectively: (a) a pre-trial self-regulated KR (n1=18), or (b) a post-trial self-regulated KR (n2=21). Immediate retention tests and delayed retention tests of balancing performance were administered in 15 minutes and 24 hours following acquisition period, respectively.
Results: In both groups, significant improvements of balancing performances scores were observed during the acquisition period. Regardless of the group, mean of balancing performance scores on retention tests were well-maintained from the final session. There were no significant differences between groups in balancing performance scores during the acquisition period (p>.05); however, the post-trial self-regulated KR group exhibited significantly higher balancing performance scores in both the immediate retention test and delayed retention test than that of the pre-trial self-regulated KR group (p<.05).
Conclusion: Therefore, subjects who regulated their feedback after a dynamic balancing task, during the acquisition period, experienced more efficient motor learning during the retention period than did subjects who regulated their feedback before a dynamic balancing task. Accordingly, in case of presenting the KR of motor learning in clinical settings to elders who reduced dynamic balance abilities, the requesting time of KR is imperative according to self-estimation processes as well as types of KR and practice.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamic balance and activity of internal oblique muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, biceps femoris muscle during the Y balance test following the wearing of pelvic compression belt. Forty healthy adults were recruited for this test. The dynamic balance score was estimated as the following: (anterior+posteromdial+posterolateral)/(3×leg length)×100. The electromyography signals were measured through %reference voluntary contraction, which was normalized by reference voluntary contraction of Y balance test without wearing the pelvic compression belt. The paired t-test was carried out to compare the dynamic balance score and the activity of the trunk and hip extensor with and without the wearing of pelvic compression belt. The dynamic balance score of the Y balance test when wearing pelvic compression belt was significantly than when measured without wearing the pelvic compression belt (p<.05). The muscle activity of the internal oblique and the multifidus was significantly decreased when wearing pelvic compression belt (p<.05). The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus was significantly increased when wearing pelvic compression belt (p<.05). However, there was no significant difference in hamstring muscle activity, with or without wearing the belt (p>.05). In conclusion, this study shows that the wearing of pelvic compression belt affects trunk muscle and hip extensor muscle activity related to the pelvic mobility and stability and increases dynamic balance and also contributes to the stabilization of the external pelvic stabilization.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF PROM) under a non-weight bearing condition and the normalized reach distance in three directions of the Y-Balance Test (YBT). Sixty-one healthy adults (32 males and 29 females, age: 23.0±3.0 years, height: 169.3±8.9 ㎝, weight: 61.9±5.4 ㎏) participated in this study. The ankle DF PROM was measured using a goniometer. To assess dynamic balance, all subjects performed three trials to determine the maximum lower extremity reach in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions of the YBT. The relationship between the ankle DF PROM and both the normalized reach distance in each direction and the composite score of the YBT were analyzed using the Pearson correlation. Only the normalized reach distance in the anterior direction of the YBT was significantly related to the ankle DF PROM measured under a non-weight bearing condition (r=.50, p＜.001). Neither the normalized reach distances in the posterior directions nor the composite score of the YBT were significantly correlated with the ankle DF PROM measured under a non-weight bearing condition. These findings suggest that ankle DF PROM does not affect the overall dynamic balance of the lower extremity, with only the anterior dynamic balance affected among the three directions.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of walking on a treadmill while using dynamic functional electrical stimulation (Dynamic FES) on functional ability and gait in chronic stroke patients. This was a prospective, randomized controlled study. Twelve patients with chronic stroke (＞;24 months) who were under grade 3 in dorsiflexor strength with manual muscle test were included and randomized into intervention (Dynamic FES) (n1=7) and control (FES) (n2=5). Both the Dynamic FES group and FES group were given a neuromuscular development treatment. The Dynamic FES group has implemented a total of 60 minutes of exercise treatment and gait training with Dynamic FES application. The FES group, with the addition of applying FES while sitting, has also implemented a total of 90 minutes of gait training on treadmill after the exercise treatment. Both two groups accomplished the program, twice a week, for a total of 24 times in a 12-week period. Exercise treatment, gait training on treadmill, and both Dynamic FES and FES were implemented for 30 minutes each. Korean version activities-specific balance confidence scale (K-ABC) was measured to determine self-efficacy in balance function. Timed up and go (TUG) test was performed to evaluate the physical performance. K-ABC, TUG, Berg balance scale (BBS), modified physical performance test (mPPT) and G-walk were evaluated at baseline and at 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, statistically significant differences (p＜.05) were apparent in the Dynamic FES group in the changes in K-ABC and BBS. mPPT, TUG, gait speed, stride length and stance phase duration (%) were compared with the FES group. K-ABC had higher correlation to BBS, along with mPPT to TUG. Our results suggest that walking with Dynamic FES in chronic stroke patients may be beneficial for improving their balance confidence, functional ability and gait.