Background: Neck pain is a major health problem in developed countries and has a lifetime prevalence of 50%. Major problems include a reduced cervical range of motion, muscle stiffness, dysfunction, postural changes, and decrease in psychosocial level.
Objects: This study aimed to investigate the effects of applying the upper trapezius inhibition dynamic taping to patients with chronic neck pain on their neck pain, functional level, cervical range of motion, psychosocial level, and neck posture.
Methods: The study design was a randomized controlled trial. A total of 40 patients with neck pain participated in this study and were randomly assigned to a Dynamic Taping group (n = 20) or Sham Taping group (n = 20). In both groups, basic intervention cervical pain control therapy and shoulder stabilization exercise program were performed. In addition, dynamic taping and sham taping were applied to participants in the Dynamic Taping and Sham Taping groups to inhibit the trapezius muscle, respectively. All interventions were performed three times a week and a total of 12 times for 4 weeks, and the participants’ neck pain, functional impairment level, cervical range of motion, psychosocial level, and neck posture were measured and compared before and after the intervention.
Results: Both groups showed significant differences in neck pain, functional level, cervical range of motion, psychosocial level, and neck postural before and after the intervention (p < 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences between the two groups regarding the functional level and neck posture (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Inhibition dynamic taping of the upper trapezius muscle suppression is an effective method with clinical significance in reducing pain in individuals with chronic neck pain and improving the functional level, cervical range of motion, psychosocial level, and neck posture.
Background: Muscle activities of gluteus maximus (GM) and hamstring (HAM) have important roles in the stability and mobility of the hip joint during various functional activities including bridge and prone hip extension exercises.
Objects: The purpose of this study is to investigate muscle activities of GM, multifidus (MF) and HAM during three different bridge exercises in healthy individuals.
Methods: Twenty healthy subjects were participated. Electromyography device was used to measure muscle activities of GM, MF and HAM. Each subject was asked to perform three different bridge exercises with hip abduction (0°, 15°, 30°) in random order. One-way repeated measures analysis of the variance and a Bonferroni post hoc test were used. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.01.
Results: The muscle activity of GM was significantly different among three conditions (hip abduction 0°, 15°, 30°) (adjusted p-value [Padj] < 0.01). The muscle activity of GM was significantly greater during bridge exercise with hip abduction 30° compared to 0° and 15° (Padj < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the muscle activity of MF and HAM muscle (Padj > 0.01). The ratio of muscle activity (ratio = GM/HAM) during bridge exercise with hip abduction 30° was significant greater compared to the hip abduction angles 0° and 15° (Padj < 0.01).
Conclusion: Bridge exercise with hip abduction 30° can be recommended to selectively facilitate the muscle activity of GM and improve the ratio of muscle activity between GM and HAM.
Background: Foot drop is a common symptom in stroke patients. Tape applications are widely used to manage foot drop symptoms. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of static and dynamic balance and gait on foot drop using kinesiology tape; however, only few studies have used dynamic tape application in stroke patients with foot drop.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of dynamic taping, which facilitates the dorsiflexor muscle, on static and dynamic balance and gait speed in stroke patients with foot drop.
Methods: The study included 34 voluntary patients (17 men, 17 women) with stroke. The
patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 17), wherein dynamic taping
was used to facilitate the dorsiflexor muscle, or the control group (n = 17), wherein kinesiology
taping was used. Before the taping application, velocity average, path-length average,
Berg balance scale, and timed up and go test (TUG) were recorded to measure static and
dynamic balance, whereas the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) was used to measure gait speed.
After the taping application, these parameters were re-evaluated in both groups. Repeated
measure analysis of variance was used. Statistical significance levels were set to α = 0.05.
Results: Except for the 10MWT scores in the control group, significant differences were
noted in all the parameters measured for static and dynamic balance and gait speed between
the pre and post-test (p < 0.05). However, the parameters showed significant interaction effects
between group and time in the TUG and 10MWT (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: These results indicate that compared with kinesiology taping, dynamic taping
used in chronic stroke patients with foot drop had a more significant effect on dynamic balance
and gait speed.
Background: It is known that hand strength and fingertip force are used as an indicator of muscle strength and are also highly related to the various chronic symptoms and even lifespan. To use the individual fingertip force (IFF) as a quantitative index for clinical evaluation, the IFF should be measured and analyzed with various variables from various subjects, such as the normal range of fingertip force and the difference in its distribution by disease.
Objects: We tried to measure and analyze the mean maximum IFF distribution during grasping a cylindrical object in healthy adults and patients with spinal cord injury (SCI).
Methods: Five Force-sensitive resistor (FSR) sensors were attached to the fingertips of 24 healthy people and 13 patients with SCI. They were asked to grip the object three times for five seconds with their maximum effort.
Results: The mean maximum IFF of the healthy adult group’s thumb, index, and middle finger was similar statistically and showed relatively larger than IFF of the ring and small finger. It is a 3-point pinch grip pattern. All fingertip forces of patients with SCI decreased by more than 50% to the healthy group, and their IFF of the middle finger was relatively the largest among the five fingertip forces. The cervical level injured SCI patients showed significantly decreased IFFs compared to thoracic level injured SCI patients.
Conclusion: We expect that this study results would be helpful for rehabilitation diagnosis and therapy goal decision with robust further study.
Background: Lower back pain (LBP) is a major cause of disability and a common musculoskeletal disorder encountered at some point in life. Dysfunction of the lumbar vertebrae has been associated with decreased flexibility of the hamstrings, which exhibited a strong positive correlation with LBP. Hamstring tension affects lumbar pelvic rhythm. We aimed to activate pelvic stability with compression by Active Therapeutic Movement (ATM), muscle energy technique (MET) was applied to increase the flexibility of the hamstring.
Objects: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MET with ATM and general MET were applied to the hamstring of adults, who were in their twenties with nor without LBP, on their pelvic inclination and the length of their hamstring.
Methods: A total of 32 subjects were briefed about the purpose of this study and agreed to participate voluntarily. Before the experiment, all subjects were pre-examined, and they were divided into an LBP group and a no lower back pain group accordingly. Thereafter, all subjects participated in both in a crossover manner. After at least one week, they switched to another group and participated in the same experiment.
Results: The study results revealed that both groups demonstrated significant results in the modified active knee extension test (p < 0.01) and the sit and reach test (p < 0.01) performed to assess the hamstring flexibility; an interaction (p < 0.05) was noted. Moreover, a more significant difference was observed between the MET with ATM and the general MET. Although significant results were obtained for the pelvic inclination (p < 0.01), interaction was not noted.
Conclusion: Conclusively, in this study, when the MET with ATM was applied to the two groups, there was a significant difference compared to the general MET for hamstring flexibility, but it was confirmed that there was no significant difference for the pelvic inclination.
Background: The gastrocnemius tightness can easily occur. Gastrocnemius tightness results in gait disturbance. Thus, various interventions have been used to release a tight gastrocnemius muscle and improve gait performance. Moreover, focal muscle vibration (FMV) has recently been extensively researched in terms of tight muscle release and muscle performance. However, no study has investigated the effects of FMV application on medial gastrocnemius architectural changes.
Objects: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of FMV on medial gastrocnemius architecture in persons with limited ankle dorsiflexion.
Methods: Thirty one persons with <10° of passive ankle dorsiflexion participated in this study. We excluded persons with acute ankle injury within six months prior to study onset, a history of ankle fracture, leg length discrepancy greater than 2 cm, no history of neurological dysfunction, or trauma affecting the lower limb. The specifications of the FMV motor were as follows: a fixed frequency (fast wave: 150 Hz) and low amplitude (0.3–0.5 mm peak to peak) of vibration; the motor was used to release the medial gastrocnemius for 15 minutes. Each participant completed three trials for 10 days; a 30-second rest period was provided between each trial. Medial gastrocnemius architectural parameters [muscle thickness (MT), fiber bundle length (FBL), and pennation angle (PA)] were measured via ultrasonography.
Results: MT significantly decreased after FMV application (p < 0.05). FBL significantly increased from its baseline value after FMV application (p < 0.05). PA significantly decreased from its baseline value after FMV application (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: FMV application may be advantageous in reducing medial gastrocnemius excitability following a decrease in the amount of contractile tissue. Furthermore, FMV application can be used as a stretching method to alter medial gastrocnemius architecture.
Background: Low back and neck pain are two of the most common medical problems in the adult population. It is estimated that between 70% and 80% adults experience an episode of low back pain at least once during their lifetime.
Objects: This study aimed to compare the effects of various stretching exercises and muscle energy techniques used for treatment of iliopsoas, quadratus lumborum, and hamstrings of patients with low back pain.
Methods: A total of 52 subjects were randomly assigned to the control group (n = 17), the muscle energy technology group (METG, n = 19), and the stretching exercise group (SEG, n = 16). Interventions were performed twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcomes were measured before and after 4 weeks of treatment in the three groups, using the Korean version of the Oswestry Disability Index, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire (FABQ), the Finger to Floor test (FTF), the Modified-Modified Schober Test (MMS), and the Trunk Flexion Range of Motion test.
Results: This study showed significant reduction in the pre-test and post-test KODI, VAS, and FABQ scores in all the three groups (p < 0.05). The KODI, VAS, FABQ and FTF assessed in this study showed interactions between the groups and the measurement time point (p < 0.01). After intervention, the KODI, VAS, FABQ and FTF in the SEG and METG were significantly higher (p < 0.05), and there was no difference between the METG and SEG. MMS and HFROM test showed no difference between the three groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: KODI, VAS, FABQ and FTF showed significant improvement after basic physical therapy, muscle energy technique, and stretching exercise intervention. And there was no significant difference in the intervention effect between the muscle energy group and the stretching exercise group.
Background: Gluteus medius muscle is important for the stability of hip joint. The sufficient core stability can be contributed to the performance of gluteus medius muscle in standing position. In addition, the external support may affect core stability in standing position.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigated the effectiveness of the external support on the strength and muscle activity of hip abductor muscle during hip abduction in standing position in subjects without core stability.
Methods: Fifteen subjects participated in this study. The subjects were evaluated by using the double-leg lowering with bent knees to measure the core stability. The strength and muscle activity of hip abductors was measured in standing position with the condition with and without external support using the tensiometer sensor and the surface electromyography. The paired t-test was used to investigate the difference between hip abductor strength and activity according to external support. The level of statistical significance was set at α = 0.05.
Results: The hip abductor strength and muscle activity of gluteus medius muscle with external support were significantly greater than those without external support during hip abduction in standing position (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: During hip abduction in standing position, the external support may be contributed to the improvement of the hip abductor strength and muscle activity of gluteus medius especially in the subjects without core stability.
Background: Individuals with calf muscle shortening may have decreased dynamic balance. Objects: This study aimed to investigate the effect of mobilization with movement (MWM) and myofascial release (MFR) on kinematic changes in dynamic balance in individuals with calf muscle shortening.
Methods: Thirteen participants were randomly assigned to the MWM or the mobilization with movement added myofascial release (MWM-MFR) group. The MWM group received treatment with only MWM, whereas the MWM-MFR group was treated with MWM and MFR. Pre- and post-intervention passive range of motion (PROM), maximum reaching lengths, and modified star excursion balance test (MSEBT) results were compared for all participants. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis.
Results: The results showed significant within-group differences in ankle PROM, but no significant between-group differences. The maximum reaching length in the MWM-MFR group in the posterolateral direction was significantly different before and after the intervention (p = 0.005). This group also showed significantly reduced ankle abduction in MSEBT during the posteromedial direction section 3 (p = 0.007) and posterolateral direction section 5 (p = 0.049) compared with the MWM group.
Conclusion: Combined MWM and MFR intervention improves ankle stability in the coronal plane during the posteromedial and posterolateral forward mo
Background: Bird dog exercise (BDE) is one of the lumbar stabilization exercises that rehabilitate low back pain by co-contraction of the local and global muscles. Previous studies have reported the effect of various type of BDEs (for example, practicing the exercises on various surfaces and changing the limb movement) for muscle co-contraction.
Objects: This study aimed to investigate the effect of knee joint flexion position of the raised lower limb on abdominal and back muscle activity during BDE in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP).
Methods: Thirteen males participated in this study (age: 32.54 ± 4.48 years, height: 177.38 ± 7.17 cm). Surface electromyographic (SEMG) data of the internal abdominal oblique (IO), external abdominal oblique (EO), lumbar multifidus (MF), and thoracic part of the iliocostalis lumborum (ICLT) were collected in two knee joint flexion positions (90° flexion versus 0° flexion) during BDE. The SEMG data were expressed as a percentage of root mean square mean values obtained in the maximal voluntary isometric contraction.
Results: Greater muscle activity of the IO (p = 0.001), MF (p = 0.009), and ICLT (p = 0.021) of the raised lower limb side and the EO (p = 0.001) and MF (p = 0.009) of the contralateral side were demonstrated in the knee joint flexion position compared to the knee joint extension position. Greater local/global activity ratios of the abdominal muscle (i.e., IO and EO) of the raised lower limb (p = 0.002) and the back muscle (i.e., MF and ICLT) of the contralateral side (p = 0.028) were also noted in the knee joint flexion position.
Conclusion: BDE with a knee joint flexion position might be recommended as an alternative lumbar stabilization exercise to enhance muscle activity in both the raised lower limb and the contralateral sides of the trunk for individuals with CLBP