Background: The characteristics of lateral epicondylitis (LE) are muscle strength weakness and increased common extensor tendon (CET) thickness. Ultrasonography has recently been used to evaluate tendinopathy. Diamond taping (DT) is commonly used to manage patients with LE. However, no previous studies have investigated the effects of DT on CET thickness.
Objects: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DT applied around the lateral elbow on CET thickness, grip strength, and wrist extension force in healthy subjects.
Methods: The subjects were 26 adults (13 male) in their twenties. First, the CET thickness was measured at rest. The CET thickness was measured by using ultrasonography at two points. The subjects were then instructed to perform maximal grip activities or maximal wrist extension activities before and after DT around the lateral elbow. The DT technique was applied using non-elastic tape. While the subjects performed maximal grip activities, the investigator measured the maximum grip strength (MGS) and CET thickness. Likewise, while the subjects performed maximal wrist extension activities, the investigator measured the maximum wrist extension force (MWEF) and CET thickness.
Results: The MGS showed a statistically significant improvement after DT taping application in men (p < 0.05). The MWEF showed a statistically significant improvement after DT application in male (p < 0.01) and female (p < 0.05). When performing the activities, the CET thickness increased compared to that at rest. However, CET thickness didn’t show a statistically significant improvement before and after DT.
Conclusion: This study shows that DT applied around the lateral elbow is effective in improving MGS and MWEF. However, it does not affect CET thickness.
Background: The flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) refers to a sudden onset of activity in the erector spinae muscles that recedes or fades during full forward flexion of the trunk. Lumbar spine and hip flexion are associated with many daily physical activities that also impact trunk flexion. Shorter hamstring muscles result in a reduction of pelvic mobility that eventually culminates in low back pain (LBP). Many studies have explored the FRP in relation to LBP. However, few studies have investigated the influence of hamstring muscle length on the FRP in relation to the erector spinae muscles during trunk flexion.
Objects: This study aimed to investigate the influence of hamstring muscle length on the FRP in relation to the erector spinae muscles during trunk flexion.
Methods: Thirty subjects were divided into three groups according to hamstring length measured through an active knee extension test. The 30 participants consisted of 10 subjects who had a popliteal angle of 20˚ or less (Group 1), 10 subjects who had a popliteal angle of 21˚–39˚ (Group 2), and 10 subjects who had a popliteal angle of 40˚ or more (Group 3). A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the difference in muscle activity of the erector spinae muscles during trunk flexion.
Results: The subjects with a shorter hamstring length had significantly higher muscle activity in their erector spinae muscles during trunk flexion and full trunk flexion (p < 0.05). The subjects with a shorter hamstring length also had a significantly higher flexion-relaxation ratio (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that differences in hamstring muscle length can influence the FRP in relation to the erector spinae muscles. This finding suggests that the shortening of the hamstring might be associated with LBP.
Background: Stroke patients have reduced trunk control compared to normal people. The ability to control the trunk of a stroke patient is important for gait and balance. However, there is still a lack of research methods for the characteristics of stroke control in stroke patients.
Objects: The aim of this research was to determine whether trunk position sense has any relation with balance and gait.
Methods: This study assessed trunk performance by measuring position sense. Trunk position sense was assessed using the David back concept to determine trunk repositioning error in 20 stroke patients and 20 healthy subjects. Four trunk movements (flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation) were tested for repositioning error and the measurement was carried out 6 times per move; these parameters were used to compare the mean values obtained. Subjects with stroke were also evaluated with clinical measures of balance and gait.
Results: There were significant differences in trunk repositioning error between the stroke group and the control group in flexion, lateral flexion to the affected side, lateral flexion to the unaffected side, rotation to the affected side, and rotation to the unaffected side. Mean flexion error: post-stroke: 7.95 ± 6.76 degrees, control: 3.32 ± 2.27; mean lateral flexion error to the affected side: 6.13 ± 3.79, to the unaffected side: 5.32 ± 3.15, control: 3.57 ± 1.92; mean rotation error to the affected side: 8.25 ± 3.09, to the unaffected side: 9.24 ± 3.94, control: 5.41 ± 1.82. There was an only significant negative correlation between the repositioning error of lateral flexion and the Berg balance scale score to the affected side (–0.483) and to the unaffected side (–0.497). A strong correlation between balance and gait was found.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that stroke patients exhibit greater trunk repositioning error than age-matched controls on all planes of movement except for extension. And lateral flexion has correlation with balance and gait.
Background: Backward walking exercise may offer some unique and potentially beneficial differences compared with forward walking exercise. There is still a lack of research on backward walking exercises and forward head posture.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of backward walking exercise on college students forward head posture in their 20s.
Methods: Twenty-one subjects participated in the experiment. The subjects were those with a craniovertebral angle (CVA) of 55 degrees or less who understood the purpose and method of this study and voluntarily agreed. A camera capable of taking pictures of the lateral plane was installed at a distance of 1.5 meters before exercising. Pictures were taken before walking backward, and after walking for 15 minutes on the treadmill, the images were taken in the same way. The composition of the backward walking exercise was walking at a rate of 1.0 for 5 minutes, and the remaining 10 minutes were walking at a rate of 1.5. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare CVA and craniorotational angle (CRA) before and after exercise.
Results: As a result of this study, there was a significant difference in CVA before and after exercise (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference in CRA before and after exercise (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The backward walking exercise and verbal command seems to have positively influenced the changes in CVA and CRA among college students in their 20s. It seems that studies to confirm balance or muscle activity as well as changes in forward head posture through the long-term intervention of the backward walking exercise should be conducted.
Background: Stroke patients experience multiple dysfunctions that include motor and sensory impairments. Therefore, new intervention methods require a gradational approach depending on functional levels of a stroke patient’s activity and should include cognition treatment to allow for a patient’s active participation in rehabilitation.
Objects: This study investigates the effect of integrated revision of electrical sensory stimulation, which stimulates somatosensory and action observation training, which is synchronized cognition intervention method on stroke patients’ functions.
Methods: Twenty-one stroke patients were randomized into two groups. The two groups underwent twenty minutes of intervention five times a week for three weeks. This study used an electromyogram to evaluate symmetric muscle activation of lower extremities and muscle onset time when performing sit to stand before and after intervention. A weight-bearing ratio was used to evaluate the weight-bearing of the affected side in a sit to standing. To evaluate sit to stand performance ability, this study performed five timed sit to stand tests.
Results: The two groups both showed statistically significant improvement in muscle onset time of lower extremity, static balance ability in a standing position, and sit to stand performance after the intervention (p < 0.05). In addition, the action observation and synchronized electrical sensory stimulation group showed significant improvement in symmetric muscle activation of lower extremities and weight–bearing ratio of the affected side (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: action observation and synchronized electrical sensory stimulation (AOT with ESS) can have positive effects on a stroke patient’s sit to stand performance, and the intervention method that provides integrated AOT with ESS can be used as new nervous system intervention program.
Background: The classification of foot type can be commonly determined by the height of the media longitudinal arch. The normalized arch height (NAH) is defined as the ratio of navicular or instep heights to the foot length or instep length. Objects: This study investigated the relationships among foot characteristics, such as foot length (FL), instep length (IL), navicular height (NH), and instep height (IH), in Korean young adults. Also, the distribution of foot type based on calculated NAH was assessed.
Methods: Three-dimensional foot scanning data of young adults aged 20 to 39 years (total: 1,978; 974 male, 1,004 female) were obtained from the Korea Technology Standards Institute, and used for analyses. NAH was calculated as the following: NH/FL, IH/FL, IH/IL, NH/ IL. Spearman’s rank order correlation was used to identify correlations among variables. The Mann–Whitney U-test and chi-square test were used to compare the sex differences in foot characteristics and distribution of foot type.
Results: FL and IL showed a very high correlation (r = 0.94). The correlations between FL or IL and IH (r = 0.50–0.57) were greater than those between FL or IL and NH (r = 0.23–0.72). Males had significantly larger values than females (p < 0.001), and the frequency of pes planus was significantly higher in females than in males (χ2 = 50.09, p < 0.001). Based on the IH/IL index, the neutral foot, pes planus and pes cavus distributed by 16%, 78%, and 6% respectively.
Conclusion: Our results on foot arch distribution could be used as basic data in clinical or footwear fields, and our data on differences in arch structure according to sex may facilitate understanding of why injury to the lower limbs differs between males and females.
Background: The longitudinal arch is important for individuals with pes planus. The toe spread out exercise (TSO) has been widely used to continuously support the longitudinal arch by increasing the abductor hallucis (AbdH) muscle activation. However, the AbdH muscle is commonly lack of the sufficient activation during the TSO especially in individuals with pes planus.
Objects: This study was performed to investigate the effect of arch support on the muscle activity and strength of the AbdH during TSO in standing position in individuals with pes planus.
Methods: Twenty subjects with pes planus between 20 and 30 years of age participated in this study. The muscle activity and strength of the AbdH were measured using surface EMG system and the Smart KEMA tensiometer system. The AbdH muscle was evaluated during TSO between individuals with and without longitudinal arch support in standing position. The longitudinal arch was supported by using the insole. The paired t-test was used. The level of statistical significance was set at α = 0.05.
Results: The muscle activity and strength of the AbdH during TSO with arch support in standing position was significantly greater than that without arch support.
Conclusion: The muscle activity and strength of the AbdH during TSO in standing position can be influenced by the longitudinal arch support in individuals with pes planus. The AbdH strengthening during TSO in standing with arch support can be recommended especially in individuals with pes planus in the clinical settings.
Background: Although the original version of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires are found to be acceptable, the cross-culturally adapted versions may not be comparable to their original version.
Objects: To examine dimensionality and construct validity of two Korean versions of the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) and EuroQOL-5 dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires.
Methods: A total of 77 cancer survivors undergoing palliative rehabilitation programs from two rehabilitation institutes was recruited from April 16, 2018 to June 26, 2019. The WHOQOL- BREF and the EQ-5D were filled out by the various cancer survivors following a particular session of rehabilitation programs. The scores were analyzed with Winsteps Rasch analysis computer program using the rating scale model. Rasch fit statistics were used to determine the dimensionality and the item difficulty calibrations of WHOQOL-BREF and EQ-5D.
Results: All items except two, negative feeling, need treatment function and pain prevent activity (mean square [MnSq] = 2.42, 1.82 and 2.51, respectively), were found to be acceptable, while two items of the EQ-5D, anxiety/depression and self-care, were misfit (infit MnSq = 1.65 and 0.38, respectively). Item difficulty calibrations of WHOQOL-BREF match person ability measures (i.e., HRQOL) fairly well. However, the person ability distribution showed obvious ceiling effects for EQ-5D. All items of EQ-5D were appeared to be less challenged in comparison with those of WHOQOL-BREF.
Conclusion: Item-level analysis using the Rasch model supports the quality of culturally adapted items used to measure the HRQOL one exception; that is, whether or not to include misfit items as part of the HRQOL measurements. Additionally, cancer survivors undergoing palliative rehabilitation programs appear to have more of a tendency to view the EQ-5D items as being more challenging than the WHOQOL-BREF.
Esophageal cancer is a representative cancer that occur physical deterioration but, physical problems after surgery were not well reported. The purpose of this study is to report on the long thoracic neuropathy after surgery, and to identify the symptoms and effects of physical therapy after esophageal cancer surgery. This is a case of a 61-year-old man who showed winging of the scapula with long thoracic nerve injury on the results of electromyography after an esophageal cancer surgery. Physical therapy programs were implemented 8 sessions during hospitalization. The quality of life, fatigue, shoulder range of motion (ROM), numeric rating scale (NRS), 6-minute walk test, and 30-second chair stand test were assessed. The quality of life, fatigue, shoulder ROM, NRS (pain), 6-minute walk test, and 30-second chair stand test were improved. However, the esophageal-specific symptom was not different after physical therapy program. As esophageal cancer suffers from physical difficulties after surgery, physical therapy programs are thought to be helpful.