Background: The Microsoft Kinect which is a low-cost gaming device has been studied as a promise clinical gait analysis tool having satisfactory reliability and validity. However, its accuracy is only guaranteed when it is properly positioned in front of a subject.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to identify the error when the Kinect was positioned at a 45˚ angle to the longitudinal walking plane compare with those when the Kinect was positioned in front of a subject.
Methods: Sixteen healthy adults performed two testing sessions consisting of walking toward and 45˚ obliquely the Kinect. Spatiotemporal outcome measures related to stride length, stride time, step length, step time and walking speed were examined. To assess the error between Kinect and 3D motion analysis systems, mean absolute errors (MAE) were determined and compared.
Conclusion: Based on our study experience, positioning the Kinect directly in front of the person walking towards it provides the optimal spatiotemporal data. Therefore, we concluded that the Kinect should be placed carefully and adequately in clinical settings.
Background: Numerous studies have used smartphone applications to measure the range of motion in different joints. In addition, studies measuring the active range of motion (AROM) of the craniocervical joint have revealed high reliability. However, the subjects in these studies were all healthy subjects. No study has yet been conducted to measure the inter-rater reliability for the AROM of the craniocervical joint in stroke patients.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of the AROM of the craniocervical joint using a smartphone.
Methods: The participants included 21 subjects who had strokes (17 males and 4 females). Two raters evaluated six types of craniocervical AROM, including flexion, extension, lateral flexion to the hemiplegic side, lateral flexion to the non-hemiplegic side, rotation to the hemiplegic side, and rotation to the non-hemiplegic side, using a goniometer and a smartphone to investigate inter-rater reliability. The inter-rater reliability was analyzed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC).
Results: The inter-rater reliability of the smartphone was good for extension, lateral flexion to the hemiplegic side, lateral flexion to the non-hemiplegic side, and rotation to the hemiplegic side [ICC(2,k)=.86∼.88] and excellent for flexion [ICC(2,k)=.95]. The inter-rater reliability for rotation to the non-hemiplegic side was moderate [ICC(2,k)=.72].
Conclusion: These results suggest that the smartphone offers high inter-rater reliability for measurements of the craniocervical AROM in patients with stroke.
Background: Compared to healthy people, patients with chronic lower back pain have reduced balance abilities which may cause proprioception problems, patients with chronic lower back pain avoid physical activities due to pain, and reduced activity levels lead to muscle weakening, which can further exacerbate pain. Recently, there have been many studies on the use of sensory stimulation; and among these studies, interventions that use vibrational stimulation have shown functional improvements in the patients.
Objects: This study examined the effects of a stabilization exercise with vibration stimulation on the balance ability and disability in patients with chronic back pain.
Methods: The subjects of the study were 30 persons who were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group, with 15 subjects in each. The subjects were evaluated before and after intervention via a balance ability test, the Korean Oswestry disability index (KODI) test, a pain test, and a proprioceptive sensory test. Both groups received general physical therapy. The experimental group performed the stabilization exercise with vibration stimulation, and the control group performed a general stabilization exercise, three times a week for six weeks.
Results: After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the balance ability test, the KODI test, the pain test, and the proprioceptive sensory test. The experimental group showed statistically significant, higher improvements than the control group in the balance ability test, the KODI test, and the proprioceptive sensory test.
Conclusions: The stabilization exercise with vibration stimulation for patients with chronic back pain has been reported to provide greater functional improvements than the conventional intervention method. Therefore, the stabilization exercise in a vibration stimulation environment could be a useful intervention for patients with chronic back pain.
Background: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is characterized by pain and limited range of motion in the jaw. TMD patients generally prefer to chew on the unaffected or less-affected side, and this tendency often results in asymmetries in masseter muscle thickness and range of mandibular motion.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to compare the asymmetries in masseter muscle thickness and range of mandibular motion in subjects with and without temporomandibular disorders.
Methods: Thirty-nine subjects were divided into two groups: A TMD group (n1=19) and a control group (n2=20). The jaw opening range and laterotrusion were measured using a digital vernier caliper. The masseter muscle thickness was examined in both the resting state and the maximal clenching state using ultrasonography. The absolute asymmetry indices calculated based on the laterotrusion and masseter muscle thickness of the respective right and left sides. A two-way ANOVA and a Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis.
Results: No significant different was found in the masseter muscle thickness between the TMD and control group. A significant difference was found in the absolute asymmetry indices of mandibular laterotrusion between the TMD and control groups (p<.05). Furthermore, the ranges of jaw opening were significantly different between males and females (p<.05). The absolute asymmetry index values of masseter muscle thickness at rest and during maximal clenching were also significantly different between males and females (p<.05).
Conclusion: These results demonstrated that the subjects with TMD had a larger degree of asymmetry in laterotrusion than those without TMD. Therefore, a physiotherapy program needs to be designed to restore normal laterotrusion capacities for TMD subjects. These results also showed that female subjects had greater absolute asymmetry indices in masseter muscle thickness than male subjects. Therefore, more training is needed to promote bilaterally balanced chewing among women.
Background: Stroke is one of the most common diseases responsible for physical disabilities. In addition to their physical and occupational therapy, the self-exercise programs were developed for patients with hemiplegia to increase the intensity of their therapeutic exercise.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a customized self-exercise program (CSP) to walking function on improving stroke survivors’ muscle strength and ambulation function.
Method: To test the effect of the self-exercise program, the following tests were conducted: The functional ambulation category (FAC), Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment gait part (POMA-G), timed up and go (TUG), 10-meter walk, and 2-minute walk. The study included 161 consenting stroke patients (FAC score>1) from a randomized, screened sample of 217. The CSP group participated in a 30-minute CSP each day for 10 weeks in addition to completing a routine rehabilitation program. The control group received only a routine rehabilitation program. All the subjects were monitored by a therapist once a week and had to submit an exercise checklist at the end of each session.
Result: The strength of the participants’ upper and lower extremity muscles showed no significant differences between the CSP group and the control group. The FAC score and POMA-G also showed no significant differences. However, there were significant differences in the TUG, 10-meter walk test, and 2-minute walk test (p<.05).
Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that a CSP may improve gait-related function in stroke survivors.
Background: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) causes morphological changes in muscles, reduces muscle strength, endurance and flexibility, negatively affects lumbar stability, and limits functional activity. Plank exercise strengthens core muscles, activates abdominal muscles, and improves intra-abdominal pressure to stabilize the trunk in patients with CLBP.
Objects: We investigated the effect of plank exercise on abdominal muscle thickness and disability in patients with CLBP.
Methods: We classified 33 subjects into 2 groups: An experimental (n1=17) and a control group (n2=16). Patients in the experimental group participated in plank exercise and those in the control group participated in stretching exercise. Patients in both groups attended 20-minute exercise sessions thrice a week for 4 weeks. Abdominal muscle thickness in each subject was evaluated ultrasonographically, and disabilities were assessed using the Oswestry disability index (ODI).
Results: Four weeks later, abdominal muscle thickness showed a significant increase over baseline values in both groups (p<.05). Patients in the experimental group reported a more significant increase in the thickness of the external oblique muscle than that in the control group (p<.05). ODI scores in the experimental group were significantly lower after intervention than before intervention (p<.05).
Conclusion: Plank exercise increases the thickness of the external oblique muscle and reduces disability secondary to mild CLBP. Therefore, plank exercise is needed to improve lumbar stability and functional activity in patients with mild CLBP.
Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a single most arthritic disease. Knee joint space width (JSW) is commonly used for grading severity of knee OA. However, previous studies did not established criterion validity and test-retest reliability of ultrasound (US) image for measuring JSW.
Objects: The aim of this study was to establish criterion validity and test-retest reliability of US measurement of medial and lateral knee JSW.
Methods: Twenty-nine subjects with knee OA were participated. The US and X-ray were used to measure knee JSW. One sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to confirm the data normal distribution. Pearson correlation coefficient and ICC were used to calculated and establish criterion validity and test-retest reliability, respectively.
Results: US measurement of medial and lateral knee JSW was highly correlated with radiographic imaging measure (r=.714 and .704, respectively). Test-retest reliabilities of medial and lateral knee JSW were excellent correlated (ICC=.959 for medial side and .988 for lateral side, respectively).
Conclusion: US may be valid tool to measure knee JSW.
Background: Uncontrolled lumbopelvic movement leads to asymmetric symptoms and causes pain in the lumbar and pelvic regions. So many patients have uncontrolled lumbopelvic movement. Passive support devices are used for unstable lumbopelvic patient. So, we need to understand that influence of passive support on lumbopelvic stability. It is important to examine that using the pelvic belt on abdominal muscle activity, pelvic rotation and pelvic tilt.
Objects: This study observed abdominal muscle activity, pelvic rotation and tilt angles were compared during active straight leg raise (ASLR) with and without pelvic compression belt.
Methods: Sixteen healthy women were participated in this study. ASRL with and without pelvic compression belt was performed for 5 sec, until their leg touched the target bar that was set 20 ㎝ above the base. Surface electromyography was recorded from rectus abdominis (RA), internal oblique abdominis (IO), and external oblique abdominis (EO) bilaterally. And pelvic rotation and tilt angles were measured by motion capture system.
Results: There were significantly less activities of left EO (p=.042), right EO (p=.031), left IO (p=.039), right IO (p=.019), left RA (p=.044), and right RA (p=.042) and a greater right pelvic rotation angle (p=.008) and anterior pelvic tilt angle (p<.001) during ASLR with pelvic compression belt.
Conclusion: These results showed that abdominal activity was reduced while the right pelvic rotation angle and anterior pelvic tilt angle were increased during ASLR with a pelvic compression belt. In other words, although pelvic compression belt could support abdominal muscle activity, it would be difficult to control pelvic movement. So pelvic belt would not be useful for controlled ASLR.
Background: A tight iliotibial band (ITB) may lead to lateral patellar maltracking, compression, and tilt, and dominant vatus lateralis (VL) muscle activation relative to vastus medialis oblique (VMO) can laterally displace the patella, which leads to anterior knee pain. Therefore, an effective management technique is needed to stabilize the patella in individuals with tight ITB. Increased stability during the modified Thomas test has the potential to decrease compensatory motion and thus to selectively stretch the ITB.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ITB stretching in the modified Thomas test position on ITB flexibility, patellar translation, and muscle activities of the VMO and VL during quadreceps-setting (QS) exercise in individuals with tight ITB.
Methods: Twenty-one subjects with tight ITB were recruited. Digital inclinometer was used to measure the hip adduction angle during the modified Ober test. Universal goniometer was used to measure the hip abduction angle during the modified Thomas test. Ultrasonography was used to measure the patella-condylar distance. Electromyography was performed to collect data of muscle activities. Paired t-test was used to determine the statistical significance between pretest and posttest.
Results: The range of hip adduction in modified Ober test increased (p=.04) and the range of hip abduction in the modified Thomas test decreased after ITB stretching (p<.01). There was no difference between lateral patellar translation (p=.18). VMO muscle activity significantly increased after ITB stretching during QS (p<.01). VL muscle activity had no difference after stretching.
Conclusion: The ITB stretching in the modified Thomas test position can be suggested as a management method for improving ITB flexibility and VMO muscle activity in individuals with tight ITB.