Osteoporosis is the most prevalent metabolic bone disease and is characterized by diminished bone strength predisposing to an increased risk of fracture. Thus, this study was performed (1) to examine the effect of aquatic exercise on osteoporosis caused by an ovariectomy in the rats, and (2) to elucidate involvement of histopathologic findings in mediating these actions. The results of this study were as follows: 1. Body weight of the subjects increased after the experiment. There was a statistically significant difference (p<.05) between Group I (sham operated) and Group II (control group). 2. In respect to the length, circumference and weight of the femur, there was no statistically significant difference between the control group and the other groups (p>.05). 3. With the osteocalcin level used as one of the bone formation indexes the bone mineral density increased in every group in comparison with the control group, and in particular, there was a statistically significant difference between Group III and Group IV. The above results suggest that aquatic exercise treatment is effective in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorder has been associated with long hours of computer work and prolonged periods of static posture. In clinical settings, postural correction is a common treatment approach for individuals with neck, shoulder, and back pain. This study was designed to identify the effect of Forward Head Posture Correctional Device during computer work. Twelve healthy adults (mean age, 27.4 yrs; mean height, 165.0cm mean weight, 65.8 kg) participated in the study. They had no medical history of neurological or surgical problems with their upper extremity. The subjects were asked to perform Head Forward Posture under the guidance of physical therapists and the measured angles were analyzed using a 3-D motion analysis system. Markers were placed on the C7 spinous process, tragus of the ear and forward head angle was between the line from the tragus to the C7 line and the Y-axis at the C7. The statistical significance of difference between, "without" and "with" correctional device was tested by paired t-test. A level of significance was set at α=.05. In comparison of the computer work between "without" and "with" correctional device, Forward Head Angle was showed significant difference (p<.05). In conclusion, the range of Forward Head Angle was significantly decreased during computer work with the correctional device. Further research is needed to understand the nature of motor control problems in deep muscles in patients with neck, shoulder, and back pain.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between financial stress, depression, and conjugal affection and the motivation for rehabilitation. One hundred eighty-six stroke patients were included in the study and a survey with 65 questions was used. The survey includes questions to evaluate personal factors, characteristics related with physical therapy, characteristics related with disease, depression, conjugal affection, and motivation for rehabilitation. Education, employment, left hemiplegia and right hemiplegia, depression, financial stress, conjugal affection were statistically significant factors (p<.05). These variables have significant effects on motivation for rehabilitation. This study indicates that financial stress and depression need to be decreased to improve motivation for rehabilitation of stroke patients. It also indicates that the factors facilitating conjugal affection, education, and occupation need to be considered for rehabilitation programs.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of the hip internal rotation on gluteal and erector spinae muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during treadmill walking. Eleven healthy subjects were recruited. All subjects performed treadmill walking while maintaining the hip in neutral position (condition 1) and in internal rotation (condition 2). Surface EMG activity was recorded from four muscles (gluteus maximus (GM), gluteus medius (GMED), tensor fascia latae (TFL), and erector spinae (ES)) and the hip internal rotation angle was measured using a three dimensional motion analysis system. The gait cycle was determined with two foot switches, and stance phase was normalized as 100% stance phase (SP) for each condition using the MatLab 7.0 program. The normalized EMG activities according to the hip rotation (neutral or internal rotation) were compared using a paired t-test. During the entire SP of treadmill walking, the EMG activities of GM in condition 1 were significantly greater than in condition 2 (p<.05). The EMG activities of TFL and ES in condition 2 were significantly greater than in condition 1 (p<.05). The EMG activities of the GMED in condition 1 were significantly greater than in condition 1 (p>.05) except for 80~100% SP. Further studies need randomized control trials regarding the effect of hip internal rotation on the hip and lumbar spine muscle activity. Kinetic variables during gait or going up and down stairs are also needed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of clinical characteristics of chronic stroke patients on physiological cost index (PCI) during walking. Fourteen stroke patients participated in this study. To investigate the clinical characteristics, Fugl-Meyer score (FMS), gait velocity (GV), muscle strength of the knee extensor, modified Ashworth scale (MAS) of ankle plantar flexor, devices, and gait patterns during walking were measured and analyzed. The results were as follows: Firstly, use of devices and high MAS of the ankle plantar flexor significantly increased PCI. Secondly, PCI was significantly correlated with the FMS and MAS of the ankle plantar flexor. In conclusion, inhibition of spasticity of the ankle plantar flexor is considered to reduce PCI during walking for chronic stroke patients.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the median frequency (MDF) between initiation and termination of muscle contraction through surface electromyographic (sEMG) analysis and to propose the basis of clinical treatment for movement problems in early hemiparetic upper limbs. Thirteen patients who had stroke with onset less than 3 months prior to the study and seven control subjects participated in the study. The median frequency in initiation and termination of muscle contraction was recorded from wrist flexor and extensor muscles using the sEMG, with 3 second beeper signals, during maximal isometric wrist flexion and extension. Flexion and extension must be done as quickly and forcefully as possible. The results of the study were as follows: 1. The MDF of the onset and offset sections were significantly lower on the paretic than the nonparetic and control sides. 2. The MDF of the offset section significantly decreased on the paretic and nonparetic sides. Consequently, this study showed that the lowering of the MDF was due to the hemiparetic wrist motor impairment and muscle weakness. These results are also related to Fugl-Meyer motor assessment (FMA) scores in hemiparetic upper limbs. This study also suggests that since muscle weakness of early stroke patients affects the functional decrease of upper limbs, further studies must focus on the treatment to improve muscle agility and muscle fiber recruitment efficiency that can induce the functional recovery correlated to motor control.
Since ultrasound has different reflections depending on components of organization, analysis of ultrasound images of skeletal muscle can offer both quantitative and qualitative reports as concerns skeletal muscle structure. This study is focused on the ultrasound method for evaluating the structural characteristics of skeletal muscle and also conducted to examine its practicality. After obtaining images of the elbow flexors from an ultrasound image device with 88 normal subjects whose ages were between twenty and seventy years old (44 men and 44 women), muscular density and white area index (WAI) which indicated structural characteristics of skeletal muscle were analyzed with gray scale analysis. The study examined correlations between subject's age and items which obtained from measuring ultrasound images and the differences in relations to sex and age. Muscular density and WAI had a high correlation with age and were significantly increased in men and women with greater age. The quantitative evaluation method of skeletal muscle structure which analyzed the ultrasound images has high practicality because it is a non-invasive method which complements physical therapy diagnosis and research methods and promotes functionality evaluation.
This study aimed to compare movement patterns of shoulder joints between the right and left symmetry in stroke patients and control subjects. This study proposes use of the voluntary response index (VRI) calculated from quantitative analysis of surface electromyographic (sEMG) and motion data recorded during voluntary movement as a feeding task. The VRI is comprised of two numeric values, one derived from the total muscle activity recorded for the voluntary motor task (magnitude), and the other from the sEMG distribution across the recorded muscles with the similarity index (SI). Five stroke patients and five age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Feeding motion was performed using the provided spoon five times with rests taken on a chair in between tasks. EMG data were digitized and analyzed on the basis of the root mean square (RMS) envelope of activity. The average amplitude of responses was calculated. Responsiveness and clinically meaningful levels of discrimination between stroke patients and control for EMG magnitude and SI were determined. The similarity index of the results from two successive examinations of both sides apart for stroke patients and control subjects were .86 and .95 in motion analysis and .84 and .99 in electromyographic analysis. The SI of sEMG data and motion data was significantly correlated in stroke patients. The data suggest that SI is a sensitive program for comparing and analyzing the symmetry of muscle activity and motion in both sides. This analysis method has a clinical value in grading muscular activity and movement impairment after brain injury.