This study was performed to determine the inter-rater reliability of manual tests of elbow, knee flexor, and ankle dorsiflexor muscle spasticity graded on the Modified Ashworth Scale. Two raters each independently graded the spasticity of 32 patients with intracranial lesions after moving the paretic limb passively through the available range of motion. The patients were asked to simultaneously squeeze therapeutic putty with their non-paretic hand for reinforcement. The ratings were compared by the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test and by the Kendall's coefficient of rank(tau) correlation. There was singificant correlation between two raters for spasticity at the elbow, knee flexor, and ankle dorsiflexor. The correlations of the two raters ranged from .6746 to .9308. The highest correlation was for the elbow with reinforcement and the lowest was for the knee without reinforcement. Poorer correlation was evident in the knee joint. The positive results of this study encourage the continued use of manual tests of muscle spasticity, using the Modified Ashworth Scale.
The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline in order that individuals may exercise safely. Sixty healthy students who were divided into two groups participated in the experiment. One group exercised both arms and legs at 60 rpm and the other at 90 rpm. There was a significant difference between arm and leg exercise in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and time to target heart rate (tTHR). DBP decreased more in the upper (U//E) than the lower extremity (L/E), but tTHR increased more in the L/E than the U/E (p < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was similar for both arm and leg exercise (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference between 60 rpm and 90 rpm in SBP, DBP or tTHR in either arm or leg exercise (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the slope of the linear increase in heart rate was steeper for U/E than L/E work. Therefore L/E exercise is safer than U/E exercise.
Biofeedback devices have been used successfully to improve head control and symmetrical walking in cerebral palsied children. Biofeedback of postural sway was investigated as a therapeutic technique to reduce postural abnormality in 24 selected children with cerebral palsy. Subjects were evaluated their weight distribution of both sides during their standing before and after the visual and auditory feedback training. The effectiveness of biofeedback was compared to conventional physical therapy practices in reestabilishing symmetrical standing in cerebral palsied children. Our study found biofeedback was effective in training symmetrical standing posture.
This study investigated the hypothesis that purposeful activity is an intrinsic motivator. Affecting exertion during the performance of purposeful and nonpurposeful activity was studied in 30 elementary school students. The subjects acted as their own controls in the performance of other exercise. The three experimental exercises were jumping rope, defined as a nonpurposeful activity, and jumping rope with reinforcement, defined as purposeful activity I, and jumping rope with double reinforcement (food), defined as purposeful activity II. Duration and cessation of exercise were entirely controlled by the subject. The number of jumps were measured immediately after cessation of exercise and duration of exercise in seconds by observer. The results were as follows : 1. There was a significant difference in the required time of performance between purposeful and nonpurposeful jumping (p< .05). 2. There was a significant difference in the number of jumps between nonpurposeful and nonpurposeful jumping after reinforcement. (p< .05). Implications for practice and further research are discussed.
The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the relationship between antigravity control(supine flexion and prone extension) and postural control(static and dynamic balance) by age, 2) to determine the quality of antigravity and postural control, and 3) to determine whether sex difference correlates with differences in antigravity and postural control in young normal children. We tested 120 children aged 4 to 7 years. The study results showed a significant relationship between antigravity and postural control by age. Quality scale measurements(r=0.90) indicated that the children in this study had not yet developed full antigravity or postural control. The study results revealed differences between sexes(f>m in 5 of 7 tests) and a significant relationship by age in antigravity and postural control.
This study was designed to develop an objective method of strength measurement of muscles controlling the wrist joint in normal subjects. Forty subjects (20 male, 20 female) with a mean age of 22 years, were tested isokinetically at and . Results were as follows, 1) Peak torque for wrist flexors, extensors were significantly different for both speeds, but wrist ulnar deviator, radial deviator peak torques were not, 2) Mean values for all muscle groups controlling the wrist were not significantly different for both speeds in the female group, 3) All mean values at both and were significantly different between males and females, 4) Means and standard deviations of wrist joint angle of movement at peak torque were determined.
Thirty healthy adults aged 20 to 29 with no history of musculoskeletal or neurogenic disorder volunteered for this study. The contract-relax with agonist contration(CRAC) was applied to the right hamstring muscles with the subject in the supine position. Each hamstring group was stretched on three sucessive days with several repetitions of the technique lasting 1min, 3min, and 5min. respectively. Hamstring extensibility at the knee(ROM) was measured before and after stretching using on electronic digital inclinometer(EDI). The results, namely the increase in ROM, were analysed using one-way repeated ANOVA at p<0.05. The differences were not significant. Possible factors influencing the results are excessive sensitibility of the measuring instrument, the psychological and physical status of the subjects, and the level of muscle fatigue. The mean increases in ROM were 3.0 at 1min., 2.6 at 3min, and 2.1 at 5min. Inclusion of a control group would have further defined the effects of the stretching technique.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single treatment o voltage pulsed current (HVPC) on edema reduction. Hind limbs of 23 anesthetized were injured by dropping a 400 g weight onto the plantar aspects of the feet. On limb of each frog was randomly selected to receive 30 minutes of continuous, 12 cathodal HVPC at voltages 10 % less than motor threshold levels. Limb volumes measured by water displacement before trauma and at predetermined intervals hours posttrauma. Sources of significant differences were determined by t-test HVPC significantly (p<0.05) reduced edema formation. We hypothesize that HVP also be effective in controlling edema formation after impact injuries in humans.
Our purpose of this study was to determine the most effective cool-down exercise. The recovery times of dynamic strength after isometric and isotonic cool-down exercise were measured immediately post cool-down exercise, 30 seconds later and 60 seconds later in 30 normal, healthy men from 19 to 29 years, using dumbells(Model, Iron). The recovery time of dynamic strength had a significant positive correlation with isotonic and isometric cool-down exercise using the Chi-square method (p<0.01). Sources of significant differences were determined by the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test (p<0.01). The isometric cool-down exercise significantly shortened the recovery time of dynamic strength. We suggest that the isometric cool-down exercise may be more effective than isotonic cool-down exercise in shortening the recovery time of dynamic strength.
The purpose of this study is to determine cardiovascular reponses to concentric, eccentric and isometric exercise applied to the knee extensor muscle group. Exercise types studied were concentric, eccentric and isometric. The subjects were sixty healthy male volunteers who had no hypertension or cardiac disease. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded prior to starting exercise. The subjects also performed 10RM on right lower extremity. A N-K table was used for three exercises to right knee extensors. Each exercise was selected randomly and applied to each subject 10 times in a 10 second. After each exercise, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded immediately. Findings were as follows concectric contractions had a greater effect on the increase of systolic blood pressure and heart rate than eccentric or isometric contractions. Diastolic blood pressure is influenced only by isometric contractions. Eccentric contractions have less effect on the increase of systolic blood pressure and heart rate than concentric or isometric contractions. We hope that the results of this experiment can be adapted to exercise programs for patients with cardiac disease.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the clinical physical therapy program used at the University of Yonsei Rehabilitation Hospital, for the practicing university trained physical therapists who may be unfamiliar with patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction. The four primary phases of the cardiac physical therapy graded exercise program are: 1) coronary care unit program (phase I), 2) general ward program (phase II), 3) convalescence program (phase III), 4) maintenance program (phase IV). The exercise prescription defines the exercise intensity, duration, frequency, and mode of exercise a after pre- discharge low level graded exercise test(LL-GXT) or symptom limited maximum graded exercise test. A typical exercise routine consists of preparation warm-up exercise, therapeutic exercise, cool-down exercise. Physical therapy is involved in the acute care and rehabilitation of the patient after a myocardial infarction. Therefore, the physical therapist must throughly comprehened the cardiac anatomy, cycle, performance, conduction system, pathogenesis, risk factors, and exercise benefits.
Arthritis may well be the diagnosis most commonly encountered by physicla therapists. Until the past few year, physical therapy treatment programs for arthritis consisting of heat, ROM, isometric exercise and rest were the rule. But now physical therapy treatment activities have changee. New philosophies, about exercise in particular, have emerge, as well as an improved understanding and application of physical agents. Therefore a review of the literature regarding physical therapy for rheumatoid arthritis is presented.
It is well known that visual cues can improve the motor performance of Parkinsonian patients. Previous laboratory studies have examined the effects of visual cueing to the floor. This case study examined the effects of using a visual cue above eye level on the gait of a Parkinsonian man. It was found that cueing the patient to a target above eye level while waking not only improved the kinematic parameters of the gait cycle but also facilitated a more functional gait pattern with re-intergration of arm swing, rhythm, heel strike and a more erect posture. Visual targeting above eye level may serve as an important clinical tool for physiotherapists treating Parkinsonian patients.