The purpose of this study was to assess the peak plantar pressure distribution under foot areas according to the height of heel lifts in obese adults and non-obese adults during walking. Thirty-one participants volunteered for this experiment. The average body mass index (BMI) value of the fourteen subjects in the obese group was 26.5±1.4 ㎏/㎡ (from 25.1 to 29.3 ㎏/㎡), and of seventeen subjects in the non-obese group was 20.0±1.1 ㎏/㎡ (from 18.7 to 22.7 ㎏/㎡). The subject ambulated while walking in the sneakers, walking with 2 cm heel lifts, and walking with 4 cm heel lifts in the shoes. We measured the peak plantar pressure under the hallux, 1st, 2nd, 3~4th, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH), mi foot, and heel using F-scan system. The obese group had significantly higher peak plantar pressure under all foot areas than the non-obese group regardless of the height of heel lifts (p<.05). The peak plantar pressure under the 5th MTH and heel was significantly decreased, also the peak plantar pressure under hallux, 1st, and 2nd MTH was significantly increased according to the height of heel lifts in the obese group and non-obese group (p<.05), We proposed that individuals with heel lifts in shoes should be careful, as there is high plantar pressure under the forefoot.
The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of slope changes of the treadmill with body weight-supported training on gait characteristics in patients with hemiplegia. The volunteered subjects were divided into 3 groups based upon slope changes: control group (0° incline), 7° group (7° incline), 12° group (12° incline), They were trained the body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) for 8 weeks. All subjects were supported up to 40% of their body weight on the treadmill training and the support was gradually decreased to 0~10% as the subjects were adapted to the training. There were significant improvements of walking velocity, step length of the affected side, the asymmetry ratio of step length in 7° group (57.80 cm/s, 67.25 cm, .14), 12° group (71.00 cm/s, 71.00 cm, .11) than control group (40.62 cm/s, 55.00 cm, .74) (p<.05): there were no differences between group 7° and 12° group in the all outcomes (p>.05). Both 7° group and 12° group scored higher than the control group in those outcomes and finally the effects of slopes changes of the treadmill were effective on gait characteristics of patients. But it s till remains undetermined what degree on the treadmill might be better to train the hemipareric patients. Therefore, more studies are required to look into minutely the changes of slopes of the treadmill influencing on gait characteristics.
The present study was aimed at investigating the postural control ability of volleyball players with functional ankle instability. The subjects were 26 male volleyball players were divided into 2 groups (13 subjects with functional ankle instability and 13 subjects with ankle stability) who could evaluate Questionnaire. All the male participants were tested by a Balance Master System. This study were to measure of static balance ability, dynamic balance ability, motor function the difference between functional ankle instability group and control group. Ankle instability group and stable group in postural sway (°/sec) on film surface with eye closed in modified clinical test sensory interaction on balance, and left unilateral stance with eye opened and closed were significantly different (p<.05). The ankle instability group and stable group in limit of stability were significantly different (p<.05). The ankle instability group and stable group in left/right rhythmic weight shirt were significantly different (p<.05). The ankle instability group and stable group in turn time (sec) & turn sway (°) during step/quick turn and end sway (°/sec) in tandem walk were significantly different (p<.05). This study showed that volleyball players with functional ankle in stability were effected postural control ability by static balance & dynamic balance ability. Further study is needed to measure various athletic with functional ankle instability for clinical application.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory in healthy elderly subjects while crossing an obstacle before and after participation in Tai Chi training. Forty healthy elderly subjects participated either in a 12-week intervention of Tai Chi training or in a health education program. The participants were divided into two groups (the experimental group and the control group). Subsequently, the participants were pre- and post-tested on crossing over an obstacle from a quiet stance. Participants in the experimental group received Tai Chi training that emphasized the smooth integration of trunk rotation, a shift in weight bearing from bilateral to unilateral support and coordination and a gradual narrowing of the lower-extremity stance three times weekly. The participants in the control group attended a health education program one hour weekly and heard lectures about general information to promote health. Performance was assessed by recording the changes in the displacement of the COP in the anteroposterior (A-P) and mediolateral (M-L) directions using a force platform. Participants in the Tai Chi group significantly increased the A-P and M-L displacement of the COP after Tai Chi training (p<.05). No significant differences in the A-P and the M-L displacement of the COP between pre-testing and post-testing in the control group were found. This study has shown that participation in Tai Chi exercise increased the magnitude of the A-P and M-L displacement of the COP, thereby improving the ability of healthy elderly participation to generate momentum to initiate gait. These findings support the use of Tai Chi training as an effective fall-prevention program for the elderly.
This study aimed to examine whether McConnell taping for deltoid inhibition affects the Electromyographic (EMG) activity of shoulder girdle muscles during arm elevation. Ten young healthy men were randomly assigned to an experimental and control groups of five men each. For the experimental group, we performed taping for deltoid inhibition on the skin over anterior and posterior deltoids with non-elastic specific tape, and sham-taping with non-elastic under-tape for the control group. Surface EMG measurements were performed three times (before, during and after the tapings) at upper and lower trapezius, mid-deltoid, and serratus anterior muscles while elevating dominant aim with loading and unloading conditions. In deltoid inhibition taping group, there were significant differences in EMG activity of mid-deltoid (p<.05) and serratus anterior (p<.05) muscles during arm elevation with loading. During arm elevation without loading, the EMG activity was significantly decreased for MD in the McConnell taping group (p<.05). The findings indicate that deltoid inhibition taping can modify the activation patterns in shoulder girdle muscles as well as in deltoid muscle. in clinical setting. it may be effectively used for the management of patients with shoulder dysfunction.
The objective of this study was to compare the differences on the activity and power of the wrist flexors and extensors in subjects before the use of a wrist extension splint, after nighttime wearing of the splint, and after daytime wearing of the splint. Ten healthy male and ten healthy female students (mean: 22.4±1.2 years old) volunteered to wear custom-made wrist splints either during the night or during the day, The hand force of the wrist flexor and extensor, and grip force were measured by PowerTrack II and Dynatron, respectively. At the same time, the activities of the wrist flexor and extensor were recorded by' surface electromyography. The maximal hand force and motor unit recruitment of the flexor carpi ulnatis (FCU) increased significantly (p<.05) when tile subjects wore the wrist splints during the daytime, but the maximal hand power of the FCU decreased with nighttime use of the splints. The maximal hand power and motor unit recruitment of the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and the ECR/FCU ratio decreased both during nighttime and daytime use. The decrement of the ECR/FCU ratio was significant (p<.05). Wearing a wrist extension splint during nighttime led to the maintenance of a lengthened position of the wrist flexor, resulting in the wrist flexor becoming weak. Wearing a wrist extension splint during the day induced the wrist flexors to be greater. In healthy people, the imbalance between the wrist flexors and extensors may be caused by the use of a wrist extension splint. This study indicates that therapists have to consider whether a splint will be effective, as well as the wearing time, when prescribing splints to people with problems of the musculoskeletal system.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the task-oriented training according to the application time with the change of motor and cognition function. Focal ischemic brain injury was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats (20 rats, 250±50 g) through middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Before MCAo induction, all rats were trained in treadmill training and Morris water maze training for 1 week. Then they were randomly divided into groups: Group I : MCAo induction (n1=5), Grop II: the application for simple treadmill task training after. MCAo induction (n2=5). Group III: the application for Morris water maze cognitive task training after MCAo induction (n3=5). Group IV: the application for progressive treadmill task training and Morris water maze cognitive task training after MCAo induction (n4=5). Modified limb placing tests (MLPTs) and motor tests (MTs) were performed to test motor function and then Morris water maze acquisition test (MWMAT) and Morris water maze retention test (MWMRT) were performed to test cognitive function. For MTs, there were significant interactions among the groups with the time (p<.001). Group IV showed the steeper increasing pattern than those in other Groups on the 7th and 14th day. For MLPTs, there were significant interactions among the groups with the time (p<.001). The scores in Group III. IV had showed the more decreasing pattern than those in Group I, II since the 7th day and 14th day. For MWMAT, there were significant interactions among the groups with the time (p<.001). Group II found the Quadrant circular platform showed the steeper decreasing pattern than that in Group I on the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th day. Group III. IV found the quadrant circular platform showed the slower decreasing pattern than that in Group I, II, For MWMRT, there were significant differences among the four groups (p<.001). The time to dwell on quadrant circular platform in Group IV on the 13th day was the longest compared with other groups. These results suggested that the combined task training was very effective to improve the motor and cognition function for the rats affected on their focal ischemic brain injury.
Pressure sores are painful and needless complications of critical illness. and manifest as a localized area of ischemic necrosis of tissue caused by pressure. This study analyzed the bed-backrest elevation system combined with hip and knee flexion for lower extremity lower pressure reduction. Eight healthy adults aged 21 to 26 years were recruited. The Body Pressure Measurement Mat of the TekScan system was used to measure the location and magnitude of the peak pressures on the body bed interface. The SPSS statistical package was used to analyze the significance of differences between the general bed-backrest elevation system and the bed-backrest elevation system combined with hip and knee flexion using the paired t-test. The result showed that the body-pressure of the lower extremity was more significantly reduced for the bed-backrest elevation system combined with hip and knee flexion (26.6±4.3 mmHg) than a general bed-backrest elevation system (37.3±5.2 mmHg) (p<.05).
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of modified vertical roll sling and conventional Bobath roll sling in reducing hemiplegic shoulder subluxation. Radiography of anterior oblique radiographic view' were taken, before and immediately after wearing each sling in 13 hemiplegic patients. The vertical distance. horizontal distance. and joint distance were measured. Analysis of radiographically measured distances showed that both modified vertical roll sling and Bobath roll sling decreased vertical, horizontal. and joint distances. Reduction in vertical and joint distances were significantly greater in modified vertical roll sling compared to Bobath roll sling. while horizontal distance showed no significant difference between the two slings. Therefore it can be concluded that modified vertical roll sling is an effective orthosis in reducing hemiplegic shoulder subluxation.
The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of electroencephalograph (EEG) power and coherence on cognitive function in normal elderly, non-demented elderly with mild cognitive impairment, and demented elderly during working cognition tasks. Forty elderly women (19 demented elderly, 10 non-demented elderly with mild cognitive impairment, 11 norma1 elderly) participated in this study, All subjects performed working cognition tasks with Raven's CPM while EEG signal was recorded, EEGs were measured continuously at rest and during the working cognition task. EEG power and coherence was computed over 21 channels: right and left frontal, central, parietal, temporal and occipital region. We found that there were more correct answers among normal elderly women than in other groups Owing the working cognition task, wave at Fp1, Fp2 and F8, a wave at Fp2, wave at Fp1, Fp2. F4 and F8 of the frontal region was increased significantly in the demented elderly group. On the other hand. wave at Fp1, Fp2 and F7, wave at Fp1, Fp2, F3 and F7 of the frontal region was increased significantly in the group of non-demented elderly with mild cognitive impairment. In contrast. in the normal elderly group, all of the θ wave and wave at Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, F7 and F8 of the frontal region (except wave at F3) was increased significantly, These results suggest that the nerves in prefrontal and right hemisphere regions were most active in the demented elderly group during problem solving, and the nerves in the prefrontal and left hemisphere lobe were most active in the group of non-demented elderly with mild cognitive impairment. In contrast, me majority of nerves in the frontal region were active in the normal elderly group.
Cross-legged sitting postures are commonly assumed during computer work. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of leg crossing on trunk muscle activity while typing at a computer. Trunk muscle activity was measured in three 8 different sitting postures, in random order. These posture were: normal sitting with a straight trunk and both feet on the floor (NS), upper leg crossing (ULC), and ankle on knee (AOK). The right leg was crossed onto the left leg in both cross-legged postures. Twenty able-bodied male volunteers participated in this study. Subjects typed on a computer keyboard for one minute. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record bilateral muscle activity in the external oblique (EO). internal oblique (IO), and rectus abdominis (RA). The EMG activity of each muscle in the NS posture was used as a reference (100% EMG activity) in relation to the two cross-legged postures. Muscle activity in the right EO. right IO, and left IO was significantly lower in the ULC posture than in the NS posture. In contrast, muscle activity in the right RA was significantly higher in the ULC posture than in the NS posture. Muscle activity in the tight RA was significantly higher in the AOK posture, as compared to the NS posture, whereas activity in the left IO was significantly lower in the AOK posture, as compared to the NS posture. The right-left muscle activity ratios in the EO and IO showed significantly different patterns in the cross-legged postures, suggesting that asymmetrical right-left oblique muscle activity had occurred.
The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability of the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) translated into Korea in patients with stroke. It also aims to score the quality of trunk movement and to be a tool for the treatment. The TIS consists of three subscales that static sitting balance, dynamic sitting balance and co-ordination. The TIS score ranges from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 23. Twenty-five stroke patients (13 males, 12 females) were examined by two physiotherapists. Interrater and test-retest reliability were assessed. Kappa and weighted kappa values for the items of the trunk assessment of the TIS ranged from .67 to 1.00. Intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater and test-retest agreement were .95 and .97. Cronbach alpha coefficients for internal consistency range from .87 to .97. The TIS provide reliable assessments for the trunk and are valid scales for measuring trunk performance in patients with stroke. TIS can be used as a guideline for treatment and the assessment of quality of trunk activity.