The purposes of this study were to compare the electromyographic activities from the rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique portion, vastus medialis longitudinal portion, and vastus lateralis during straight leg raising (SLR) and quadriceps setting (QS) exercise and to determine which exercise is more effective to selectively strengthen the vastus medialis. Thirty two healthy subjects <19 men, 13 women) participated in the study. All participants performed SLR and QS exercises while electromyographic activity was recorded from EMG surface electrodes. Statistical analysis demonstrated significantly greater values for the vastus medialis oblique portion, vastus medialis longitudinal portion, and vastus lateralis activities during QS exercise than for those during SLR exercise. However, the rectus femoris muscle activity between SLR and QS exercises was not significantly different. The ratios of vastus lateralis to vastus medialis during SLR and QS exercise were not significantly different. These results show that QS exercise is more effective for strengthening the quadriceps muscle on the whole than the SLR exercise. As for selective methods of strengthening vastus medialis specifically, both SLR and QS exercises are useful.
The use of therapeutic ultrasound(US) in humans with malignant neoplasms has been contraindicated in physical therapy practice. Some studies have shown that results after application of US differ according to tumor type and penetration depth. The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of US on melanoma in mice and to determine treatment dosage. Twenty-four female C57BL/6 mice, age 8 weeks. The right flank of all mice was shaved, and a 0.1 ml suspension of cells was injected subcutaneously into the animals' right flank. In this study, 24 subjects were randomly divided into three groups: experimental group 1(n=8), experimental group 2(n=8), control group(n=8). In the experimental group 1, animals received continuous 3 MHZ US treatment, administered at for five minutes. In experimental group 2, animals received continuous 3 MHz US treatment, administered at for 5 minutes. The control group received the same handling as other experimental groups, including rodent chow, water, US gel application but US head pressure without the power turned on. After 10 days treatment, all mice were killed with a potassium solution. Tumors were excised and weighed on an electrical balance and fixed in a 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. Tumor weights were smaller in experimental group 2(0.3838 g) than in the control group(0.6275 g). Tumor weights of the experimental group 1(0.015 g) were smaller than those of experimental group 2. Continuous therapeutic US decreased the weight of subcutaneous melanoma tumors in mice. The treatment dosage() we suggest was more effective than earlier studies on decreasing tumor size with ultrasound.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pelvic and lower extremity exercise on the gait in 25 patients(11 men, 14 women) with hemiplegia. Their mean age was 65.2 years and the mean post-onset duration was 8.7 months. Each participant received a total of 15 sessions of PNF(five times per week), and each session lasted 40 minutes and consisted of 2 procedures(20 minutes each). The first procedure was pelvic anterior elevation and posterior depression pattern. And the second procedure was lower extremity flexion-adduction with knee flexion pattern. Results showed significant progressive improvement in gait speed and cadence after each 5 session period(5th, 10th, 15th session) compared with pre-treatment data(P<0.05). Furthermore improvements were noted in stride length.
The patients with hemiplegia show different body weight distribution as compared to normal subjects. These patients load their body weight more on sound leg than affected leg. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of foot placement under three conditions: forward, intermediate, and backward placement, on body weight distribution and time needed to rise while assuming sit-to-stand. Fourteen patients with hemiplegia participated in the study. Their body weight distributions during sit-to-stand under the three different conditions were measured by a limb loader and time needed to rise was measured by a stopwatch. The data were analysed by the repeated measure of one-way ANOVA. Statistical Analysis demonstrated that body weight distribution was less asymmetric in backward foot placement. The difference of body weight bearing rate between sound leg and affected leg was significantly decreased as foot placement moved from forward to backward. These results show that backward foot placement during sit-to-stand make patient with henuplegia distribute their body weight more evenly on the lower extremity.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of head and neck(HN) position in the transverse plane on the static production of elbow extension force in the involved(paretic) upper extremity of patients with hemiparesis. On this study, thirty patients who had experienced a cerebrovascular accident were matched with neurologically intact subjects. Force of static elbow extension was tested with a hand-held dynamometer, twice with the HN rotated toward the paretic side and twice with the HN rotated toward the non-paretic side. Elbow extension force differed significantly with the HN in the two position in patients with hemiparesis but not in normal persons(=0.05). Results of this study support the conclusion that HN position in the transverse plane influences the production of static elbow extension force on the paretic side in patients with hemiparesis.
Several studies have evaluated the effects of types of relative frequency and delay interval of knowledge of results(KR) on motor skill learning independently. The purpose of this study was to determine more effective types of KR relative frequency and KR delay interval for motor learning. Forty-six healthy subjects (15 female, 31 male) with no previous experience with this experiment participated. The subjects ranged in age from 20 to 29 years (mean=23.9, SD=0.474). All subjects were assigned to one of four groups: a high-instant group, a high-delay group, a low-instant group, and a low-delay group. During the acquisition phase, subjects practiced movements to a target (400 mm) with either a high (83%) or low (33%) KR relative frequency, and with either an instantaneous or delayed (after 8s) KR. Four groups were evaluated on retention (after 3min and 24hr) and transfer (450 mm) tests. The major findings were as follows: (1) there were no between-group differences in acquisition and short-term retention (p>0.05, (2) a low (33%) KR relative frequency during practice was as effective for learning as measured by both long-tenn retention and transfer tests, compared with high (83%) KR practice conditions (p<0.05), (3) delayed (8s) KR enhanced learning as measured by both long-term retention and transfer tests, compared with instantaneous KR practice conditions (p<0.05), and (4) there were no interactions between KR relative frequency and KR delay interval during acquisition, retention, and transfer phases. The results suggest that relatively less frequent and delayed KR are more effective types for motor learning than more frequent and instantaneous KR.ㅂ
Asymmetrical posture during static stance has been identified as a common problem in persons with hemiplegia. This study examined the effect of a purposeful exercise training program on symmetrical weight bearing in three adult persons with hemiplegia. Multiple baseline design was used. The intervention program, including ball throwing and catching, rolling ball catching and throwing, and Swiss ball pulling and stopping was introduced for 15 minutes each day during each intervention phase. Quantitative measurement of the weight distribution was taken with the Limloader. Visual inspection and mean of data revealed a significant improvement in symmetrical weight distribution. This result suggests that a purposeful exercise training program can be effective in helping persons with hemiplegia achieve symmetric stances.
An A-B-A-C single subject research design was used to assess the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TENS) and inhibitive techniques on spasticity in a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy. Stimulation electrodes were placed over the sural nerve of the right leg. The standard method of cutaneous stimulation, TENS with impulse frequency of 100 Hz, was applied. Inhibitive techniques including stretch, antagonist contraction, and weight bearing were used. The tonus of the leg muscle was measured by means of a surface-EMG biofeedback unit. Visual analysis of data indicate that the child showed clinically significant reduction of spasticity in passive ankle movement following 30 minutes of TENS and inhibitive techniques application, respectively. The effect of TENS on spasticity inhibition was similar to that of inhibitive techniques. This result suggests that for this child with cerebral palsy, the application of TENS to the sural nerve may induce short-term post-stimulation inhibitory effects on the spasticity of cerebral palsy. Replication of this study with a more complex single-subject design involving more subjects is recommended to confirm this result.
Back muscles play an important role in protecting the spine. Epidemiological studies have shown that loads imposed on the human spine during daily living play a significant role in the onset of low back pain. No previous study has attempted to correlate the response of the trunk musculature with the type of external load. The purpose of this study was to use surface electromyography (EMG) to quantify the relative demands placed on the back muscles while lifting loads in one hand. Forty asymptomatic, twenty year-old subjects stood while lifting loads of 10% of body weight(BW) unilaterally. All EMG data were normalized to a percentage of the EMG voltage produced during no-load standing(%EMG). Our major analysis involved a paired t-test for repeated measures. Of particular note was the fact that the ipsilateral 10% of BW condition produced statistically less % EMG change than did the contralateral 10% of the condition.
The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the changes between pre-treatment and post-treatment of four groups of 15 persons each and 2) to compare the effect of conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TENS) and laser at auricular acupuncture points on experimental pain threshold measured at the wrist. Sixty healthy adult men and women(M:32, F:28), aged 20 to 28 years, were assigned randomly to one of four groups. Group 1 received TENS to the appropriate auricular point for wrist pain, Group 2 received laser to the appropriate auricular point for wrist pain, Group 3 received placebo TENS to the appropriate auricular point for wrist pain, Group 4 received no treatment and served as controls. Experimental pain threshold at the wrist was determined with a painful electrical stimulus before and 20 minutes after ear stimulation. Group 1 was the only group that showed a stastically significant increase (p<0.05) in pain threshold after treatment whereas the Group 2,3 and 4 did not. These results suggest that TENS has the capability to higher pain threshold but laser does not.