It is important to find the effective position for cough and sputum clearance in respiratory physical therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and peak cough flow (PCF) related to functional level and measurement position in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Twenty one subjects were classified into three functional levels, and measurements was undertaken in three different measurement positions (upright sitting, 45˚ reclining and supine). Vitalograph PEF/FEV DIARY was used to measure PEF and FEV1, and Ferraris Pocket Peak was used to measure PCF. Mixed two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. The results of the study were as follows: 1) Significant main effects for measurement position were found. 2) PEF was the highest in upright sitting, followed by 45˚ reclining, and supine in order. 3)FEV1 in upright sitting and 45˚ reclining were significantly greater compared with that in supine. 4) PCF in upright sitting and 45˚ reclining were significantly greater compared with that in supine. 5) No significant main effects for functional level were found in PEF, FEV1, and PCF. 6) No significant functional level by measurement position interactions were found in PEF, FEV1, and PCF. Therefore, it is concluded that upright sitting and 45˚ degree reclining positions are recommended for effective cough and sputum clearance.
The purpose of this study was to examine contraction of abdominal muscles on surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of superficial cervical flexors, rib cage elevation and angle of craniocervical flexion during deep cervical flexion exercise in supine position. Fifteen healthy subjects were participated for this study. All subjects performed deer cervical flexion exercise with two methods. The positions of two methods were no volitional contraction of abdominal muscles in hook-lying position with 45 degree hip flexion (method 1) and 90 degrees hip and knee flexion with feet off floor for inducing abdominal muscle contraction (method 2). Surface EMG activities were recorded from five muscles (sternocleidmastoid, anterior scaleneus, recuts abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique). And distance of rib cage elevation and angle of craniocervical flexion were measured using a three dimensional motion analysis system. The EMG activity of each muscle was normalized to the value of reference voluntary contraction (%RVC). The EMG activities, distance of rib cage elevation. and angle of craniocervical were compared using a paired t-test between two methods. The results showed that the EMG activities of sternocleidmastoid and anterior scaleneus during deep cervical flexion exercise in method 2 were significantly decreased compared to method 1 (p<.05). Distance of rib cage elevation and angle of craniocervical flexion were significantly decreased in method 2 (p<.05). The findings of this study indicated that deep cervical flexion exercise with contraction of abdominal muscles could be an effective method to prevent substitute motion for rib cage elevation and contraction of superficial neck flexor muscles.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a repetitive lifting task on the level of activation and median frequency of the paraspinal muscles, and to provide basic data of the maximal acceptable duration of the lifting task to avoid muscle fatigue. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited as participants and they repetitively (12 lifts/min) lifted a box (46 ㎝ × 30 ㎝ × 30 ㎝, 15 kg) for 10 minutes. Electromyographic data (muscle activation and median frequency), heart rate, and Borg CR10 score were recorded at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 minutes after the lifting task. Electromyographic data was recorded from the elector spinalis, mutifidus, external oblique abdominis, and rectus abdominis for 1 minute. The results showed that as the repetitive lifting task progressed, the heart rate and Borg CR10 score significantly increased. In addition, activation of the muscles increased. The median frequency significantly decreased over time in the elector spinalis, mutifidus, and external oblique abdominis (right side), except for the external oblique abdominis (left side) and rectus abdominis. It is suggested that the median frequency recorded from a dynamic task is used to monitor muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the repetitive lifting task (15 kg, 12 lifts/min) should not continue for more than 3 minutes in order to avoid muscle fatigue.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of differing heel heights on the electromyographic (EMG) activity in vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) during stair ascending and descending activities. A total of 26 healthy women volunteered to perform stair-ascending and stair-descending tasks with 3 heel heights: barefoot, 3 cm, and 7 cm. The EMG activities of the VM and VL were recorded during the tasks. During the stair ascending and descending tasks, the EMG activities of both VM and VL significantly changed with differing the heel heights (p<.05). Moreover, the EMG activities of VM and VL during the stair ascending task were significantly higher than the corresponding values during the stair-descending task (p<.05). However, there were no significant differences between the VM:VL EMG ratios for the 3 heel heights (p>.05). The VM:VL EMG ratios between the 2 tasks differed significantly in the 7 cm high heel condition (p<.05). Despite an increase in the EMG activities in both VM and VL during stair ascending and descending tasks, there was no change in the relative EMG intensities of VM and VL, which was measured by calculating the VM:VL ratio this result indicates that no VM:VL imbalances were elicited. The relative EMG intensities of VM and VL during stair descent were lower than the corresponding values during the ascent, suggesting that VM and VL may show an imbalance in the eccentric activation during the weight-acceptance phase. This study provides useful information that will facilitate future research on how heel height affects muscle activity around the knee joint.
The purpose of this study was to suppose basis data the influence of different chair type and pelvic control on quadriceps muscle activity and strength during knee joint extension isometric exercise in hemiplegic patients. This research were investigated in ten healthy adults and tens hemipelgic patients. Surface electromyography (EMG) and Biodex system were used to collect kinematic data and muscle activity, respectively. Independent t-test, paired t-test and one-way repeated ANOVA were used to determine a statistical significance. The results showed as follows: (1) Posterior pelvic angles in healthy group and hemiplegic group were significantly different on isokinetic equipment (p<.05). (2) Different chair type and pelvic control on quadriceps muscle activity and strength were significantly different in hemiplegic patients (p<.05). From the result of this research, posterior pelvic angle control during knee joint extension isometric exercise in hemiplegic patients on isokinetic equipment is necessary to increase quadriceps muscle strength in hemiplegic patients.
This study examined the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL) onset time differences (OTD) during quadriceps contraction in different hip positions. Twelve healthy subjects were recruited (four men, eight women). Surface EMG activities of the VMO and VL were measured during a quadriceps strengthening exercise in a long sitting condition and in a sitting at a chair with feet hanging condition. For each condition, subjects were tested in two hip positions (neutral and adduction). The OTD between the two muscles was calculated for each condition, by subtracting the onset time of the VL from the VMO. Therefore, the negative value of OTD represent earlier EMG onset of the VMO compared to the VL. The OTD was not significantly different between the hip neutral and the hip adduction position in the long sitting condition (p=.064). However, the OTD was significantly different between the hip neutral position (15.83±109.51 ms) and hip adduction position (-5.58±121.08 ms) during the sitting at a chair with feet hanging condition (p=.047). The negative OTD value in the hip adduction condition during quadriceps strengthening exercises is the result of earlier onset of the VMO than VL. Therefore, quadriceps contraction in the hip adduction position can prevent the risk of patella lateral tracking. We expect that quadriceps strengthening exercise in the hip adduction position will be a safe way to prevent patellofemoral pain syndrome resulting from abnormal patella lateral tracking.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise therapy on physical function of patients with anklyosing spondylitis (AS) through the systemic review and meta-analysis. The 54 studies were identified from computerized search of published researches on PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, KISS, KERIS database until February, 2008 and review of reference lists. The main search terms were the combination "ankylosing spondylitis", "exercise", "spondyloarthropathy and exercise", "ankylosing spondylitis and physical therapy". The subgroup analysis was performed by the publication year, quality score, type of disease, content of intervention, intervention provider, type of intervention, method of intervention, intervention period and the point of outcome measured. Two reviewers independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the quality and extracted the data. The result was as follows: The 10 trials were eligible for inclusion criteria, then the systematic review and meta-analysis was assessed on effectiveness of exercise therapy. The meta-analysis of 10 studies based on the random effect model showed that the exercise therapy was beneficial in treating the diseases (effect size .55; 95% confidence interval -.3.75~.61). The findings suggest that the exercise therapy would be appropriate to manage the physical function of AS with evidence based on Meta-analysis. Therefore, the exercise therapy supervised by physical therapist should be recognized as the essential approach to manage the AS and necessarily recommended to improve physical function.
Psychsocial factors appear to play an important role in the maintenance and development of chronic disability from low back pain. Fear of pain may be more disabling than the pain itself in patients with nonacute low back pain. The purpose of this study was to identify the contribution of gender, age, depression and pain-related fear to pain intensity and disability in nonacute low back pain patients. This was a cross-sectional survey study of eighty four patients who had low back pain for at least 4 weeks. More than moderate correlations were found between pain intensity, disability, fear-avoidance beliefs and depression. Regression analyses revealed that disability ratings and fear-avoidance beliefs for work activities significantly contributed to the prediction of pain intensity, even when controlling for age, gender and pain duration. Also, fear-avoidance beliefs for physical activity, pain intensity, age and depression, significantly contributed to the prediction of disability, even when controlling for gender and pain duration. These findings suggest that disability scores and fear-avoidance beliefs for work activities are important determinants of pain intensity. They also suggest that fear-avoidance beliefs for physical activity, pain intensity, age and depression are important determinants of disability.
The purpose of this study was to assess the level of quality of life and related factors among the elderly in Korea. In particular, we focused on factors affecting the quality of life of the elderly in long term care. We used the third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) from 2005. We sampled a total of 3,571 (10.5%) elderly from the national survey. We compared the mean of quality of life to socioeconomic status, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), health behavior, and disease variables. We used EuroQol-5D among KNHANES to assess the quality of life. In this study, the mean score of the quality of life among the elderly was 2.57. Logistic regression showed that the elderly who were male, with spouses, with health insurance, and with good ADL levels enjoyed higher quality of life scores and odds ratios than those who were female, divorced, uninsured, and with low ADL levels (p<.05). The quality of life of the elderly was affected by socioeconomic, ADL, health behavior and disease variables. To improve long term care and the quality of life among the elderly, we need detailed research to clarify the effects of these factors.