Background: Round shoulder posture, results from excessive flexed posture of the thorax, is defined as a position of scapular protraction, anterior tipping, and downward rotation. However, previous studies have focused on only passive position of the thorax during scapular posterior tilting (SPT) and have not reported on SPT combined with correction of flexed posture.
Objects: The aim of this study was to compare effects of SPT and SPT with prone trunk extension (SPT + PTE) on activities of the lower trapezius, serratus anterior, and thoracic erector spinae and degree of posture in subjects with round shoulder and flexed posture.
Methods: Fifteen subjects with round shoulder and flexed posture were recruited. The caliper was used to measure the degree of round shoulder and flexed posture. Electromyography was performed to collect data of muscle activities. Paired t-test was used to compare two exercise (α=.05).
Results: When SPT + PTE was applied, the degree of round shoulder posture (p=.001) and flexed posture (p=.039) significantly decreased compared with that when SPT was applied. The lower trapezius activity significantly increased in the SPT + PTE condition compared with that in the SPT condition (p=.026). There were no significant differences in serratus anterior activity between SPT + PTE and SPT. The thoracic erector spinae activity significantly increased in the SPT + PTE condition compared with that in the SPT condition (p=.014).
Conclusion: SPT + PTE might be one of the effective methods to enhance activities of lower trapezius and thoracic erector spinae, and to reduce round shoulder posture and flexed posture in subjects with round shoulder and flexed posture.
Background: Leg length discrepancy (LLD) leads to many musculoskeletal disorders and affects daily activities such as walking. In the majority of the population, mild LLD is a common condition. Nevertheless, it is still controversy among researchers and clinicians on the effects of mild LLD during gait, and available studies have largely overlooked this issue.
Objects: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of mild LLD on the gait parameters and trunk acceleration.
Methods: A total of 15 female and male participants with no evidence of LLD of >.5 ㎝ participated in the present study. All participants walked under the following two conditions: (1) The non-LLD condition, where the participants walked in shoes of the same heel height; (2) A mild LLD condition induced by wearing a 1.5 ㎝ higher heel on the right shoe. The GAITRite system and tri-axial accelerometer were used to measure gait parameters and trunk acceleration. To compare the variation of each variable, a paired t-test was performed.
Results: Compared to the non-LLD condition, step time and swing phase were significantly increased in the mild LLD condition, while stance phase, single support phase, and double support phase significantly decreased in the short limb (p<.05). In the long limb of the mild LLD condition, single support phase significantly increased, while swing phase significantly decreased (p<.05). Furthermore, significant decrease in the gait velocity and cadence in the mild LLD condition were observed (p<.05). In the comparison between both limbs in the mild LLD condition, the step time and swing phase of the short limb significantly increased compared with the long limb, while step length, stance phase, and single support phase of the long limb significantly increased compared with the short limb (p<.05). Additionally, trunk acceleration of all directions (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, vertical) significantly increased in the mild LLD condition (p<.05).
Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that mild LLD causes altered and asymmetrical gait patterns and affects the trunk, resulting in inefficient gait. Therefore, mild LLD should not be overlooked and requires adequate treatment.
Background: Alignment of the lower limb is an important factor, influencing balance and gait in kinematics and kinetics, in patients with and without a flat arched foot. Flat arched foot are associated with the range of motion (ROM) of the hip and alignments of the knee joints, is strongly influenced.
Objects: The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between hip joint ROM and quadriceps angle (Q-angle), by dividing them into two groups according to the presence or absence of flat feet, using a navicular drop test (NDT) and resting calcaneal stance position (RCSP).
Methods: Forty elderly patients were allocated to the experimental group (flat foot group, n1=20) or the control group (non-flat group, n2=20). Universal and digital goniometer, tractograph and tape measure were used to determine the related changes in the hip ROM, Q-angle, NDT and RCSP.
joint (right, r=.803, p<.001), (left, r=.951, p<.001) were highly correlated with NDT, and also, was moderately correlated with Q-angle (right, r=.562, p=.019), (left, r=.757, p<.001). Passive internal ROM of the hip joint (right, r=.742, p=.001), (left, r=.922, p<.001) were highly correlated with NDT, and also, was moderately correlated with RCSP (right, r=-.530, p=.029) and with Q-angle (right, r=.710, p=.001), (left, r=.698, p=.002) in the flat foot group. However, no strong correlation among the hip ROM, NDT, RCSP and Q-angle were found in the non-flat foot group.
Conclusion: This research may provide evidence of the correlations between hip internal ROM and flat foot.
Background: We developed a novel integrative lumbar stabilization technique that combines lumbar extension (LE) exercise with abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) to ameliorate low back pain (LBP) associated with neuromuscular imbalance and instability, based on the collective evidence of contemporary spinal rehabilitation.
Objects: The specific aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of LE exercise with and without ADIM on core muscle strength, lumbar spinal instability, and pain, as well as functional characteristics in individuals with LBP using advanced radiographic imaging techniques.
Methods: patients with mechanical LBP (N = 40, 6 males; 35.1±7.6 years) were recruited and randomly assigned either to the combined LE and ADIM (experimental group) or the LE alone (control group). Outcome measures included the visual analog scale, the modified Oswestry Disability Index, muscle strength imbalance (MSI), and radiographic imaging. The lumbar intervertebral displacement (LID), intervertebral (IV) and total lumbar extension (TLE) angles were calculated to evaluate the lumbar segmental instability.
Results: The experimental group showed significant differences in the L3-L4, L5-S1 LIDs, L4-L5 and L5-S1 IV angles, and TLE angle as compared to the controls (p<.05). Immediate pain reduction and muscle strength imbalance ratio were significantly different between the groups (p<.05).
Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of ADIM significantly increased lumbar spinal stabilization in individuals with LBP, thereby reducing pain associated with functional lumbar flexion during daily activities.
Background: Posterior-anterior (PA) vertebral mobilization, a manual therapy technique has been used for relieving pain or stiffness treating in spinal segment for in clinical practice, however evidence to gauge efficacy is yet to be synthesised.
Objects: This study aimed to investigate the effect of PA mobilization of the thoracic spine on the respiratory function in patients with low back pain (LBP).
Methods: The study participants included 30 patients with chronic LBP. They were randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. The experimental and control groups received PA mobilization of the T1-T8 level of the thoracic spine and placebo mobilization, respectively. All patients received interventions for 35 minutes a day, five times a week, over 2-week period, respectively. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow 25∼75% (FEF25∼75%), and chest wall expansion were measured before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and two-way analysis of variance, and Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to compare the correlation between respiratory function and chest measurement.
Results: The experimental group showed significant improvements in FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEF25∼75% (p<.05), and chest wall expansion (p<.05) compared with the control group.
Conclusion: PA mobilization of the upper thoracic spine may be beneficial for improving respiratory function parameters including FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEF25∼75%, and chest wall expansion in patients with chronic LBP.
Background: The hamstring muscles in the lower extremity are highly important for knee joint stability and can be classified into medial and lateral hamstrings according to the anatomical position, which have some different functions. To measure the strength of the individual hamstring muscles, manual muscle testing is clinically performed by dividing rotation postures into internal and external postures. However, this has no sufficient scientific background.
Objects: This study aimed to test the difference that the tibial rotation would cause in the muscle activity of the medial and lateral hamstrings.
Methods: The muscle activities of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus were measured in a total of three different postures (neutral position and internal and external rotations) with 3 replications. During the maximal isometric contraction, resistance was constantly provided by the string attached to the strap, not by manual resistance of the examiner. Before and after electromyography measurements, the participants underwent hamstring flexibility measurement using the active knee extension test in the supine position on the treatment table
Results: The semitendinosus had a 12.56% reduction in muscle activity in external rotation as compared with that in neutral position. The biceps femoris and semimembranosus showed reduced muscle activities in both external and internal rotations as compared with those in neutral position. Only the women showed significant decreases in the comparison between pre and post-active knee extension.
Conclusion: Only the semitendinosus muscle was consistent with the anatomical speculation. However, the reduction in the muscle activity of the semitendinosus as compared with that in neutral position was only 12.56%, the clinical value of which may be difficult to justify.