The purpose of this study was to compare the change in electromyography (EMG) activity in the gluteus maximus (G-max) and the gluteus medius (G-med) in subjects with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI) during three functional postures. Twenty four females were recruited for this study. Subjects were assigned into two groups: with CAI (n1=12) and without CAI (n2=12). The assessment postures were rotational squat, one leg stand above a gradient and crossed leg-sway. Electromyographic activities of the G-max and the G-med were recorded using surface EMG and was normalized using the maximal voluntary isometric contraction elicited using a manual muscle testing. Independent t-test was used to determine the statistical differences between two groups during the three functional postures. The comparisons of the three posture between two groups were performed using a one-way repeated analysis of variance. A Bonferroni adjustment used for post hoc analysis. The activation of EMG on G-max performing the one leg stand above a gradient and crossed leg-sway in subjects with CAI is significantly higher than normal group (p<.05). The activation of EMG on the G-max during the rotational squat was significantly increased, compared to those of the one leg stand above a gradient and crossed leg-sway (p<.05). The activation of EMG on G-med performing three exercise at CAI is significantly higher than normal group (p<.05). The activation of EMG on the G-med during the crossed leg-sway was significantly increased, compared to the rotational squat (p<.05). This study provides valuable information for clinician who research CAI.
This study aimed to compare the characteristics of breast cancer surgery and shoulder surgery patients on the shoulder range of motion (ROM), degree of pain and dysfunction, and scapular position. This study was carried out with a total of 90 women: a breast cancer surgery group (BS, n1=30), a shoulder surgery group (SS, n2=30) and a control group (n3=30). Shoulder ROM, the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS), the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and the Scapular Index (SI) were used to assess shoulder function. Statistical analyses were performed using a one-way analysis of variance, crosstab test, and independent sample t-test. Post-hoc testing was carried out with Bonferroni test. There were significant differences in shoulder ROM when the BS and the SS were compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference in ROM between the BS and SS. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in shoulder pain between both surgery groups, and there was greater shoulder dysfunction in the SS than in the BS. There was also a significant difference in upper extremity posture when the BS and the SS were compared to the control group. Finally, there was no significant difference in upper extremity posture between the BS and the SS. This study compared shoulder ROM, pain, dysfunction, and upper extremity postures between the BS and SS. While there were no significant differences in shoulder ROM, pain, and upper extremity posture between both surgery groups, the level of dysfunction was found to be significantly different. Therefore, health professionals managing for breast cancer surgery or shoulder surgery patients should consider these outcomes.
Impaired respiratory function is common in patients with stroke. The purpose of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of exercises and to assess forced vital capacity and peak cough flow after completion of neck stabilizing and respiratory reeducation exercises (combining diaphragmatic breathing and pursed-lip breathing exercises). The 45 participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group 1 (n1=15), experimental group 2 (n2=15), and a control group (n3=15). All subjects performed conservative physical therapy for 30 minutes. Experimental group 1 undertook the neck stabilizing exercise and the respiratory reeducation exercise. Experimental group 2 undertook the respiratory reeducation exercise. Additional exercise did not exceed 30 minutes, five times a week for six weeks. The subjects were assessed for deep neck flexor thickness and breathing function (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, forced expiratory volume at one second/forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow, and manual assisted peak cough flow) at pre-post value. The results of this study were as follows. Experimental group 1 showed a significant increase only in deep neck flexor thickness change rate (p<.05). All groups showed significant increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, and peak expiratory flow in pre-post measurement (p<.05). Experimental groups 1 and 2 showed an increase in manual assisted peak cough flow in pre-post measurement (p<.05). There was no significant difference between experimental group 1 and experimental group 2, but experimental group 1 improved more than experimental group 2 in respiratory function as a whole. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the neck stabilizing exercise in combination with the respiratory reeducation exercise can improve forced vital capacity and peak cough flow in patients with stroke.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion (DF PROM) under a non-weight bearing condition and the normalized reach distance in three directions of the Y-Balance Test (YBT). Sixty-one healthy adults (32 males and 29 females, age: 23.0±3.0 years, height: 169.3±8.9 ㎝, weight: 61.9±5.4 ㎏) participated in this study. The ankle DF PROM was measured using a goniometer. To assess dynamic balance, all subjects performed three trials to determine the maximum lower extremity reach in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions of the YBT. The relationship between the ankle DF PROM and both the normalized reach distance in each direction and the composite score of the YBT were analyzed using the Pearson correlation. Only the normalized reach distance in the anterior direction of the YBT was significantly related to the ankle DF PROM measured under a non-weight bearing condition (r=.50, p＜.001). Neither the normalized reach distances in the posterior directions nor the composite score of the YBT were significantly correlated with the ankle DF PROM measured under a non-weight bearing condition. These findings suggest that ankle DF PROM does not affect the overall dynamic balance of the lower extremity, with only the anterior dynamic balance affected among the three directions.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) and abdominal expansion maneuver (AEM) on trunk stabilization, as well as trunk muscle activities and differences in quadruple visual analogue scale, Korean Oswestry Disability Index, and Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire scores, in patients with chronic low back pain and lumbar spine instability. To increase intra-abdominal pressure during the trunk stabilization exercise, the technique of pushing the abdomen out using diaphragmatic abdominal breathing suggested by Pavel Koral was used, which we termed the AEM. Fifty patients who tested positive on more than three of the five lumbar spine instability tests were separated from 138 patients with chronic low back pain of these patients, 16 were placed in the control group (trunk stabilization exercise), 17 were placed in the ADIM group (trunk stabilization exercise with ADIM), and 17 were placed in the AEM group (trunk stabilization exercise with AEM). Each group participated in the study for 30 minutes three times weekly for 4 weeks. Surface electromyography was used to measure the trunk muscle activities during the kneeling forward and supine bridging positions, and one-way repeated analysis of variance was used to determine the statistical significance of the trunk muscle activities in the rectus abdominis, internal oblique (IO), erector spinae, and multifidus (MF) muscles. The ADIM and AEM groups showed relatively larger improvements in psychosocial and functional disability level than control group. There were significant changes among the three groups, those from the measured values of the AEM group was significantly higher than the other two groups in changes in IO and MF trunk muscle activities (p＜05). This finding demonstrates that trunk stabilization exercises with AEM is more effective than ADIM for increasing trunk deep muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients with lumbar spine instability.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamic balance and activity of internal oblique muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, biceps femoris muscle during the Y balance test following the wearing of pelvic compression belt. Forty healthy adults were recruited for this test. The dynamic balance score was estimated as the following: (anterior+posteromdial+posterolateral)/(3×leg length)×100. The electromyography signals were measured through %reference voluntary contraction, which was normalized by reference voluntary contraction of Y balance test without wearing the pelvic compression belt. The paired t-test was carried out to compare the dynamic balance score and the activity of the trunk and hip extensor with and without the wearing of pelvic compression belt. The dynamic balance score of the Y balance test when wearing pelvic compression belt was significantly than when measured without wearing the pelvic compression belt (p<.05). The muscle activity of the internal oblique and the multifidus was significantly decreased when wearing pelvic compression belt (p<.05). The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus was significantly increased when wearing pelvic compression belt (p<.05). However, there was no significant difference in hamstring muscle activity, with or without wearing the belt (p>.05). In conclusion, this study shows that the wearing of pelvic compression belt affects trunk muscle and hip extensor muscle activity related to the pelvic mobility and stability and increases dynamic balance and also contributes to the stabilization of the external pelvic stabilization.
This study aimed to determine the effect of lower trapezius muscle strengthening exercises on pain, neck disability index (NDI), cervical range of motion (ROM), and lower trapezius muscle strength in patients with unilateral neck pain. Following baseline measurements, the subjects (N=40) with unilateral neck pain were randomized into one of two 5 weeks exercise intervention groups: a experimental group (EG, n1=20) that received strength training of the lower trapezius muscles or a control group (CG, n2=20) that received routine physical therapy program. Each group participated in the intervention for 30 minutes, 3 times a week, for 5 weeks. All participants performed 2 repetitions of each intervention per day. The numeric pain rating scale for pain, NDI, ROM, and lower trapezius strength were recorded both pre- and post-intervention for both groups. Paired t-tests were used to determine significant changes post-intervention compared with pre-intervention and independent t-tests were used to analyze differences in the dependent variables between the 2 groups. After the 5-weeks intervention, both groups experienced significantly decreased pain and disability level (p<.05) and significantly increased cervical flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation ROM (p<.05). The EG that received strength training of the lower trapezius muscles showed greater improvements in pain and functional disability level, cervical rotation, and lower trapezius strength than the CG (p<.05). These results suggest that a lower trapezius strengthening exercises reduce neck pain and neck disability level and enhance cervical ROM and lower trapezius strength level in patients with unilateral neck pain.
This study evaluated and compared the effectiveness on upper motor extremity function between proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation which has been frequently used in clinical practice, and action observation training in terms of improving upper motor extremity function. A study with a single-subject design (A-B-C-A') was conducted with a patient who was diagnosed with left hemiplegia. A repeated-measure analysis was conducted to assess results of the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Box and Block Test (BBT), and grip and pinch strength test performed daily in the study for 4 weeks. The results of the analysis indicated that the WMFT score, BBT score, grip strength, and pinch strength were improved from 29.60 to 39 (24.10%), from 1.67 to 4.93 each (EA) (66.22%), from 2.06 to 2.66 libras (lbs) (22.61%), and from 1.57 to 1.93 lbs (18.94%), respectively, from the baseline period to treatment period B. The values were improved from 29.60 to 42.20 (29.86%), from 1.67 to 7 EA (76.21%), from 2.06 to 3.47 lbs (40.57%), and from 1.57 to 1.67 lbs (6.12%), respectively, from the baseline period to treatment period C. From treatment period B to treatment period C, the WMFT score, BBT score, and grip strength were improved from 39 to 42.20 (7.58%), from 4.93 to 7 EA (29.56%), and from 2.66 to 3.47 lbs (23.20%), respectively, but pinch strength was decreased from 1.93 to 1.67 lbs (15.83%). In conclusion, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and action observation training both have positive effects on upper extremity motor function. However, we suggest that the posttreatment effect of action observation training was better than that of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.
The effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) and elastic band exercise on the physical functions and blood lipids of obese elderly women were investigated. The experimental group (n1=16) patients underwent PNF for 12 weeks, and the control group (n2=15) patients performed elastic band exercises. SPSS 21.0 was used to compute the means and standard deviations. After the 12-week PNF, both the experimental and control groups showed statistically significant differences in the physical functions (cardiovascular endurance, strength of the lower extremity, muscular endurance, flexibility, balance, and agility) (p<.05), but the difference in the experimental group was more significant than that in the control group (p<.05). In terms of the changes in the blood lipid levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein), the experimental group showed significant changes (p<.05). In conclusion, PNF was confirmed as more effective than elastic band exercise in improving the physical functions and blood lipid levels of obese elderly women.
Prolonged sitting can contribute to low back pain. The lumbar taping can be applied to correct the sitting posture. This study aimed to investigate the effect of lumbar taping on lumbar kinematics and the muscle activities of multifidus (MF) and internal oblique in the individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) as they type for 30 minutes. Nineteen subjects with NSCLBP (9 people in non taping group and 10 people in taping group) were recruited. Lumbar taping was applied to the taping group before typing. Both groups started typing in a neutral sitting position with their feet on the floor. The change of posture and S2 posterior tilting (S2P) were measured to investigate kinematic data. Three sensors were attached on T12, L3, and S2 to identify the change of posture. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities. Palpation meter was used to standardize the angle of pelvic tilt in sagittal plane before typing. All instruments were used to measure each data before and after typing. Independent t-test was used to compare the changing values of lumbar kinematics and muscle activities before and after typing between both groups. The changing values of S2P and change of posture of L3 and S2 were significantly smaller in the taping group compared to the non taping group (p＜05). The changing value of muscle activities of MF between before and after typing was significantly smaller in the taping group compared to the non taping group (p＜05). In conclusion, the lumbar taping during the 30-minute typing task can be applied to maintain correct sitting posture in the lumbar and pelvis and to maintain activation of MF.
Although the relationship between temporomandibular disorder and forward head posture (FHP) is controversial, it is generally accepted that altered head posture can affect mandible position and masticatory muscles activity. Because suprahyoid (SH) and infrahyoid (IH) muscles are stretched by increased passive tension in FHP, this study investigated their activity during mouth opening in FHP compared to neutral head posture (NHP). Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females) participated in this study. Head postures were evaluated with a cervical range of motion instrument. Electromyography (EMG) activity of bilateral SH and IH muscles was measured while an open mouth was maintained at each head posture. Paired t-test was used to identify significant differences in normalized EMG activity between head postures. Statistical significance was set at .01. Results showed the normalized EMG activity of SH and IH muscles were significantly lower in FHP compared to NHP. This finding indicates that FHP affects the EMG activity of hyoid muscles when they are stretched.