Background: Patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) functionally adapt to decreased postural control due to impaired processing of sensory information. Standing postural control has been the focus of recent research in CLBP. Change in postural control may be a risk factor for CLBP, although available studies are not conclusive. Objects: This study aimed to identify the role of partial weight supported treadmill training (PWSTT) in improving balance, dysfunction, and pain in patients with chronic low back pain. Methods: The study included 22 patients with CLBP. Patients in the control group (n1=8) performed three 20 min stabilization exercise sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Patients in the full weight treadmill training group (n2=7) performed treadmill training for 30 min after stabilization exercise. Patients in the PWSTT group (n3=7) performed PWSTT with 20% of their body weight unloaded after stabilization exercises. By using the Biodex balance system, the dynamic balance abilities of the patients in the three groups were assessed in the quiet standing position under combined conditions of visual feedback (eyes open and closed) and platform stability (level 8). The Korean version of the Oswestry Disability Index and visual analogue scale score were used as the main measure. Results: The results of this study showed that dysfunction and pain were significantly improved in all groups. Although dynamic postural stability with eyes closed was significantly improved only in the PWSTT group (p<.05), no significant difference was found in the other groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that PWSTT improved balance, dysfunction and pain in the patients with CLBP. Thus, this intervention is necessary for patients with CLBP with decreased postural control.
Background: Investigation in gender differences of kinetics and kinematics for individuals with patellar femoral pain syndrome (PFPS) was not sufficiently performed. Objects: The purpose of this study is that whether there is a difference depending on gender from muscle activity and strength and knee valgus angle during controlled single-leg squat which is widely used as clinical movement test for the patient with PFPS. Methods: 20 young adults (10 men, 20.0±2.1 years; 10 women, 20.4±2.1 years) with PFPS were voluntarily recruited in this study. Muscle activity and strength and knee valgus angle were collected during single-leg squat. Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare the differences between groups of male and female. Results: Rectus femoris (t=-2.204, p=.041) and vastus medialis oblique (t=-2.151, p=.045) muscle activity of women were significantly higher than male group. Normalized muscle strength of hip and knee muscles showed a significant difference between men and women (p<.05). Valgus angle of the knee in women (t=-2.450, p=.025) were increased significantly than men. Conclusion: The therapist would consider the characteristics of these gender differences during performing movement test, exercise, and education for the individuals with PFPS.
Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) recovers the alignment of the knee joint, but fails to automatically restore the alignment and function of the hip and ankle joints. It may affect the alignment and stability of the knee joint, therefore therapeutic intervention in hip and ankle joint is necessary for the rehabilitation process after TKA. Objects: The aim of this study was to comparison of the effects of the two exercise methods on the coronal plane alignment after TKA. This study conducted an experiment by dividing subjects into a lower extremity isometric co-contraction group (LEIC) and a quadriceps isolated isometric contraction (QIIC) group. Methods: A total of 37 subjects were randomly assigned to the LEIC (n1=19) or the QIIC (n2=18). Exercise was applied to five times per week for three weeks, starting on the eighth day after surgery. Range of motion exercises were performed as a common intervention and then each group performed quadriceps isometric contraction exercises with 10 sets of 5 repetitions. Radiological imaging was performed prior to surgery, one month and six months after surgery. In addition, the hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) and tibiotalar angle (TTA) were measured. Results: The HKA was close to neutral in the LEIC rather than the QIIC (p<.05). The LEIC showed varus and the QIIC exhibited valgus TTA (p<.05). In a comparison of HKA and TTA over time, there was no significant change in either group (p>.05). According to the comparison of the TTA before surgery, the LEIC showed significant changes in the varus direction (p<.05), while there was no significant change in the QIIC (p>.05). Conclusion: The LEIC method triggered changes in the TTA and brought the HKA close to the neutral. Thus, LEIC is more effective than QIIC in creating stability in the coronal plane alignment of the knee and ankle joints after TKA.
Background: Chronic back pain shows a high correlation with lumbar disability, physical disability for daily activities, and psychosocial factors, such as depression. Object: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of the level of pain and disability with psychosocial factors, which are potential disturbance variables, in patients with chronic lumbar pain. Method: The sample included 258 patients, who had complained of chronic lumbar pain for more than three months. The Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale was used to measure the level of pain, and a Korean version of Oswestry Disability Index was used to measure the level of disability. Psychosocial factors were measured using the Tampa scale for Kinesiophobia-11, Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using PASW 18.0, and an independent samples t-test was used to examine frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation of sociodemographic characteristics and major variables. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between the level of pain and disability and psychosocial factors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to determine the level of pain and psychosocial factors of functional disorder. The significance level was set at α=.05. Result: There is a strong correlation between the level of pain and functional disorder and psychosocial factors in patients with chronic lumbar pain. The study also revealed that as the levels of pain and fear avoidance increase, pain self-efficacy decreases. Conclusion: The results suggest that negative perceptions towards pain, limitations of physical movement, and severe fear avoidance directly affect the decrease in pain self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to test pain self-efficacy when measuring the level of pain and disability in patients with chronic low back pain.
Background: Rasch analysis estimates the probability that a respondent will endorse an item and select a particular rating for that item. It has the advantage of placing both the items and the person along a single ration scale and calibrates person ability and item difficulty onto an interval scale by logits. In addition, Rasch analysis is a useful tool for exploring the validity of questionnaires that have been developed using traditional methods. Therefore, it has been recommended as a method for developing and evaluating functional outcome measures. Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate the item fit, item difficulty, and rating scale of the Korean version of the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (KFAB) using Rasch analysis. Methods: Total 97 subjects (39 males and 58 females) with dwelling elderly adults were participated, but 3 people were excluded for misfit persons. Rasch analysis was then done by means of the Winsteps program to determine the item fit, item difficulty, rating scale, and reliability of the KFAB. Results: In this study, the ‘standing with feet together and eyes closed’, ‘two-footed jump’, ‘walk with head turns’, and ‘stand on foam, eyes closed’ items shown misfit statistics. The most difficult item was ‘stand on one leg’, whereas the easiest item was ‘turn in full circle’. The rating scale was acceptable with all criteria. Both item and person separation indices and reliability showed acceptable values. This would indicated that each domain covers a useful range of item difficulty that is appropriate for measuring a person with a wide range of functional ability. Conclusion: The KFAB has been proven reliable, valid and an appropriate tool with which to evaluate the balance of the elderly people.
Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-core set (ICF-core set) for children and youth (CY) with cerebral palsy (CP) provides a useful conceptual framework and a guide for health care planning and measuring the changes brought by interventions across a multitude of dimensions from body functions to personal activities, social participation, and environmental factors for them. Objects: This single case study was reported to illustrate the use of a goal directed approach in applying the ICF-core set for CY with CP from a physical therapist perspective. Methods: An eleven year old boy with spastic CP, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level V, and his mother participated in an evaluation of his functioning state. The intervention goal was set through an interview using the ICF-core set, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Goal Attainment Scale (GAS). Physical therapy was carried out on an outpatient basis using a goal directed approach for 30 min, 1 time/week during 12 weeks and the boy’s gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66 version (item set 2) before and after the intervention. Results: As measured by the boy’s mother, the COPM score showed a meaningful clinical change (performance=mean 3.5, satisfaction=mean 2.5) and the T-score of GAS changed 34.4 after the goal directed approach. The GMFM-66 (item set 2) score changed from 31.8 to 38.7 and evaluation using the ICF-core set displayed improvement in 6 items of activity level between before and after the intervention. Conclusion: The ICF-core set for CY with CP is useful for understanding the overall functioning of CY with this condition and provides an opportunity to share and integrate information and opinions from different disciplines. We consider it as a useful tool in the universal language for the therapy and education of CY with CP.
Background: The unilateral prone arm lift (UPAL) is commonly used to exercise the lower trapezius muscle. However, overactivation of the upper trapezius can induce pain during UPAL exercises in subjects with upper trapezius tenderness. Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of position of ipsilateral neck rotation (INR) on the inhibition of upper trapezius muscle activity and the facilitation of the lower trapezius muscle when performing UPAL exercises. Methods: In total, 19 subjects with upper trapezius tenderness were recruited for the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured in the upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles during UPAL with and without INR position. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare EMG activity in the trapezius muscles and the muscle ratios. Results: EMG activity in the upper trapezius muscles was decreased significantly in the INR condition compared to without the position with INR during UPAL exercises (p<.05). EMG activity in the middle and lower trapezius was not significantly different between the with and without INR conditions (p>.05). However, the ratio of lower to upper trapezius activation showed a significant increase in the INR condition compared to the without INR condition (p<.05), indicating greater lower trapezius activation relative to the upper trapezius in the INR position than in the without INR position. Conclusions: The EMG results obtained in this study suggest that the position with INR reduced overactivation in the upper trapezius and improved muscle imbalance during lower trapezius exercises in individuals with upper trapezius tenderness.
Background: Increased foot pronation causes biomedchanical changes at the lower limbs, which may result in musculoskeletal injuries at the proximal joints. Pronation rear-foot leads to plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis, and posterior tibial tendonitis pathologically. According to the recent meta-analysis, They showed that therapeutic adhesive taping is more effective than foot orthoses and motion control footwear, low-Dye (LD) taping has become the most popular method used by physiotherapists. Objects: The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of LD taping results in different ankle motion and ground reaction force (GRF) as before and after applied LD taping on pronated rear-foot during gait. Methods: Twenty-four participants were recruited for this study. The gait data were recorded using an 8-camera motion capture system and two force platforms. At first, the experiments were carried out that participants walked barefoot without LD taping. And then they walked both feet was applied LD taping. Results: The ankle inversion minimum was significantly greater after LD taping than before LD taping (p=.04); however, in the GRF, there were no significant differences in the inversion maximum or total motion of the stance phase (p=.33, p=.07), or in the vertical (p=.33), posterior (p=.22), and lateral (p=.14) peak forces. Conclusion: The application of taping to pronation rear-foot assists in increased ankle inversion.
Background: Prone hip extension (PHE) can be performed to measure the lumbopelvic motor patterns and motions. Imbalances in lumbopelvic muscle activity and muscle weakness can result in instability including pain in lumbopelvic region. The posterior oblique sling (POS) muscles contribute to dynamic lumbopelvic stability. In addition, POS are anatomically aligned with the trapezius muscle group according to shoulder positions. Objects: This study compared the electromyography (EMG) activity of POS and pelvic compensations during PHE with and without pre-activation of lower trapezius muscle (lowT). Methods: Sixteen healthy males were recruited. PHE was performed in randomized order: PHE with and without lowT pre-activation. Surface EMG signals were recorded for biceps femoris (BF), gluteus maximus (GM) (ipsilateral), lumbar multifidus (MF) (bilateral), and the lowT (contralateral). An electromagnetic tracking motion analysis was used to measure the angle of pelvic rotation and anterior tilting. Results: The ipsilateral GM and bilateral MF EMG amplitudes were greater during PHE with lowT pre-activation compared to PHE without lowT pre-activation (p<.05). The BF amplitude during PHE without lowT pre-activation was significantly greater than that during PHE with lowT pre-activation (p<.05). The angles of pelvic rotation and anterior tilting during PHE with lowT pre-activation were significantly smaller compared to PHE without lowT pre-activation (p<.05). Conclusion: PHE with lowT pre-activation, which is aligned with the POS, showed more increased MF and GM muscular activity with smaller lumbopelvic compensations in rotation and anterior tilting compared to PHE without lowT pre-activation.
Background: Posture balance control is the ability to maintain the body’s center of gravity in the minimal postural sway state on a supportive surface. This ability is obtained through a complicated process of sensing the movements of the human body through sensory organs and then integrating the information into the central nervous system and reacting to the musculoskeletal system and the support action of the musculoskeletal system. Motor function, including coordination, motor, and vision, vestibular sense, and sensory function, including proprioception, should act in an integrated way. However, more than half of stroke patients have motor, sensory, cognitive, and emotional disorders for a long time. Motor and sensory disorders cause the greatest difficulty in postural control among stroke patients. Objects: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of visual and somatosensory information on postural sway in stroke patients and carrying out a kinematic analysis using a tri-axial accelerometer and a quantitative assessment. Methods: Thirty-four subjects posed four stance condition was accepted various sensory information for counterbalance. This experiment referred to the computerized dynamic posturography assessments and was redesigned four condition blocking visual and somatosensory information. To measure the postural sway of the subjects’ trunk, a wireless tri-axial accelerometer was used by signal vector magnitude value. Ony-way measure analysis of variance was performed among four condition. Results: There were significant differences when somatosensory information input blocked (p<.05). Conclusion: The sensory significantly affecting the balance ability of stroke patients is somatosensory, and the amount of actual movement of the trunk could be objectively compared and analyzed through quantitative figures using a tri-axial accelerometer for balance ability.
Background: The assessment tool developed in other countries should be translated into Korean language using rigorous methodological approaches in order to be used in Korea. Because these procedures are insufficient for establishing the cross-cultural and linguistic equivalence, the need for statistical methods is raised. The Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale was translated into Korean and the content validity was verified through the back translation method, but the reliability and validity have not yet been proven by statistical methods. Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (KFAB) by statistical methods in elderly people. Methods: A total of 97 elderly adults (39 males and 58 females) participated in this study. Internal consistency of the KFAB was measured using Cronbach’s alpha and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess test-retest reliability between the two measurement sessions. Concurrent validity was measured by comparing the KFAB responses with the Korean version of the Berg Balance Scale (KBBS) using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Construct validity of the KFAB was measured using the exploratory factor analysis to evaluate the unidimensionality of the questionnaire. The significance level was set at α=.05. Results: The internal consistency of the KFAB was found be adequate with Cronbach’s alpha (.96), and test-retest reliability was excellent as evidenced by the high ICC (r=.996). Concurrent validity showed high correlation between the KFAB and KBBS (r=.89, p<.001). Construct validity was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis. The result from Bartlett test of sphericity was statistically significant (p<.001), and the value of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was .93. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of only one dominant factor that explained 76.43% of the variance. Conclusion: The KFAB is a reliable, valid and appropriate tool for measuring the balance functions in elderly people.