Background: Like many other countries, falls and related injuries in older adults are great concerns in South Korea. In particular, falls are common in medical institutions, often causing the increase of the length of hospitalization.
Objects: The purpose of this review was to help understand and address falls in hospitalized individuals in South Korea.
Methods: The review was conducted on literature published in Korean from 2010 to 2022, searched in the Korea Citation Index and PubMed. Keywords used for the search were as follows: falls, fall risk, fall risk assessment, hospital, inpatient, intervention, Korea, and prevention.
Results: A total of 54 articles were found and reviewed. The most common place of fall accidents was the inpatient room, where there were many cases of falls while walking. Loss of balance was the most common cause of falls, and many falls occurred in patients admitted to the internal medicine. Furthermore, a risk of falling increased with the type of medications taken. In terms of tools to assess patients’ fall risk, the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) was commonly used. Patient-specific fall prevention activities were common to address falls, and they decreased the frequency of falls and the fear of falling. Factors influencing the effectiveness of the fall prevention activities included attitudes toward falls, education, environmental factors, patient safety culture, and self-efficacy in preventing falls.
Conclusion: Our results should help understand and address falls and injuries in medical institutions.
Background: Excessive hamstring (HS) activation due to the weakness of the gluteus maximus (GM) causes pain in the hip joint. A single-leg deadlift is a hip extensor exercise, especially GM, that includes functional movements in daily life and complex multi-joint training. In single-leg deadlift, the muscle activity depends on the forward trunk lean angle, and it's necessary to study which muscles are used dominantly depending on the angle.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect on the muscle activity of the GM and HS during single-leg deadlift according to different forward trunk lean angles and the ratio of the GM vs HS (GM/HS).
Methods: Twenty-one healthy female participants were recruited. The muscles activities of the GM, HS and the GM/HS ratio were measured through electromyography during single-leg deadlift according to three condition of forward trunk lean angles (30°, 60°, and 90°).
Results: The GM and HS activities significantly differed among three conditions (p < 0.05). GM/HS ratio was significantly higher at 30°and 60° of forward trunk lean compared to 90°. Moreover, the GM activity was significantly higher at 60°of forward trunk lean than at 30° (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The single-leg deadlift at 60°of forward trunk lean is a proper GM muscle strengthening exercise.
Background: Delivery workers repeatedly get in and out of trucks and walk or run to deliver packages during work. Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a well-known non-traumatic overuse injury of the lateral side of the knee caused by frequent knee flexion and extension. Hip muscle strength is among the factors that prevent lower extremity injuries. Although many studies have examined the relationship between ITBS and hip muscle strengths, there was no study comparing hip muscle strength and ratio between delivery workers with and without ITBS.
Objects: This study aimed to compare hip muscle strength and hip internal/external rotator and adductor/abductor strength ratios between delivery workers with and without ITBS.
Methods: Fourteen delivery workers with ITBS matched inclusion criteria in the present study among 20 participants. Because total sample size was required 28 subjects by G*power program (ver. 220.127.116.11; University of Trier), 14 delivery workers without ITBS were recruited. Hip muscle strengths were measured in a side-lying position using a Smart KEMA pulling sensor (KOREATECH Co. Ltd.). An independent t-test was used to compare hip muscle strengths and hip internal/external rotator and hip adductor/abductor strength ratios between delivery workers with and without ITBS.
Results: The adductor/abductor strength ratio was significantly greater in delivery workers without ITBS than in those with ITBS (p < 0.05). The strengths of the hip abductor, hip adductor, hip internal rotator, hip external rotator, and the ratio of internal/external rotator strengths were not significantly different between the delivery workers with and without ITBS (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: This study’s findings showed that delivery workers with ITBS had significantly lesser adductor/abductor strength ratio, while the strengths of the hip abductor and adductor muscles did not differ significantly. These results suggest that adductor/abductor strength ratio should be considered when evaluating and treating ITBS in delivery workers.
Background: Several factors contribute to shoulder pain, including abnormal neck posture, repeated use of the upper limbs, work involving raising the upper limbs above the head, and the effects of vibration. However, previous study has reported that constant vibration exposure could impact improvement of the stability on joints related with muscle recruitment and activation. For this difference reason, we need to verify for the complex study of relationship with repetitive upper limb movements, poor head posture, and constant vibration exposure.
Objects: Our study was made to investigate the influence of vibration exposure on the shoulder muscle activity during forward-head and over-head tasks with isometric shoulder flexion.
Methods: In a total of 22 healthy subjects, surface electromyography (EMG) data were collected from shoulder muscles (upper/lower trapezius, serratus anterior, and lumbar erector spinae) on tasks (neutral-head task [NHT], forward-head task [FHT], and over-head task [OHT]) with and without vibration exposure.
Results: In all tasks, the EMG data of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior significantly increased with vibration exposure (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the EMG data of the lumbar erector spinae significantly increased with vibration exposure in the NHT and FHT (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: We suggest that continuous vibration exposure during the use of hand-held tools in the tasks could be associated with harmful effects in the workplace. Lastly, we clinically need to examine the guidelines regarding the optimal posture and vibration exposure.
Background: Equating is a statistical procedure used to create a common measurement scale across two instruments. Item-level information should be taken into consideration so that scores can communicate interchangeably across the instruments.
Objects: To investigate a common measurement scale across two health-related quality of life questionnaires (HRQOL) applied to various cancer survivors who underwent palliative care in healthcare institutions.
Methods: A total of 139 cancer survivors who underwent palliative care were recruited from two rehabilitation hospitals and an oriental medicine hospital. Participants consisted of various cancer survivors who presented to the sites for palliative care. They were asked to fill out Korean versions of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) and EuroQOL-5 dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires following the palliative care. For the item level comparison, the Rasch rating scale model was used to investigate how participants regarded individual test items of two instruments in relation to item difficulty calibrations.
Results: All items except the three items fit the Rasch model. One item (anxiety/depression) of the EQ-5D and two items (dependence on medical aids and negative feelings) of the WHOQOL- BREF are misfit. The WHOQOL-BREF targets the survivors well, while the EQ-5D is able to target the survivors with lower HRQOL levels with some ceiling effects. By inspecting the item difficulty calibrations of the two instruments, five items of the WHOQOL-BREF are selected as common items in relation to the EQ-5D. These five items are considered compatible with each other. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis reveals that the healthcare item of the WHOQOL-BREF vs the self-care item of the EQ-5D exhibits significant DIF.
Conclusion: Findings suggest that one paired item should be taken into consideration when equating the WHOQOL-BREF and the EQ-5D applied to cancer survivors who underwent palliative care.
Background: Scapular dyskinesis may cause not only rotator cuff (RC) tear but also weakness of the upper extremity, studies on scapular dyskinesis that may occur after RC repair is still lacking.
Objects: To determine whether scapular dsykinesis was present in patients after arthroscopic RC repair and to investigate the influence of passive scapular stabilization on upper extremity strength.
Methods: A total of 30 patients after RC repair participated in this study. To compare the scapula of the arthroscopic RC repair shoulder and the contralateral shoulder, the winged scapula (WS) was measured using a scapulometer and scapular dyskinesis was also classified by type. Fixed instruments for muscle strength measurements were used to measure upper extremity muscle strength differences depending on passive scapular stabilization position or natural scapular position. A chi-square test, an independent t-test and a 2-way mixed measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used as statistical analysis. In analyses, p < 0.05 was deemed to be statistically significant.
Results: Postoperative shoulder had a significant association with scapular dyskinesis and the WS compared to the contralateral shoulder (F = 0.052, p < 0.01). Postoperative shoulder, muscle strength in the shoulder abduction (p < 0.01), elbow flexion (p < 0.01) and forearm supination (p < 0.05) were significantly greater in the scapular stabilization position than in the scapular natural position.
Conclusion: Patients underwent arthroscopic RC repair had a significant association with scapular dyskinesis and muscle strength was improved by a passive scapular stabilization position, therefore scapular stabilization is important in rehabilitation program.
Background: This study was carried out to determine whether non-face-to-face physical therapy would have similar exercise effects to face-to-face physical therapy. Hence, we developed an approach for patients, unable to visit hospitals due to circumstances such as the COVID-19 pandemic, to conduct physical therapy comfortably at home.
Objects: This study aimed to compare the effects of a face-to-face and a non-face-to-face physical therapy treatment on improving a rounded shoulder posture.
Methods: The participants with rounded shoulders were randomly divided into a face-toface group (n = 15) and a non-face-to-face group (n = 15), and each group performed exercises for four weeks. The exercise program consisted of the bare hands exercise, Thera-Band exercise, and foam roller exercise. The participants in the face-to-face group came to a designated place to perform their exercises, and those in the non-face-to-face group performed the exercises at their own home using Google Meet (Google). Acromial height, total scapular distance (TSD), shoulder pain and dysfunction index (SPADI), and pectoralis minor thickness were measured. Data analysis was performed using the R Statistical Software (R Core Team), and a normality test was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk test.
Results: There were no significant differences between the face-to-face and the non-face-toface groups (p > 0.05). When comparing the differences before and after the exercises, both the face-to-face and the non-face-to-face groups showed significant differences in acromial height, SPADI, and pectoralis minor thickness (p < 0.05), and both groups showed no significant difference in TSD before and after the exercises (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: The results of this study support the results of previous studies reporting that shoulder stabilization exercise and pectoralis minor stretching training improves round shoulders. In addition, this study revealed that both the face-to-face and the non-face-to-face physical therapy treatments had therapeutic effects.
Background: Posterior capsule tightness (PCT), commonly seen in overhead athletes, is a soft tissue adaptation that is also noted in non-throwers. PCT is associated with scapular and humeral kinematic alterations, significant restriction of shoulder internal rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM), and significant scapular anterior tilting. Sleeper and cross-body stretches (CBS) are suggested for PCT and IR deficits, and have been modified since introduction. A novel modified sleeper stretch (NMSS) was designed in this study to prevent the risk of anterior translation of the humeral head. Though the effects of posterior shoulder stretching exercise have been widely studies, to the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have investigated the effectiveness of posterior shoulder exercises in decreasing scapular anterior tilting.
Objects: To compare the immediate effects of two posterior shoulder stretching exercises (NMSS and CBS) on scapular anterior tilting and shoulder IR ROM.
Methods: Thirty-two subjects with anteriorly tilted scapula and IR deficits [mean age: 24.3 ± 2.5 years; 15 males and 17 females] participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the NMSS or CBS groups. Scapular anterior tilting (at rest and at shoulder 60° active IR) and shoulder IR ROM were measured before and immediately after intervention.
Results: Scapular anterior tilting significantly decreased, while the shoulder IR ROM significantly increased in both groups. However, there was no significant group-by-time interaction effect or significant difference between the groups.
Conclusion: Both stretching exercises were effective in restoring shoulder IR ROM and decreasing scapular anterior tilting.
Background: The weakness of the gluteus medius (GM) is associated with various musculoskeletal disorders. The increasing GM activity without synergistic dominance should be considered when prescribing pelvic drop exercise (PD). Isometric hip extension or flexion of the non-weight bearing leg using thera-band at the ankle during PD may influence hip abductor activities.
Objects: To determine how isometric hip extension or flexion of the non-weight bearing leg using thera-band at the ankle during PD influences the activities of three subdivisions of GM (anterior, GMa; middle, GMm; posterior, GMp), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), contralateral quadratus lumborum (QL), and GMp/TFL, GMm/QL activity ratios in patients with GM weakness.
Methods: Twenty-three patients with GM weakness were recruited. Three types of PD were performed: PD, PD with an isometric hip extension of the non-weight bearing leg (PDE), and PD with an isometric hip flexion of the non-weight bearing leg (PDF). Surface electromyography (SEMG) was used to measure hip abductor activities. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of muscle activities and muscle activity ratios.
Results: GMa, GMm, and GMp activities were significantly greater during PDF than during PD and PDE (p < 0.001, p = 0.001; p = 0.001, p = 0.005; p = 0.004, p = 0.004; respectively). TFL activity was significantly greater during PDE than during PD and PDF (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). QL activity was significantly greater during PDF than during PD (p = 0.003). GMp/TFL activity ratio was significantly lower during PDE than during PD and PDF (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences in the GMm/QL activity ratio.
Conclusion: PDF may be an effective exercise to increase the activities of all three GM subdivisions while minimizing the TFL activity in patients with GM weakness.
Background: Despite fall prevention strategies suggested by researchers, falls are still a major health concern in older adults. Understanding factors that differentiate successful versus unsuccessful balance recovery may help improve the prevention strategies.
Objects: The purpose of this review was to identify biomechanical factors that differentiate successful versus unsuccessful balance recovery in the event of a fall.
Methods: The literature was searched through Google Scholar and PubMed. The following keywords were used: ‘falls,‘ ‘protective response,‘ ‘protective strategy,’ ‘automated postural response,’ ‘slips,’ ‘trips,’ ‘stepping strategy,‘ ‘muscle activity,’ ‘balance recovery,‘ ‘successful balance recovery,‘ and ‘failed balance recovery.’
Results: A total of 64 articles were found and reviewed. Most of studies included in this review suggested that kinematics during a fall was important to recover balance successfully. To be successful, appropriate movements were required, which governed by several things depending on the direction and characteristics of the fall. Studies also suggested that lower limb muscle activity and joint moments were important for successful balance recovery. Other factors associated with successful balance recovery included fall direction, age, appropriate protective strategy, overall health, comorbidity, gait speed, sex and anticipation of the fall.
Conclusion: This review discusses biomechanical factors related to successful versus unsuccessful balance recovery to help understand falls. Our review should help guide future research, or improve prevention strategies in the area of fall and injuries in older adults.