Background: It is very difficult for hemiplegic patients to effectively perform the sit-to-stand (STS) movements independently because of several factors. Moreover, the analysis of STS motion in hemiplegic patients has been thus far confined to only muscle strength evaluation with little information available on structural and environmental factors of varying chair height and foot conditions. Objects: This study aimed to analyze the change in biomechanical factors (ground reaction force, center of mass displacement, and the angle and moment of joints) of the joints in the lower extremities with varying chair height and foot conditions in hemiplegic patients while they performed the STS movements. Methods: Nine hemiplegic patients voluntarily participated in this study. Their STS movements was analyzed in a total of nine sessions (one set of three consecutive sessions) with varying chair height and foot conditions. The biomechanical factors of the joints in the lower extremities were measured during the movements. Ground reaction force was measured using a force plate; and the other abovementioned parameters were measured using an infra-red camera. Two-way repeated analysis of variance was performed to determine the changes in biomechanical factors in the lower extremities with varying chair height and foot conditions. Results: No interaction was found between chair height and foot conditions (p>.05). All measured variables with varying chair height showed a significant difference (p<.05). Maximum joint flexion angle, maximum joint moment, and the displacement of the center of mass in foot conditions showed a significant difference (p<.05); however the maximum ground reaction force did not show a significant difference (p>.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that hemiplegic patients can more stably and efficiently perform the STS movement with increased chair height and while they are bare-foot.
Background: After a stroke, the patient may have abnormal muscle tone due to abnormal alignment. Physical therapists have used stretching, neural mobilization other methods to treat patients after stroke. In addition, joint mobilization is also used to stimulation in pathway of cervical segmental region and to normal cervical spine alignment. Objects: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Maitland cervical spine mobilization has an immediate effect on muscle tone and stiffness of upper extremity. Methods: Thirty subjects were divided into a experimental group (n1=10), a placebo group (n2=10), and a control group (n3=10). The Maitland cervical spine mobilization was applied in the supine position. Immediately after the intervention, muscle tone and stiffness of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, deltoid, and pectoralis major were measured using Myoton®PRO. In the placebo group, sham mobilization was applied to the fifth and sixth cervical vertebra, and the control group was instructed to control breathing. Results: In the experimental group, significant differences were found in muscle tone and stiffness of biceps brachii and brachioradialis in comparison with the affected side and the non-affected side before the intervention (p<.05), whereas there was no significant difference after the intervention (p>.05). Muscle tone of biceps brachii on the non-affected side and pectoralis major on the affected side was significantly decreased before and after the intervention (p<.05). The placebo and control group showed no changes on the non-affected and affected side, and no significant differences were detected before and after the intervention. All the groups revealed no significant differences in muscle tone and stiffness of upper extremity before and after the intervention. Conclusion: This study suggests that the application of Maitland cervical spine mobilization enhanced muscle tone of upper extremity on the involved side symmetrically, and influenced a decrease in muscle tone
Background: Deficits of both ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) and dynamic balance are shown in persons with chronic ankle instability and the elderly, with the risk of falls. Objects: This study aims to investigate the relationship between DFROM and dynamic balance in elderly subjects and young adults. Methods: Fifty-nine subjects were divided into three groups: ankle stability young group (SY), ankle instability young group (IY) and ankle stability older group (SO). We recruited three old subjects with ankle instability, but excluded them during a pilot testing due to the safety issue. DFROM was measured by weight bearing lunge test (WBLT) and dynamic balance was measured via star excursion balance test (SEBT) in anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial directions. The group differences in WBLT and SEBT and each group’s correlation between WBLT and SEBT were detected using the R statistical software package. Results: The dorsiflexion range of motion was significantly different between the SY, IY, and SO groups. The SO group showed the highest DFROM and IY group showed the lowest DFROM (SY: 45.88±.66˚, IY: 39.53±1.63˚, SO: 47.94±.50˚; p<.001). However, the SO group showed the lowest dynamic balance score for all SEBT directions (SY: 87.24±2.05 ㎝, IY: 83.20±1.30 ㎝, SO: 77.23±2.07 ㎝; p<.05) and there was no relationship between the dorsiflexion range of motion and dynamic balance in any group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ankle DFROM is not a crucial factor for dynamic stability regardless of aging and ankle instability. Other factors such as muscle strength or movement coordination should be considered for training dynamic balance. Therefore, we need to establish the rehabilitation process by measuring and treating ROM, balance, and muscle strength when treating young adults with and without ankle instability as well as elderly people.
Background: Hemispatial neglect is defined as the failure to attend, report, respond, or orient toward meaningful stimuli provided in the contralateral side of a brain lesion. Objects: This study was conducted to find out the effect of dynamic trunk equilibirum exercise for stroke patients with hemi-spatial neglect. Methods: This study included 21 stroke subjects, randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. The exercise program consisted of 5 sessions of 20 minutes per week during 4 weeks. The line-bisection test, the Albert test, the balance function score, the Berg balance scale, the postural assessment scale for stroke and the modified Barthel index were measured before and after training. All data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 for Windows. Between-group and within-group comparison was analyzed by using Independent t-test and Paired t-test respectively. Results: The results of study were as follows: There were significant differences between before and after intervention in both group (p<.05). There were significant differences in the line-bisection test, Albert test, balance function score, Berg balance scale, postural assessment scale for stroke and modified Barthel index between the experimental group and the control group (p<.05). Conclusion: Dynamic trunk equilibrium exercise had a positive effect on patients’ neglect, balance ability and activities of daily living. Further studies are required to generalize the results of this study.
Background: The deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles have a crucial role in the management of neck pain. For preventing neck pain by activation of the DCF, craniocervical flexion (CCF) is an effective exercise. However, sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle is considered to affect negatively the activation of the DCF. SCM muscle which is an accessory muscle for respiration is activated differently depending on types of breathing patterns. It’s not certain that breathing patterns affect the SCM and DCF muscles thickness during CCF exercise. Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of breathing patterns on the SCM and DCF muscles thickness during CCF exercise. Methods: Forty-five subjects participated in this study, and they were classified according to their breathing pattern, as follows: Costodiaphragmatic breathing (CDB) and upper costal breathing (UCB) groups. Ultrasonographic imaging of the SCM and DCF muscles was performed during five incremental levels of CCF during tidal breathing and expiration. Results: There was a significant interaction between the breathing pattern and the phase of CCF for percentage of SCM muscle thickness changes (p˂.05). In phase 1 CCF, a percentage of SCM muscle thickness changes was increased in the UCB group than in the CDB group (p˂.05). There was an increase in DCF muscles thickness with each additional CCF phase (p˂.05). Conclusion: Recruitment of SCM muscle was increased in the UCB group while performing CCF with a low intensity. There were no significant differences on DCF recruitment between the breathing pattern groups. Higher CCF exercise intensities elicited a higher DCF recruitment.
Background: Stroke patients show abnormal walking patterns due to brain injury. In order to have the desired walking pattern, appropriate stimulation is required to activate the central pattern generator. For this reason, our study performed treadmill ambulatory training with rhythmic auditory stimulation. However we did not consider the influence of visual feedback. Objects: The purpose of this study was to compare the gait abilities in chronic stroke patients following either treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation and visual feedback (TRASVF) or treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (TRAS) alone. Methods: Twenty-one stroke patients were divided into two groups: A TRASVF group (10 subjects) and a TRAS group (11 subjects). They received 30 minutes of neuro-developmental therapy (NDT) and walking training for 30 minutes, five times a week for three weeks. Temporal and spatial gait parameters were measured before and after the training period. The Biodex gait trainer treadmill system measured gait parameters. Results: After the training periods, the TRASVF group showed a significant improvement in walking speed, the step length of the affected limb, and time on each foot of the affected limb when compared to the TRAS group (p<.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation and visual feedback improved individual gait ability more than the treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation alone. Therefore, visual feedback should be considered along with rhythmic auditory stimulation training.
Background: The craniocervical flexion (CCF) exercise is one of the effective exercise in correcting forward head posture (FHP). However, some people with FHP achieve CCF with compensatory movements, for example, low cervical flexion using superficial neck flexors such as the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. No study has yet investigated whether a dualpressure biofeedback unit (D-PBU) method to prevent low cervical flexion would be helpful in performing pure CCF movement. Objects: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the CCF using D-PBU method and the traditional CCF method on the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the longus colli muscle (LCM) and the activity of SCM muscle in subjects with FHP. Methods: Twentyfour FHP subjects (male: 16, female: 8) were recruited for this study. All subjects performed CCF using two different methods: The traditional CCF method and the CCF using D-PBU method. The CSA of the LCM was measured via ultrasound, and surface electromyography was used to measure SCM muscle activity. Results: The change in CSA of the LCM was significantly larger during the CCF using D-PBU method (1.28±.09) compared with the traditional CCF method (1.19±.08) (p<.05). The SCM muscle activity using the CCF using D-PBU method (2.01±1.97 %MVIC) was significantly lower than when using the traditional CCF method (2.79±2.32 %MVIC) (p<.05). Conclusion: The CCF using D-PBU method can be recommended for increasing LCM activation and decreasing SCM muscle activity during CCF movement in subjects with FHP.
Background: There are insufficient objective or quantitative evidence for the better intervention to improve proprioception particularly for the application of external load. There are conflicting opinions whether the external load is effective for proprioception improvement or not. Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of external load on proprioception of shoulder joint quantitatively using 3D motion capture system. Methods: Nine healthy adults joined for this study. They were asked to perform scapular plane abduction motion with attaching reflective markers on the trunk and upper limb. The 3D positions of finger marker, while they performed the same task with and without external load, were recorded and analyzed. Results: All participants showed decreased variable errors in the vertical direction when the external load was applied (p<.02). Even though other directions (y, z) and absolute errors increased, they did not have statistical significances. Conclusion: Based on this study results, the external load application would be effective for shoulder joint position sense improvement.