An abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) with a pressure biofeedback unit can be used to prevent excessive lumbar lordosis during bridging exercise. Therefore, in this research, the effects of an ADIM on lumbar lordosis and lower extremity muscle activity during bridging exercise were investigated in thirty healthy adults. Surface electromyography (EMG) and VICON system were used to collect kinematic data and muscle activity, respectively. A paired t-test was used to determine a statistical significance. The results showed as follows: (1) When performing bridging exercise with an ADIM, the height of the anterior superior iliac spine and greater trochanter decreased significantly (p<.05). (2) When performing bridging exercise with an ADIM, the trunk extension angle and pelvic angle increased significantly (p<.05). (3) When performing bridging exercise with an ADIM, the EMG signal amplitude increased significantly in the rectus abdominis, internal oblique abdominis, external oblique abdominis, medial hamstring, and lateral hamstring (p<.05). (4) When performing bridging exercise with an ADIM, the EMG signal amplitude decreased significantly in the erector spinae (p<.05). From the result of this research, an ADIM trained with pressure biofeedback unit during bridging exercise is effective to prevent excessive contraction of erector spinae, to limit excessive motion of pelvis from sagittal plane and to increase muscle activity of abdominal muscles and hamstring muscle.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) on peak exploratory flow (PEF), forced exploratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and low back pain during forced expiration. Twenty-two subjects (14 subjects in experimental group, 8 subjects in control group) participated in this study. The stabilizer was used for ADIM training for five consecutive days. Vitalograph PEF/FEV1 DIARY and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to determine forced expiratory pulmonary function and low back pain, respectively. Independent t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis with a significance level of .05. The findings of this study were as follows: 1) There were no significant differences of ADIM effect on PEF and FEV1 between experimental group and control group. 2) There was a significant pain reduction in experimental group with ADIM. 3) PEF and FEV1 increased significantly in the fifth day compared with the first day pre-exercise baseline. Therefore, it is concluded that ADIM was effective in improving PEF and FEV1, and reducing VAS during forced expiration in patients with chronic low back pain.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of bridging stabilization exercises on trunk muscles activity on and off a Swiss ball. 20 healthy university students volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were required to complete following four exercises: exercise 1, single bridging exercise; exercise 2, feet on ball bridging exercise; exercise 3, calf on ball bridging exercise; exercise 4, back on ball bridging exercise. Surface electromyography from selected trunk muscles was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction. A repeated measures of ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni's correction was used to determine the influence of exercise type on muscle activity for each muscle and descriptive statistics was used to determine local/global muscle ratios. The rectus abdominis of exercise 4 showed significantly higher muscle activity than rectus abdominis of exercise 1, 2, 3 (p<.05). The external oblique of exercise 2, 4 showed significantly higher muscle activity than external oblique of exercise 1 (p<.05). The internal oblique of exercise 2, 4 showed significantly higher muscle activity than internal oblique of exercise 1 (p<.05). The erector spinae of exercise 2, 3, 4 showed significantly higher muscle activity than erector spinae of exercise 1 (p<.05). Median of internal oblique/rectus abdominis ratio of exercise 1 was 1.16, exercise 2 was 2.43, exercise 3 was 2.45, exercise and 4 was 1.27. Median of internal oblique/external oblique ratio of exercise 1 was 1.01, exercise 2 was .91, exercise 3 was .99, and exercise 4 was .93. Muscle activity can be influenced by addition of a Swiss ball in bridging exercises. It is recommend to use a Swiss ball for trunk stabilization exercise.
In dancers, intact muscular coordination is a well balanced antagonist, which could be a decisive factor in protection against injury as dancers often have hypermobile joints and their ankle joints often bear their full body weight in extreme positions. The purposes of this study were to identify the isokinetic strength to the knee and ankle and the isometric strength of the trunk in female collegiate dancers and controls. Furthermore, the study aimed to investigate the peak torque ratio of knee extension to flexion, ankle plantarflexion (PF) to dorsiflexion (DF), and dominant legs to nondominant. Twenty-one female collegiate dancers (20.0 years of age) and twenty-one female collegiate students (19.3 years of age) performed isokinetic maximum efforts of the knee extensors and flexors at and , the ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors at and and isometric maximum efforts of the lumbar extensors at 0˚, 12˚, 24˚, 36˚, 48˚, 60˚, and 72˚. The results were as follows: The isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensors and the ratio of knee extensors to flexors of dancers were significantly higher than those of controls (p<.01). However, the isometric peak torque of the back extensors (p<.01) and isokinetic peak torque of the ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors (p<.05) of dancers were significantly lower than those of controls. Further studies are needed to identify the difference in proprioception of the joints between dancers and controls.
The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of manual stretching treatment with those of motor development and positioning physical therapy (MDPPT) for congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). This study was designed to be randomized controlled trials and to evaluate the outcomes of 43 consecutive patients with CMT who were first seen when they were average 26 days old. Before treatments, the patients were unintentionallv classified into two clinical groups along with the treatment methods. Among the 43 patients, 22 were classified to the manual stretching group and 21 to the MDPPT group. By means of independent t-test on the result. the duration of treatment according to methods was not significantly different in two groups (p>.05). The duration of treatment in accordance with head tilt level was not significantly different in two groups (p>.05). There was change of mass diameter, between at the beginning day of treatment and after treatment in manual stretching group with a strong positive linear correlation (p=.000, r=.734), but slightly positive linear correlation in MDPPT group. The result of this study indicates that two therapeutic methods make little difference in effectiveness.
The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist of risk factors for quantitative assessment of musculoskeletal complaints in shipbuilding workers. A key point was to develop comprehensive a checklist including the worker's physical ability, as ergonomic and workload factors. ln the first, through correlation analysis between musculoskeletal complaints and physical abilities in shipbuilding workers, risk factors related to physical abilities were selected. In the second, after the development of a checklist was composed of physical, ergonomic and workload factors, factor analysis was used to test the validity of the developed checklist. Each factors selected finally showed that physical factors were hand grip strength, spinal curvature, and flexibility (sit to reach), ergonomic factors were posture, total exposed time, duration, and force of working, and workload factors were physical and psychological workload perceived by worker. The results showed that musculoskeletal complaints was associated with physical abilities (p<.05). The developed checklist had a reliability of .761 (Cronbach=.761) and a validity and explanation of 54.9%. The criterion of management was classified in 4 stages by relative weights of each factor. It is suggested that active intervention is needed to reduce musculoskeletal complaints in workers with more than a 14.31 score.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between fear-avoidance beliefs and functional status in individuals suffering from low back pain, and to identify factors that influence on fear-avoidance beliefs, functional status and pain. A cross-sectional study included 214 individuals with low back pain. Each of subjects completed a fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) which divided into two subscales, FABQ for physical activity (FABQ-PA) and FABQ for work(FABQ-W), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). Individuals with radiating pain were significantly higher in FABQ-PA, FABQ-total, and ODI scores than with no radiation pain (p<.05). Individuals who had received surgery were significantly higher in FABQ-PA, FABQ-total, ODI and NPRS scores when compared with individuals who had not received it (p<.05). And individuals with taking medication were significantly higher in all variables (FABQ-PA, FABQ-W, FABQ-total ODI and NPRS) than individuals not taking medication (p<.05). In correlation analysis. age appeared to be significantly correlated with FABQ-PA, FABQ-total and ODI scores (p<.05), and all variables was significantly correlated with each other (p<.01). These findings indicate that individuals suffering from low back pain have psychosocial problems such as fear-avoidance beliefs as well as functional status and pain. Fear-avoidance beliefs may contribute to aggravate physical symptoms, and therefore it should be carefully considered for the management of individuals with low back pain.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between addiction to online games and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in college students. A total of 377 (205 male and 172 female) college students completed an online game addiction scale, a Symptom Severity Scale (SSS), and a Function Status Scale (FSS) for CTS. It was found that five (1.3%) students were diagnosed with an online game addiction, 74 (19.6%) students were diagnosed with a pre-addiction to online games, and 298 (79.0%) students were diagnosed as being average users. The pre-addiction group had significantly higher scores on the SSS than did the average user group (p<.05). The average user group scored significantly lower than did the online game addiction group (p<.05). Symptoms of wrist pain and hand numbness in the daytime were common in the addiction group. There were statistically significant but poor positive relationships between the online game addiction scale and the SSS (r=.312, p<.01), and between the online game addiction scale and the FSS (r=.149, p<.01). The information about online game addiction and CTS identified in this study could contribute to the prevention of online game addiction and CTS in college students.
This study was designed to examine a 3-week modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) to the less-affected arm of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) would improve function of the more-affected arm in PD. The subjects were 6 institutional older adults with PD and clients of the social welfare facilities. The subjects (2 men, 4 women) ranged in age from 66 to 90 years (mean age 77.2 yrs). Three clinical tests were used to determine the improvement of functional activity between before and after modified CIMT. The tests included Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), and Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). There were significantly differences after the modified CIMT for time performance in WMFT and pinch in ARAT (p<.05), No significant difference was noted after the modified CIMT for UPDRS and functional ability scale in WMFT. Therefore, the modified CIMT might improve time performance and is available to therapeutic program helping them improve functional ability for upper extremity in Parkinson's disease.