Background: Hallux valgus (HV) is a foot deformity developed by mediolateral deviation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Although various foot-toe orthoses were used to correct the HV angle, verification of the effects of kinetics variables such as ground reaction force (GRF) through three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis according to the various type of orthoses for HV is insufficient.
Objects: This study aimed to investigate the effect of soft and hard types of foot and toe orthoses to correct HV deformity on the GRF in individuals with HV using 3D motion analysis system during walking.
Methods: Twenty-six subjects participated in the experiment. Participants had HV angle of more than 15° in both feet. Two force platforms were used to obtain 3D GRF data for both feet and a 3D motion capture system with six infrared cameras was used to measure exact stance phase point such as heel strike or toe off period. Total walk trials of each participant were 8 to 10, the walkway length was 6 m. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of each orthosis condition on the various GRF values.
Results: The late anteroposterior maximal force and a first vertical peak force of the GRF showed that the hard type orthosis condition significantly increased GRF compared to the other orthosis conditions (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: There were significant effects in GRF values when wearing the hard type foot orthosis. However, the hard type foot orthosis was uncomfortable to wear during walking. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new foot-toe orthosis that can compensate for these disadvantages.
Background: Cross-culturally adapted questionnaires may not be comparable to their original version.
Objects: To examine concurrent validity of two health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments for the Korean versions of EuroQOL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) and the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument.
Methods: A total of 139 cancer survivors from two rehabilitation institutes was recruited. All participants were registered for palliative rehabilitation care. Both instruments were concurrently administered by health care providers following the second bout of the rehabilitation cares. Rasch partial credit model and Spearman’s correlation analysis were used to investigate: 1) dimensionality, 2) hierarchical item difficulty, and 3) concurrent validity using correlations between two instruments.
Results: For the WHOQOL-BREF, all items except negative feeling, pain, dependence of medical aid, were found to be acceptable, while all items of EQ-5D were acceptable. There was an evidence of negative correlations between EQ-5D and 4 domains of WHOQOL-BREF. Two correlations were strong (EQ-5D vs. physical health domain, ρ = –0.610, 95% CI = –0.716 to –0.475) and moderate (EQ-5D vs. psychosocial domain, ρ = –0.402, 95% CI = –0.546 to –0.236). Other two correlations were weak (EQ-5D vs. social relationship and environmental domains, ρ = –0.242, 95% CI = –0.401 to –0.075 and ρ = –0.364, 95% CI = –0.514 to –0.207, respectively). Item difficulty calibrations of the two measurements were ranged from –0.84 to 0.86 for the EQ-5D and –1.07 to 1.06 for the WHOQOL-BREF.
Conclusion: The study provides some supports for the concurrent validity of the two Korean versions of HRQOL instrument, with evidences of weak to strong correlations between the EQ- 5D and four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF applied to various cancer survivors. Additionally, the cancer survivors appeared to have more of a tendency to view the EQ-5D items as being slightly more challenging than the WHOQOL-BREF items.
Background: Prolonged standing during work causes a lower extremity pain and disorders. Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the common diagnoses of the knee pain. Although the etiology of PFPS is not completely understood, it is considered to be multifactorial.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate difference in strength of knee muscles, quadriceps:hamstring muscles strength ratio (Q:H ratio), asymmetry ratio of knee muscles strength and dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) between standing workers with and without PFPS.
Methods: Twenty-eight standing workers with PFPS and 26 age-, height-, and weightmatched standing workers without PFPS participated in this study. A tension sensor measured knee muscle strength, and motion sensor measured dorsiflexion ROM. The asymmetry ratio of knee muscles was calculated by a specific formula using the knee muscles strength of the dominant side and the sound side. An independent t-test was used to identify significant differences in the strength, ROM, Q:H ratio, and asymmetry ratio between the PFPS and normal groups.
Results: The standing worker with PFPS have significantly lower dorsiflexion ROM (p < 0.000) and higher asymmetry ratio of the hamstring muscles strength (p < 0.000) compare to the standing worker without PFPS. No significant differences were seen in the strength of quadriceps muscle and hamstring muscles, Q:H ratio, and asymmetry ratio of quadriceps muscle strength.
Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the asymmetry ratio of the isometric hamstring muscle strength. This finding suggests that the asymmetry ratio of isometric hamstring muscle strength may be more important than measuring only the hamstring muscle strength of the PFPS side. Furthermore, the results of this study showed a significant difference in dorsiflexion ROM between the standing industrial workers with and without PFPS. Dorsiflexion ROM and isometric hamstring muscle strength should be considered when evaluating the subjects with PFPS.
Background: Unstable surface-based core training can significantly enhance core strength, but no studies have compared the effects of balance pad- and sling-assisted exercises.
Objects: To study the effects of unstable surface-based balance pad- and sling-assisted core strength exercises on muscle activity.
Methods: Twenty male students aged 20–25 years participated in this study. The effects of three types of core strength exercises, performed with a sling or balance pad, on the activities of three muscles, i.e., the right musculus obliquus externus abdominis (EO), right erector spinae (ES), and right gluteus maximus (GM), were examined.
Results: 1) In the glute bridge exercise, the percentage of maximum voluntary contraction of the EO, ES, and GM were significantly different between the balance pad- and sling-assisted exercises. The relative contribution of the ES and GM activities to all muscle activity were not significantly different between the two training types, whereas that for EO showed a significant difference. 2) There was no significant difference in the percentage value of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) among the EO, ES, and GM during the “leg-lifting with flat support”exercise, and there were no significant difference in the relative contributions between the two training types. 3) In the “side bridge leg separation exercise”, the %MVC of the ES, EO, and GM were significantly different between the two training types.
Conclusion: Sling training for core muscles was generally better than balance pad assist training. The majority of physiotherapy patients require core training. Our results could guide physiotherapists in the choice of targeted exercises for these patients.
Background: The hip muscle plays various roles. Several types of functional performance tests are used for the assessment of patients with various lower extremity injuries. Hip muscle functions are important to test the performance of maintaining the spine, pelvic, and leg during bridging exercise. We designed a novel functional performance test tool, which we named close kinetic chain dynamic lower extremity stability (CKCLE) test to assess hip muscle functions.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between CKCLE test and hip extensor, external rotator, and abductor strengths.
Methods: Twenty-two subjects were recruited in the present study (13 males and 9 females). The hip extensor, external rotator, and abductor muscle strengths were measured using a Smart KEMA strength sensor. When the examiner said “Go”, the subject performed the CKCLE test by moving one leg from the floor and touching the opposite knee and then return to the floor while maintaining the bridging position. The subjects attempted as many “touches” as possible in the allotted time (20 seconds) during the maximal tests. The correlation between the hip muscle (extensor, external rotator, and abductor) strength of the supporting leg and the number of CKCLE tests performed in 20 seconds was determined using the Pearson correlation.
Results: Hip extensor (r = 0.626, p < 0.05), hip external rotator (r = 0.616, p < 0.05), and hip abductor muscle strengths (r = 0.475, p < 0.05) positively correlated with the number of CKCLE tests performed.
Conclusion: We designed a CKCLE test and found that performance in the test correlated with hip extensor, external rotator, and abductor muscle strengths. The result suggests that the CKCLE test can be applied as a performance test to assess the functions of the hip extensor, external rotator, and hip abductor muscles.
Background: Because a forward-leaning posture can cause increased back muscle activity and pain. Therefore, an innovative method to reduce back muscle activity and pain is required.
Objects: This study aimed to investigate the effects of a head support on muscle activity and pain in a forward-leaning posture.
Methods: A total of 14 male and 16 female students (average age, 21.65 ± 2.37 years; height, 166.15 ± 7.90 cm; and weight, 60.65 ± 9.00 kg) were recruited for the experiment. Two of them were excluded due to musculoskeletal disorders. The muscle activity and pain in the forward-leaning posture were assessed while participants washed dishes for 7 minutes with and without a head support. The condition of using a head support was randomly performed with a 5-minutes break. To confirm a lumbar flexion angle of 30° during the experiment, myoVIDEO was used, and surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity. Pain was assessed using a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the data, with p < 0.05 indicating statistical significance.
Results: The cervical, thoracic, and lumbar erector spinae muscle activities significantly decreased with the use of the head support, but there was no significant change in the gluteus maximus. There was a significant decrease in the VAS score for the lumbar erector spinae (p < 0.05), but there was no significant change in the VAS score for the cervical region.
Conclusion: The use of a head support in a forward-leaning posture reduced cervical, thoracic, and lumbar erector muscle activity and pain. Therefore, it could be recommended during working in a forward-leaning posture, such as during dishwashing, cooking, and working as a factory employee.
Background: Forward head posture (FHP) is common postural malalignment. FHP is described relatively extension to upper cervical and lower cervical is relatively flexion. Although several researchers mentioned the lower cervical flexion posture in FHP, most of the studies related to FHP is focused on the deep cervical flexor function.
Objects: The purposes of present study is to compare the cervical strength (upper cervical extension [UCE], lower cervical extension [LCE], upper cervical flexion [UCF], lower cervical flexion [LCF]) between individuals with and without FHP.
Methods: Fifty-one participants are recruited. Participants who have the craniovertebral angle (CVA) less than 48 degree were classified to the FHP group (n = 24) and the others were included in without FHP group (n = 27). The cervical strength (UCE, LCE, UCF, LCF) were measured using Smart KEMA strength sensor and the strength data was normalized by body weight. All strength measurement conducted at head and neck neutral position in sitting. Independent t-test was used to compare the cervical strength between individuals with and without FHP.
Results: The mean value of CVA was greater in without FHP group than with FHP group (p < 0.000). The strength value of UCF (p < 0.002) and LCE (p < 0.001) was significant less in FHP group than without FHP group. But no significant differences were seen in the LCF and UCE strength between two groups.
Conclusion: UCF and LCE weakness in FHP group should be considered to evaluate and manage the individuals with FHP.
Background: Individuals with forward head posture (FHP) have neck pain. To correct the FHP, a posture correction band is commonly used. However, we do not know the posture correction band influenced the pulmonary function in individuals with FHP.
Objects: This study aimed to elucidate the effects of the posture correction band on the pulmonary function in young adults with neck pain and FHP and to monitor how the pulmonary function changed over time.
Methods: Twenty subjects with chronic neck pain and forward head posture were recruited. Subjects performed pulmonary function test four times: before, immediately, and 2 hours after wearing the postural band, and immediately after undressing the postural band. Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) were measured. The modified Borg dyspnea scale was used to measure each subject’s responses to the posture correction band. The mixed-effect linear regression was used to the effect of the posture correction band over time.
Results: There were no significant differences in VC, FVC, PEF, FEV1 values over time (p > 0.05), although all values slightly decreased after applying posture correction band. However, the score of the modified Borg scale significantly changed after wearing the postural bands (p < 0.05), indicating the subject felt discomfort with posture correction band during breathing.
Conclusion: Because the posture correction band did not change the pulmonary function over time, but it induces psychological discomforts during breathing in people with FHP. Therefore, this posture correction band can be used for FHP realignment after discussion with the subjects.
Background: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) causes a reduction in the balance of the lower extremities. Static and dynamic balance were evaluated separately to confirm the decrease in balance in patients underwent ACLR. The commonly used methods include the Biodex Balance System (BBS) for static balance and the Y balance test (YBT) for dynamic balance. No study has evaluated whether the static and dynamic balance of the involved side recovers as much as the uninvolved side one year after ACLR.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to investigate the recovery of static and dynamic balance between the involved and the uninvolved sides.
Methods: The BBS (overall, anteroposterior index, and mediolateral index) and YBT (anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial) of 58 patients underwent ACLR were measured one year postoperation. Both sides of the BBS and the YBT were compared using the paired t-test.
Results: All the index of the BBS showed no difference between the involved and the uninvolved sides, while all the scores of the YBT showed a significant difference in both sides. The YBT anterior result was 54.64 ± 5.62 cm in the involved side and 56.90 ± 5.41 cm in the uninvolved side (p = 0.001). The YBT posterolateral results were 90.12 ± 10.51 cm and 92.34 ± 9.85 cm (p = 0.013). The YBT posteromedial results were 93.72 ± 8.84 cm and 96.14 ± 9.37 cm (p = 0.002).
Conclusion: A year after ACLR, the static balance showed no difference, while the dynamic balance showed a significant difference in the involved and the uninvolved sides. The static balance of the involved side recovered as much as the uninvolved side, but the dynamic balance did not. Therefore, dynamic balance training should be considered in the rehabilitation program for patients underwent ACLR.
Background: Ankle sprain is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries in the sports population or during usual daily life activities. The sprain can cause functional ankle instability (FAI), and it is very important to treat FAI. However, the optimum intervention method for FAI has yet to be determined.
Objects: This study investigated the impact that virtual reality (VR) training program on balance with ankle kinesio taping for FAI.
Methods: Twenty-two people were selected for the study and randomly divided into the experimental (n = 11) and the control group (n = 11). The experimental group had attached kinesio taping on the ankle and then implemented a virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes a day. Nintendo Wii Fit Plus was used for the VR intervention three times a week for four weeks. The control group performed only two measurements without intervention.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences in overall, anterior-posterior (AP), medial-lateral (ML) index of the static balance, and significant differences in overall, AP, ML index of the dynamic balance when taping and VR exercise were applied at the same time (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in overall and ML index of static and dynamic balance compared with before and after assessment between the experimental and the control group, and found differences in AP index of static and dynamic balance (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Kinesio taping may not influence the balance of FAI as great as people expected. VR approach does not affect the static balance of FAI, but it influences dynamic balance in overall, AP, ML index. The authors suggest that VR-based exercises can be used as an additional concept in clinicians for FAI or as part of a home program because the exercises still have limitations.