The pelvic compression belt (PCB) contributes to improving sacroiliac joint stability, and it has been used as an additional therapeutic option for patients with sacroiliac joint pain (SIJP). This study aimed to investigate whether the muscle activation patterns of the supporting leg was different between asymptomatic subjects and subjects with SIJP during one-leg standing, and how it changes with the PCB. 15 subjects with SIJP and 10 asymptomatic subjects volunteered to participate in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) data (reaction time [RT] and muscle activation) were collected from the internal oblique, lumbar multifidius, gluteus maximus and biceps femoris muscles during one-leg standing with and without the PCB. Without the PCB condition, in the SIJP group, the biceps femoris muscle showed the fastest RT among all muscles (p<.05), whereas in the asymptomatic group, the RT of the internal oblique muscle was the most rapid (p<.05). In condition without the PCB, the biceps femoris EMG amplitudes in the SIJP group were significantly greater than that in the asymptomatic group (p<.05). After the application of the PCB, the RT of the biceps femoris muscle was significantly increased only in the SIJP group (p<.05). Moreover, the biceps femoris EMG amplitudes significantly decreased and the gluteus maximus EMG amplitudes significant increased only in the SIJP group by applying the PCB (p<.05). However, this had no such effect on the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris EMG patterns in the asymptomatic group (p>.05). Thus, this study supports the applying the PCB to patients with SIJP can be used as a helpful option to modify the activation patterns of the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris muscle.
The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of scapular alignment on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius in people with a short pectoralis minor muscle. For the study, we recruited 15 volunteers who had positive results for short on a pectoralis minor muscle length test. We measured the EMG activity of the upper, middle and lower trapezius muscles. The participants lifted their dominant arm to ear level with the thumb up toward the ceiling in the prone position on a table with the shoulder at a flexion angle of 180 degrees and a horizontal abduction angle of 120 degrees. Scapula was manually aligned by an experienced physical therapist prior to arm lift for the scapular alignment condition. A paired t-test was used to compare the effects of scapular alignment on the EMG activity of the trapezius muscles. The EMG activity of the lower trapezius muscle was significantly increased during the test with the scapular alignment compared to that without scapular alignment (p<.05), while the upper trapezius and middle trapezius exhibited no significant difference between the two conditions (p>.05). The findings of this study suggest that a scapular alignment may alter the recruitment of the lower trapezius muscle during arm lifting in the prone position in people with a short pectoralis minor muscle.
The lumbar multifidus muscle, which can be separated into deep fascicles (DM) and superficial fascicles (SM), is important for lumbar segmental stability. However, no previous studies have investigated the effect of lumbar stabilization exercises on the thickness of DM and SM. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess DM thickness after three different lumbar segmental stabilization exercises. In total, 30 healthy male participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three exercise groups: hollowing in the quadruped position (H-Quad), contralateral arm and leg lift (CALL), and bilateral arm and leg lift (BALL). Each lumbar segmental stabilization exercise was conducted over 4 weeks. Ultrasonography was used to compare the DM and SM thickness before and after the 4 weeks of exercise. A mixed-model analysis of variance using Scheffe's post-hoc test was used for statistical analysis. The results showed a significant effect for the measurement time (before vs. after 4 weeks of exercise) in the DM (F=31.26, p<.05) and SM (F=4.56, p<.05). At the end of the 4 weeks, the DM thickness had increased significantly in the H-Quad exercise group, and the SM thickness had increased significantly in the CALL and BALL exercise groups. Also in the BALL exercise group, the SM thickness was greater compared with that in the H-Quad exercise group. These findings suggest that the thickness of the DM and SM were increased by different types of lumbar segmental stability exercise after 4 weeks.
This study aimed to identify the asymmetry observed in the electromyography (EMG) activity patterns of selected trunk and thigh muscles between the affected and unaffected sides during the sit-to-stand movement in ambulatory patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. This study included 20 patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. The differences between stroke fast walkers (, 11 subjects) and stroke slow walkers (<8 m/s, 9 subjects) were compared. The activation magnitude and onset time of the multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, hamstrings, and quadriceps during the sit-to-stand movement were recorded through surface EMG. Moreover, the EMG activation magnitude and onset time ratios of each bilateral corresponding muscle from the trunk and leg were measured by dividing the relevant values of the unaffected side by those of the affected side. In all the subjects, the activation magnitudes of the multifidus, hamstring, and quadriceps on the affected side significantly decreased compared to those on the unaffected side (p<.05). The onset time of muscle activity in the affected side was markedly delayed for the multifidus and quadriceps during the task (p<.05). The activation magnitude ratios of the quadriceps were markedly decreased in the stroke slow walkers as compared to those in the stroke fast walkers. These findings indicate that the asymmetry in the multifidus, hamstring, and quadriceps muscle activation patterns in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis may be due to the excessive muscle activation in the unaffected side to compensate for the weakened muscle activity in the affected side. Our findings may provide researchers and clinicians with information that can be useful in rehabilitation therapy.
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of a horse riding simulator and galvanic vestibular stimulation on improving the ability to balance posture and proprioception. Thirty healthy adults participated and were randomly assigned to a horse riding simulator group (=10), galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) group (=10), control group (=10). Experiment groups were trained 3 times per week over 6 weeks. The ability to balance posture was measured by force plate and proprioception was measured by Joint position sense. The following results were obtained. the changes of balance index were significant interaction in each group in accordance with the experiment time in 0, 3 and 6 weeks (p<.05). All groups showed the most decreasing pattern compared with the control group. But was not statistically significant. Proprioception was significant interaction in each group in accordance with the experiment time (p<.05). All groups showed the most decreasing pattern compared with the control group. The above results indicated that the 6 weeks horse riding simulator and galvanic vestibular stimulation training demonstrated positive effects in the ability to balance posture and proprioception. These results suggest that the horse riding simulator and galvanic vestibular stimulation training could be therapeutic intervention that can improve balance and postural control.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy on motor function recovery following a stroke through a systemic review and meta-analysis. In total, nine of the 48 studies were identified from search engines between 1997 and 2011, as well as from a review of the reference lists of each identified study. The quality of each study was assessed using Jadad scale, and the effect size was calculated as a Cohen's effect size using MetaAnalyst (Beta 3.13). The overall effect size of the mirror therapy was 2.005 (95% confidence interval=1.041~2.970) in a random-effects model. This finding suggests that mirror therapy is beneficial for improving motor function following a stroke. The results from the subgroup analysis according to categorical variables were as follows: First, the effect size was larger for an onset time of less than 1 year (1.166) than for a duration of 1 year or more (.668). Second, the effect size of unpublished dissertations (1.610) was larger than published articles (1.221). Third, motor recovery of upper extremities (1.609) had a greater effect than motor recovery of lower extremities (.903). The major limitation of this study is the relatively small study population. Therefore, further individual studies of mirror therapy should be conducted in order to generalize the effects. In addition, mirror therapy supervised by a physical therapist should be recognized as a potential approach to manage motor function following a stroke and recommended to patients to improve their motor function.
This meta-analysis investigated the effects on arm motor impairment, arm motor function and disability, and psychological aspects of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for upper extremity hemiparesis following stroke, based on Korean studies. A comprehensive search of the complete Korean studies information service system (KISS), Research Information Sharing Service (RISS), Korea National Library, and the Korean Medical Database to September 2011 was conducted. Eleven eligible controlled clinical trials compared CIMT to a control group or an alternative treatment. All outcome measures of arm motor impairment, arm motor function and disability, and psychological aspects were pooled for calculating effect size. The overall effect size of CIMT was .700 (95% confidence interval=.482~.918). The CIMT programs showed large effect on the aspect of arm motor function and disability (the effect size is .920) and the psychological aspect (the effect size is .946). The effect of CIMT on arm motor impairment was moderate (the effect size is .588). These results show that CIMT may improve upper extremity motor impairment, function and disability, and psychological aspects following stroke. However, these results were based on a small number of studies, and not all of them were randomized control trials. Additional research is needed to include larger well-designed trials to resolve these uncertainties.
Importance of the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) has been increasing in the hospital industry such as health care industry and financial industry. This study investigated in order to identify the factors like general, occupational and ergonomically characteristics of the subjects related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of physical therapists (PTs). Ergonomic tools of rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) were used for evaluation workload of the tasks. Prevalence of MSDs were 13 PTs (26.0%) for neck, 31 PTs (62.0%) for shoulder, 9 PTs (18.0%) for arm/elbow, 27 PTs (54.0%) for hand/wrist, 28 PTs (56.0%) for back, 14 PTs (28.0%) for leg/foot. The analysis of the rate of the pain intensity showed that 53.5% subjects experience moderate pain and 14.0% subjects experience severe pain. Factors which were general characteristics, for example, height, ergonomically characteristics such as 'Posture Score A' were related musculoskeletal subjective symptoms in logistic analysis (p<.05). Among physical therapists, action level of RULA were action level 2 (6.0%), action level 3 (52.0%), action level 4 (42.0%). Physical therapists were estimated one of the highest risk factor in this study. This study suggested that the need of preventive education and program for PTs (physical therapists). Comprehensive and systematic management plans should be established to include both ergonomic and sociopsychological aspects.
The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activity of the abdominal and lumbar multifidus during unilateral prone hip extension on the floor and on a round foam roll. Fifteen healthy participants were recruited. They were instructed to perform a unilateral hip extension on the floor and on a round foam roll in the prone position. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from bilateral lumbar multifidus (LM), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) muscles. A paired t-test was used to compare muscle activity, with the level of significance set at =.05. The results showed that bilateral LM, EO, IO EMG activity during right-hip extension on a round foam roll was greater than that on the floor, and EMG activity of bilateral LM, right EO, and left IO during left-hip extension on a round foam roll was greater than that on the floor (p<.05). These findings suggest that the unilateral hip-extension exercise on a round foam roll can be used to activate the lumbar multifidus and abdominal oblique muscles and causes a different increasing pattern between the two lifting sides.