Community-based group exercise programs for people with chronic stroke are relatively uncommon in Korea. In addition, it is currently not known whether a community-based group exercise program is effective or not. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an 8 week community-based functional exercise program for its effects on balance performance and occupational performance in persons with chronic stroke. Twenty-five community-dwelling individuals with stroke participated in this program. Outcome of the program was assessed by the Berg Balance Scale and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The functional exercise program lasted for eight weeks, with a 1-hour program twice per week and it consisted of mobility, stability, balance, functional strength, and gait training. The subjects were trained by one physical therapist but were under one-to-one supervision from students. The data of sixteen individuals who scored more than 24 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were analyzed. There was a significant effect both in terms of the COPM Performance Score & the Satisfaction Score (p=.002) and with the Berg Balance Score (p=.001). It was found that a short-term community-based exercise program could improve both performance of activities and balance. Further, all subjects reported that they were satisfied with this program.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of variability of training on the acquisition of motor skill of closed loop type tracking task using Rotary Pursuit, and to determine if there was a bilateral transfer effect to the non-dominant hand following practice with the dominant hand. Twelve healthy volunteer students (5 males and 7 females, aged 25 to 37) were randomly divided into a constant practice group and a variable practice group. A photoelectric rotary pursuit apparatus with stop clock and repeat cycle timer by Lafayette Instrumentation Co. was used for this study. Rotary pursuit is a closed loop task in which a subject attempts to keep a photoelectric stylus on a lighted target in motion. Subjects performed the clockwise circular pursuit task while standing. Experimental procedure was divided into three sessions, namely, pre-test, training, and post-test. The constant group practiced all 60 trials at 30 rpm. Variable practice group did a varied practice session with 15 trials at speeds of 20 rpm, 26 rpm, 34 rpm, and 46 rpm. No one in either group practiced with their non-dominant arm. A Mann-Whitney test and a Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test were used for statistical analyses. The results of this study showed no different training effect between groups on the post-test with the dominant hand. However, bilateral transfer effect of rotary pursuit task between hands was demonstrated. Possible mechanisms are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of virtual moving surround (VMS) on static balance in the patients with balance dysfunction. Eighty three subjects who were admitted or treated as an outpatient, or a family member, at the department of rehabilitation unit of university hospital were recruited to participate. Subjects were three groups based on their overall medical status: healthy, diabetic neuropathy and stroke. Each group was tested for static balance with a forceplate during static standing with VMS. The virtual movement was simulated with a head mounted display. The parameters for static balance were total sway path. In this study, the parameters of postural control for patients with diabetic neuropathy and stroke subjects were significantly increased in conditions elicited with the VMS. In the healthy elderly participants, the total sway path was not significantly different under virtual movement conditions. Therefore, VMS could be used in the evaluation and treatment of the patients with balance dysfunction.
The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is an internationally widely used outcome measure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural properties of the Korean version of GMFM using the Rasch Model, with regard to scoring within rehabilitation centers in Korea. GMFM data for 206 children with cerebral palsy were collected from 11 outpatient rehabilitation facilities by 29 pediatric therapists. The Winsteps software was used to refine the rating scale. This study suggests that the scoring categories of the Korean version of the GMFM should be collapsed from 0 (subject does not initiate task), 1 (subject initiates task), 2 (subject partially completes task), 3 (subject completes task) to 0 (subject does not initiate task), 1 (subject initiates or partially completes task), 2 (subject completes task) for better accuracy in estimating the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy.
This study was purposed to provide basic information on the correct application of a wheelchair's backrest angle by investigating the change in cardiopulmonary function according to backrest angle during propulsion. This study examined the effects of the wheelchair's backrest angle on the cardiopulmonary function by varying the angle to 0°, 10° and 20° and with a propulsion velocity of 60 m/min. The experimental parameters were respiration rate, oxygen consumption rate and oxygen consumption rate/kg which were measured by a portable wireless oxygen consumption meter (COSMED, K4b²). The results of the study were as follows: 1) There were no statistically significant differences in respiration rates due to changes in the wheelchair backrest angle (p>.05). 2) There were statistically significant differences in oxygen consumption rates due to changes in the wheelchair backrest angle (p<.05). 3) There were also statistically significant differences in the oxygen consumption rate/kg due to changes in the wheelchair backrest angle (p<.05). In conclusion, changes in the backrest angle of wheelchairs during propulsion influences oxygen consumption rates and heart rates, while respiration rates are not affected. Therefore, a training program for good seating and posture needs to be provided, and the wheelchair seating system should be equipped with the unadjustable-angle wheelchair to reduce the functional load on the cardiopulmonary system.
The purpose of this study was to define more precisely the anatomy of the thumb flexor pulley system and to determine the relative contribution of each of the pulleys to the biomechanics of thumb motion at the metacarpophalangeal (MP) and interphalangeal (IP) joints. For this, 22 hands from 11 cadavers were used and randomly assigned to two groups. In the first group, the first annular (A1) pulley was cut first followed by the variable annular (Av) pulley and then the oblique pulley. In the second group, the oblique pulley was cut first followed by the, pulley and then the Av pulley. In 7 of 22 hands, it was a transverse structure parallel to the, pulley with a gap between the A1 and Av pulleys, referred to here as type I. In 9 hands, the A1 and Av pulleys were connected without any gap (type II). In 6 hands, the space between the A1 and Av pulleys were triangular in shape with fibers of the Av pulley converging toward the radial side (type III). In biomechanical study of both first and second experiments, there was no significant difference in MCP joint flexion between the all intact, A1 section, A1/Av section, A2 intact (A1/Av/oblique section), and no pulley configuration (p>.05). In occurring displacements less than 10 mm, there was no significant difference in IP joint flexion (p>.05). However, there was a significant decrease in IP joint flexion occurred in both 15 mm and 20 mm excursion (p<.05), when the oblique pulley was resected additionally after cutting the A1 and Av pulleys in first experiment, and when the A1 pulley was resected additionally after cutting the oblique pulley. According to the results, the injury of only the oblique pulley does not decrease thumb motion significantly. The oblique pulley injury with both the A1 and Av pulleys laceration decreased thumb motion significantly. The additional laceration of the A2 pulley does not decrease thumb motion.
The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of various forward head posture measurements. Ten healthy adults (age, 20.4±2.2 yrs; height, 164.0±5.5 ㎝; weight, 58.7±7.3 ㎏) participated in the study. They were free of injury and neurologic deficits in the upper extremities and neck at the time of testing. The subjects were asked to perform head forward posture by under the guidance of physical therapists. Markers were placed on the C7 spinous process, mastoid process, tragus of the ear, outer canthus, and forehead. Measurement 1 for forward head posture assessment was measured as the angle between the horizontal line through C7 and the line connecting the C7 spinous process with the tragus of the ear. Measurement 2 was measured as the angle between the C7 spinous process, the mastoid process and the outer canthus. Measurement 3 was measured as two kinds of angles the HT (head tilt) angle is between the line from the midpoint of forehead to the tragus line and Y-axis at the tragus point. The NF (neck flexion) angle is between the line from the tragus to the C7 line and the Y-axis at the C7. Intra-rater, inter-rater reliability and coefficient of variation was assessed by comparing the measured values from three kinds of measurements of forward head posture. The intra-rater reliability was indicated by intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC(1,1)] and inter-rater reliability was shown by intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC(3,k)]. The results of study were as follows: ICC(1,1) values for intra-rater reliability of three measurements were in the 'excellent' category. ICC(3,k) values for inter-rater reliability of three measurements were also in the 'excellent' category. The coefficient of variation of method 2 had a lower value than method 1 and method 3. This data means that the measured value of method 2 was less scattered. Further research is needed to determine whether the validity of all measurements is revealed in the 'excellent' category.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general characteristics, complications and level of social adaptation of spinal cord injured patients. The subjects were one hundred forty five members who were inpatients or outpatients from October 1, 2004 to April 30, 2005 in general hospitals and municipal welfare centers for the handicapped located in the metropolitan city of Gwangju. The following results were obtained using Modified Barthel Index (MBI). 1) Gender distribution was 77.9% male and 22.1% female. The mean age at the time of injury was 35.4 and the mean age during the study was 44.2. 2) The degree of paralysis among the subjects was as follows: 49.0% had complete paralysis and 51.0% suffered incomplete paralysis. The most frequently injured lesion among the subjects was cervical (49.0%), followed by thoracic (35.9%), and lumbar (15.2%). 3) The mean MBI score was 63.5. There was statistically significant difference in the MBI score in the relation between complete and incomplete paralysis, the relation between cervical, thoracic, and lumbar injury, and the relation between a recovery period of less than three years and more than three years according to the characteristics of injury (p<.05). 4) There was statistically significant difference in the MBI score of subjects who had complications concerning spasticity, deformity, urinary tract infection, and sexual dysfunction (p<.05). 5) The most serious emotional pain after spinal cord injury resulted from economic issues, which affected 35.2% of the subjects. The group having a shorter recovery period after spinal cord injury complained of psychological matters, the group having a longer recovery period complained about the surrounding environment (lack of convenient facilities), suggesting statistically significant difference (p<.05). 6) The most common activities of the group with injuries more than ten years old included meeting schoolmates and working, while most common activities of the group with injuries less than three years old included attending religious functions and miscellaneous others (watching TV, spending time with family), suggesting statistically significant difference (p<.05).