The quadriceps angle (Q angle) has been used to reflect the quadriceps muscle's force on the patella in the frontal plane. Previous investigations of the Q angle and it's relationship to knee disorders have yield equivocal results. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors related to the Q angle and it's relation to other variables such as leg length, body weight, CTA (calcaneus to tibia angle), TOA (toe out angle), and pelvic width in normal subjects. The participants were 60 students (30 men and 30 women) who had no orthopedic and neurological impairments, aged from 20 to 29 years of age, with an average age of 22.1 years. Prior to participation, each subject was informed of the procedures of the experiment from a researcher and assistant researchers. The equipment used in this study were modified standard goniometer, ruler, marking pen, and Martin apparatus for pelvic width. In order to determine the statistical significance of the experiment, regression analysis, independent t-test, and Pearson correlation were used at the 0.05 level. The results were as follows: 1) It was found that the Q angle of women is greater than that of men's from both knees. 2) There was no significant difference between right and left quadriceps angle. 3) The Q angle decreased as the body weight (leg length) shifted from low to high. 4) It seems that factors related to the Q angle were body weight, CTA, and pelvic width, but there was no significant difference at the 0.05 level.
The Posterior Leaf Spring (PLS) has been used for hemiplegic patients in order to help their walking and to increase their balance function. Past studies have mainly focused on the PLS's influence on patients' walking without taking balance function into consideration. The purpose of this study was to identify the immediate effect of PLS on the standing balance in hemiplegic patients. Fifteen hemiplegic patients participated in this study: 10 men and 5 women, with an average age of 53.8 years. Standing balance was measured using a computerized dynamic posturography device under three conditions namely bare-foot standing, standing in shoes without PLS, and standing in shoes with PLS. The results were as follows: 1) The composite equilibrium scores of patients who stood in shoes only and stood in shoes with PLS were higher than those of patients who stood bare-foot. 2) There were no statistical difference in the composite equilibrium scores between the standing condition of patients who stood bare foot and that of patients who stood in shoes with PLS. In conclusion, it is not clear whether or not the PLS affects the standing balance of hemiplegic patients. Further study is required to determine the precise effect of the PLS on standing balance in hemiplegic patients who are not wearing shoes. This is particularly relevant in Korea culture where custom demands the removal of shoes when entering any house or even many restaurants.
The purposes of this study were to investigate biomechanical variables of the lumbar spine for women who enjoy recreational exercises regularly, and to determine the factors that influence these variables. These variables were determined by the X-ray pictures of the lumbar area of 80 housewives who visited the department of rehabilitation at the Y Hospital from October 1997 to March 1998. The sacral inclination angle, the sacrohorizontal angle, the lumbosacral joint angle, and the lumbar lordotic angle were analysed. The t-test, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were used to determine the significant differences and relationships among variables. The result were as follows: 1) There was a significant difference in the sacral inclination angle (p<0.01), the sacrohorizontal angle (p<0.05) and the lumbar lordotic angle (p<0.05) between the bilateral and the unilateral exercise group. 2) With the sacral inclination angle, the sacrohorizontal angle, the lumbosacral joint angle and the lumbar lordotic angle, correlation was found between the sacral inclination angle and the sacrohorizontal angle (p<0.01), the sacral inclination angle and the lumbosacral joint angle (p<0.05), the sacral inclination angle and the lumbar lordotic angle (p<0.05), and the sacrohorizontal angle and the lumbosacral joint angle (p<0.01). 3) In the bilateral exercise group, the sacral inclination angle correlated with age (p<0.01). The sacrohorizontal angle correlated with age (p<0.01) and exercise time (p<0.01). The lumbar lordotic angle correlated with age (p<0.05) and exercise duration (p<0.05). In the unilateral exercise group, the sacral inclination angle correlated with age (p<0.01), while the sacrohorizontal angle correlated with age (p<0.01) and exercise duration (p<0.05). The lumbar lordotic angle correlated with age (p<0.05).
The purposes of this study were to evaluate and compare the limits of stability(LOS) at different body positioning(standing and one leg standing) in normal 20 years of age. Fourty subjects participated in the study. Subjects comprised 20 males and 20 females who without neurologic, orthopaedic impairments and balance performance impaired. The LOS was measured at Two Feet Forceplate and One Leg Forceplate with BPM(Balance Performance Monitor) Dataprint Software Version 5.3. The subjects stood 4 inches between the feet at Two Feet Forceplate and stood one legged at One Leg Forceplate. In this study applied the paired t-test and independent t-test to determine the statistical significance of results at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance. The results of this study were as follows: 1) The anteroposterior LOS significantly increased with one legged stance(p<0.05). 2) The mediolateral LOS significantly decreased with one legged stance(p<0.01). 3) There were significant difference posterior LOS in standing and anterior LOS in one legged stance according to sexual difference(p<0.05). 4) The mediolateral LOS was not significant difference between standing and one legged stance according to sexual difference(p>0.05).
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing on the early treatment of children with developmental disability. Data was collected from 102 mothers of children with developmental disability who were treated at 4 rehabilitation facilities in Kyunggi-Do and Kangwon-Do. The results were as follows: 1) Of a total of 102, 63 children began to receive rehabilitation therapy during the period 0~12 months (early treatment group), 38 children after 1 year of age (delayed early treatment group). 2) There were statistically significant differences between the early treatment group and delayed early treatment group for prematurity, low birth weight, the time to discover developmental abnormalities, the time of first diagnosis, and first treatment (p<0.05). 3) There were no statistically significant differences in the two groups for level of education, economic status, risk factors (except prematurity and birth weight), home care, family's cooperation and commuting time (p>0.05). Based on this study, the important factors for early treatment were early detection, early diagnosis and constant follow-up for high-risk babies.
The purpose of this article was to provide basic knowledge and treatment principles of patient with lymphedema, which was usually not treated at all, or the treatment given didn't work efficiently. Lmphedema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of protein-rich fluid, edema, and chronic inflammation within an extremity. Lmphedema may be classified as either primary results from defects with aplasia, hypoplasia, and hyperplasia in the lymphatic system at birth or secondary is caused by known precipitating factors such as cancer, infection, inflammation, radiation, surgery, or trauma etc. There are essentially several conservative treatment methods which has been utilized successfully to treat lymphedema in Samsung Medical Center. We used following procedures: CPT (Complex Physical therapy) or CDP (Complex Decongesitive Physical therapy) such as skin care, MLD (Manual Lymph Drainage), compression with short-stretch bandage, exercise, elevation, elastic stocking, and pneumatic compression. Our experiences shows that conservative treatments can significantly reduce lymphedema and prevent different complications.