The purpose of this study was to compare the static pressure, dynamic pressure, dynamic pressure-time integral, relative impulse, and contact time between the sound lower limb and amputated lower limb in trans-tibial amputee subjects using Parotec system. Seventeen trans-tibial amputee subjects wearing endoskeletal trans-tibial prosthesis voluntarily participated in this study. The results were as follows: 1) In static standing condition, there were significantly higher static pressure in sound lower limb insole sensor of 10, 14, 15, 18, 19, 23, and 24 and in amputated lower limb insole sensor of 9, 12, and 16 (p<.05). 2) In dynamic gait condition, there were significantly higher dynamic pressure in sound lower limb insole sensor of 2, 18, 22, 23, and 24 and in amputated lower limb insole sensor of 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, and 16 (p<.05). 3) In dynamic gait condition, there were significantly higher pressure-time integral in sound lower limb insole sensor of 2, 4, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, and 24 and in amputated lower limb insole sensor of 5, 11, 12, and 15 (p<.05). 4) In dynamic gait condition, there were significantly higher relative impulse in sound lower limb insole sensor of 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, and 24 and in amputated lower limb insole sensor of 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 15 (p<.05). 5) In dynamic gait condition, there was significantly higher percentage of contact time in push off phase of sound lower limb and in support phase of amputated lower limb (p<.05). These results suggest that trans-tibial amputee subjects had characteristics of shortened push off phase due to unutilized forefoot and of lengthened support phase with higher pressure in the midfoot.
In rehabilitation programs involving muscle re-education and endurance exercise, it is necessary to confirm when fatigue occurs. It is also necessary to quantify fatigue, to confirm whether the muscle has been exercised sufficiently. In general, as fatigue occurs, the force-generating ability of the muscle is reduced. If the median frequency (MDF) obtained from electromyogram (EMG) power spectrum is correlated highly with work, then the timing and degree of fatigue may be confirmed. This study examined the relationship between work and MDF obtained from the EMG power spectrum during repetitive isokinetic exercise. Surface EMG signals were collected from biceps brachii and vastus lateralis of 52 normal subjects (26 males, 26 females) at and while performing an isokinetic exercise. The exercise was finished at 25% of peak work. MDF data was obtained using a moving fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and random noise was removed using the inverse FFT, then a new MDF data was obtained from the main signal. There was a high correlation between work and MDF during repetitiv isokinetic exercise in the biceps brachii and vastus lateralis of males and the biceps brachii of females (r=.50~.77). However, there was a low correlation between work and MDF in the vastus lateralis of females (r=.06~.19).
Physical therapists have been using biofeedback training to induce improvements in various circumstances. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of visual and tactile feedback using electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength. Nineteen women without known impairment of the neuromusculoskeletal system volunteered for this study. Subjects were randomly allocated into three groups: visual feedback, tactile feedback, and control group. The torque of isometric knee extension force was measured. Subjects were asked to exert the maximal isometric contraction force of quadriceps over a 30 second period. The resting period of 10 minutes was given after the maximal isometric contraction to avoid the muscle fatigue. In between groups comparison, significant differences of the peak torque and the torque area were found on the performance of the maximal isometric contraction of quadriceps (p<.05). The values peak of torque and torque area were significantly higher during visual feedback than tactile feedback. The results of this study suggest that visual feedback is more powerful than tactile feedback (p<.01).
In-shoe measurement systems allow the clinician and researcher to examine the pressure parameters within the shoe. The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of plantar pressures using the Parotec system over speeds and plantar regions. Seventeen healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Sampling rate was 100 Hz, and data of six variables (pressure on medial heel, lateral heel, 1st metatarsal head, 5th metatarsal head, and great toe and total impulse) were collected in four different gait speed (1.0 m/sec, 1.5 m/sec, 2.0 m/sec, and comfortable walking speed) in each day. The result indicates fair to excellent reliability between the two day test. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from .693 to .979, and range of reliability was similar depending on the speed and plantar region. In most cases, data recorded by the Parotec systems provide good evidence for the reliability.
This study was designed to determine the effect of ankle taping and short period of walking on the treadmill on the range of motion (ROM) and proprioception at the ankle joint. Twenty healthy male subjects (mean age=24.2 yr) participated in this study. Goniometry and videotape replaying method were used to measure the ankle ROM. Passive sagittal and frontal plane motions were measured. The difference in degree between the stimulus point and the reproduced point was defined as an angular error. The measurements were performed at four different phases: pre-taping (PRT), post-taping immediately (POT), post-5 minute walking with taping (P5M), and post-10 minute walking with taping (P10M). The ankle of dominant limb was taped by a certified athletic trainer using a closed basket weave technique. Participants walked on the treadmill at 2.5 mph. The results showed that the mean of the sagittal plane motion at PRT, POT, P5M, and P10M was 53.0, 30.5, 36.2, and 40.2 degrees, respectively. The frontal plane motion at PRT, POT, P5M, and P10M was 33.6, 13.9, 15.7, and 18.6 degrees, respectively. The angular error at PRT, POT, P5M, and P10M was 5.5, 1.6, 1.8, and 1.9 degrees, respectively. After 10 minutes of walking, the sagittal plane motion and frontal plane motion was increased by 9.7 and 4.7 degrees compared with POT, respectively. The proprioception was significantly improved after the application of ankle taping. Both the restriction of frontal plane motion and proprioception improvement at the ankle joint may contribute to ankle stability during walking.
For the purpose of disclosing the effects of exercise program on physical fitness for health promotion, living activities, and performance abilities of the elderly in the institution, questionnaire survey and physical examination were performed on the subject, aged 65 years or older. The subjects consisted of experimental (33 persons) and control (35 persons) groups, matched with gender and age. The experimental group was put on the exercise program; working their upper and lower limbs for 12 weeks using dumbbell and lead-packed weight. The results were as follows: 1)The mean values of experimental group were significantly higher than those of control group in all variables of physical fitness, in all variables except for living activities, and in all variables of performance abilities after exercise program. 2)The mean values were significantly improved in all variables of experimental group after exercise program, but the mean values were decreased or maintained in most of variables of control group after exercise.
Many studies have shown that the initial median frequency (MDF) and slope correlate with the muscle fiber composition. This study tested the hypothesis that the initial MDF and slope are fixed, regardless of the interval at which data are collected. MDF data using moving fast Fourier transformation of EMG signals, following local fatigue induced by isotonic exercise, were obtained. An inverse FFT was used to eliminate noise, and characteristic decreasing regression lines were obtained. The regression analysis was done in three different periods, the first one third, first half, and full period, looking at variance in the initial MDF, slope, and fatigue index. Data from surface EMG signals during fatiguing isotonic exercise of the biceps brachii and vastus lateralis in 20 normal subjects were collected. The loads tested were 30% and 60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) in the biceps brachii and 40% and 80% MVC in the vastus lateralis. The rate was 25 flexions per minute. There were no significant differences in the initial MDF or slope during the early or full periods of the regression, but there was a significant difference in the fatigue index. Therefore, to observe the change in the initial MDF and slope of the MDF regression line during isotonic exercise, this study suggest that only the early interval need to be observed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resting periods between exercise sets during isokinetic contraction on recovery from muscle fatigue, strength, heart rate, blood pressure, and lactate level. Sixteen women performed 10 repetitions of isokinetic exercise for three sets in three different conditions. During the sets, they rested 50, 100, and 150 seconds in each condition. And the results were: 1) In this population, the peak torque of extensor during the isokinetic exercise in 100 second resting condition was significantly higher than that in 50 and 150 second resting conditions (p<.01). The total work of extensor was significant in the second and third sets in 50 and 100 second resting conditions (p<.01). 2) During the isokinetic exercise, the heart rate was progressively increased as the sets were advanced in all resting conditions (p<.01). And the increase was significant during the second and third sets than the first in 50 second resting condition (p<.01), while it was significantly greater after the third set than the first in 100 and 150 second resting conditions (p<.01). 4) No difference was found between the resting periods in blood lactate level and blood pressure during the isokinetic exercise. However, differences were found between the sets in these variables (p<.01).
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of functional strengthening exercise on static and dynamic standing balance in a child with cerebral palsy. The subject was a 7 year old boy with diplegia whose Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) score was 80% along with G1 of the lower extremities in Modified Ashworth Scale. The subject was ambulatory with some degree of limitation and demonstrated muscle weakness and strength asymmetry in the lower extremities. A changing criterion design for a single-subject research was used for this study. The functional strengthening exercise consisted of lower extremity ergometer exercise and knee exercise with grading movement in standing position, each for 20 minutes, which lasted 18 sessions for 6 weeks. A knee extensor strength test on both extremities and standing balance test were conducted after each functional strengthening exercise. Two types of standing balance were tested: one leg stance test and functional reach test. One leg stance test was to evaluate static standing balance, and functional reach test was to evaluate dynamic standing balance. The results showed that the functional strengthening exercise had some positive effects on improvement of both static and dynamic standing balance, and there was a positive correlation between the knee strength and standing balance.
Falls are the most serious health problems in elderly population. They are a major cause of premature death, physical injury, immobility, psychosocial dysfunction, and nursing home placement. To reduce the alarming rate of falls and related excessive mortality and morbidity, efforts must be made to detect persons at risk of falling and to prevent or reduce the frequency of falls. To facilitate such approaches, it is essential to find the cause of falling (and under what conditions) of the elderly and the factors that are associated with risk of falling. This study was aimed at designing interventions that minimize risk of falling by ameliorating contributing factors while maintaining or improving patient's mobility.