To solve the pathological problems of the musculoskeletal system based on evidence, a sophisticated analysis of human motion is required. Traditional optical motion capture systems with high validity and reliability have been utilized in clinical practice for a long time. However, expensive equipment and professional technicians are required to construct optical motion capture systems, hence they are used at a limited capacity in clinical settings despite their advantages. The development of information technology has overcome the existing limit and paved the way for constructing a motion capture system that can be operated at a low cost. Recently, with the development of computer vision-based technology and optical markerless tracking technology, webcam-based 3D human motion analysis has become possible, in which the intuitive interface increases the user-friendliness to non-specialists. In addition, unlike conventional optical motion capture, with this approach, it is possible to analyze motions of multiple people at simultaneously. In a non-optical motion capture system, an inertial measurement unit is typically used, which is not significantly different from a conventional optical motion capture system in terms of its validity and reliability. With the development of markerless technology and advent of non-optical motion capture systems, it is a great advantage that human motion analysis is no longer limited to laboratories.
Background: As South Korea enters an aged society, the government has emphasized the need for a soft landing of the older adults into the community after the acute and recovery periods under a national policy of “community care.” However, the institutionalization of community rehabilitation services to implement this is insufficient. Japan had already entered an aged society when the Long-Term Care Insurance System was introduced in 2000. Thus, the case of Japan’s institutionalization of the system is expected to have implications for us in supplementing a suitable system for the aged society.
Objects: This study compared the institutionalization process of the Long-Term Care Insurance System in South Korea and Japan and the services currently being implemented in each country. Methods: To examine the institutionalization process and services of the system, related legal rules and regulations, government reports, and articles were reviewed. To examine the operation status of the system, statistical data provided by each country’s government were analyzed. Results: Japan recognized the importance of community rehabilitation even before the enactment of Long-Term Care Insurance. Thus, community rehabilitation services, such as homevisit rehabilitation and health facilities, were already stipulated in the law. Under such institutional legacy, Long-Term Care Insurance was able to establish a service system, which balanced welfare and health-related services, including various types of services with enhanced rehabilitation functions. In South Korea, rehabilitation policies were not much considered in the process of institutionalizing the system; thus, it was composed mainly of services focusing on care and recuperation.
Conclusion: In order to realize community care, rehabilitation services need to be developed in Long-Term Care Insurance System in various forms such as home-visit services, daily services, short stay, and facility services.
Background: Shoulder external rotation exercises are commonly used to improve the stabilizing ability of the infraspinatus. However, during exercise, excessive activation of the posterior deltoid compared to the infraspinatus causes the humeral head to move anteriorly in an abnormal position. Many researchers have emphasized selective activation of the infraspinatus during shoulder external rotation exercise.
Objects: This study aims to delineate the optimal exercise method for selective activation of infraspinatus by investigating the muscle activities of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid according to the four shoulder exercise methods and two forearm positions.
Methods: Thirty healthy individuals participated in this study. The participants were instructed to perform shoulder external rotation exercises following four exercise methods: sitting external rotation (SIER); standing external rotation at 90° abduction (STER); prone external rotation at 90° abduction (PRER); side-lying external rotation (SLER), and two forearm positions (neutral, supinated). The electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude was measured during each exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the posterior deltoid, infraspinatus, and biceps brachii. Results: EMG results of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid in PRER, were significantly higher than that of the other exercises (p < 0.01). The EMG ratio (infraspinatus/posterior deltoid) in SIER was significantly higher than that of the other exercises. EMG activation of the posterior deltoid in SIER, PRER, and SLER was significantly higher in neutral than in supinated (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the EMG of the infraspinatus in SIER was significantly higher in neutral than in supinated (p < 0.01). The EMG ratio (infraspinatus/ posterior deltoid) in SIER was significantly higher in neutral than in supinated (p < 0.05.) Contrarily EMG ratios in PRER and SLER were significantly higher in supinated than in neutral (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The results show that clinicians should consider these exercise methods and forearm positions when planning shoulder external rotation exercises for optimal shoulder rehabilitation.
Background: Push-up are effective exercises for shoulder stability. Previous studies have documented the effects of support plane and hand position and width on muscle activities during a push-up.
Objects: This study aimed to investigate the changes in muscle activities in the upper extremity when performing the standard and the knee-flexed push-up with different hand shapes.
Methods: A total of twenty-six healthy males participated in this study. Three different hand shapes (finger abduction, finger adduction, and fists) and two types of push-up posture (standard and knee-flexed push-up) were set as the independent variables. Electrograms were used to measure the muscle activity of the upper trapezius (UT), triceps brachii (TB), pectoralis major (PM), and serratus anterior (SA). Each participant performed the randomly assigned push-up to the sound of the metronome. The mixed-effect linear regression model was used to detect the changes in muscle activities after changing the hand shape and push-up posture. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05.
Results: The UT muscle activity was statistically significantly higher when performing push-up with fists than finger abduction (p = 0.035) or finger adduction (p = 0.044). During the standard push-up, the muscle activity in all muscles was that the push-up with fists showed the highest muscle activity compared to the finger abduction (p < 0.01) and finger adduction (p < 0.01). Regardless of the shape of the hand, UT had the lowest muscle activity compared to other muscles (p < 0.001). In contrast, the SA muscle had the highest muscle activity among four muscles during the standard push-up.
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, we suggest hand shape is related to the difficulty level of push-up either in the standard or the knee-flexed push-up, especially in the push-up with fists. In addition, knee push-up can be recommended as shoulder musclestrengthening exercises for individuals with low shoulder muscle strength.
Background: During postural control, older adults are more dependent on proprioception than are young adults. Ankle proprioception, which plays an important role in maintaining postural balance, decreases with age. Published studies are insufficient to establish a significant age difference in postural sway resulting from the known age-related decrease in ankle proprioception and do not examine various detailed test conditions.
Objects: The present study aimed to compare ankle proprioception between older and younger groups along dimensions of position vs. force proprioception and dorsiflexion vs. plantarflexion. The present study also aimed to compare postural sway between young and older women during quiet standing under two sensory conditions.
Methods: We recruited seven young women aged 21–24 and seven older women aged 60–63. Ankle proprioception was assessed as the accuracy of the joint position sense (JPS) and the force sense (FS). Postural sway was assessed using center-of-pressure measurements recorded during quiet standing under two sensory positions: eyes open and eyes closed with head tilted back.
Results: Older women had lower JPS in dorsiflexion and lower FS in plantarflexion than did younger women. We found no significant age differences in JPS in plantarflexion or in FS in dorsiflexion. We observed a main effect of group on postural sway in two sway parameters out of three. We observed significant differences in JPS with dorsiflexion, and in FS with plantarflexion. Conclusion: Proprioception for ankle plantar flexor decreased more significantly with aging than did that for ankle dorsiflexor, accounting for the impaired postural balance observed in older women.
Background: Shoulder impingement syndrome, a major cause of shoulder pain, involves weakness of the scapular retractor muscles. The major scapular retractor muscles are the middle trapezius and rhomboid major muscles; however, the latter is excluded in most studies. Objects: We aimed to measure the thickness of the middle trapezius and rhomboid major muscles using an ultrasonic diagnostic imaging system while performing four different shoulder retraction exercises and comparing the thicknesses and ratio of the thicknesses of these muscles.
Methods: The thickness of the middle trapezius and rhomboid major muscles was measured in 24 healthy adults using ultrasound. Muscle thickness was measured three times in the Reference posture and four times while performing four different exercises that involved scapular retraction. The averages and standard deviations of the measured muscle thicknesses were obtained and compared. The ratio of muscle thickness and rate of changes in muscle thickness between the reference posture and the four exercises were compared.
Results: For both, male (n = 10) and female (n = 14), there was a significant difference in the thickness of the middle trapezius muscle between the reference posture and the four exercises (p < 0.05) and in the thickness of the middle trapezius and rhomboid major muscles between male and female (p < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference in the ratio of the thicknesses of these muscles. Although a significant difference in the rate of change in muscle thickness during the four exercises was noted, there was no significant difference in the ratio of change in muscle thickness.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the ratio of the thicknesses of the middle trapezius and rhomboid major muscles and the rate of change in their thickness during exercises involving scapular retraction in healthy people in their 20s–30s.
Background: The superimposed technique (ST) involves the application of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) during voluntary muscle action. The physiological effects attributed to each stimulus may be accumulated by the ST. Although various EMS devices for the quadriceps muscle are being marketed to the general public, there is still a lack of research on whether ST training can provide significant advantages for improving quadriceps muscle strength or thickness compared with EMS alone.
Objective: To compare the effects of eight weeks of ST and EMS on the thicknesses of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles and knee extension strength.
Methods: Thirty healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to either the ST or EMS groups. The participants underwent ST or EMS training for eight weeks. In all participants, the thicknesses of the RF and VI muscles were measured before and after the 8-week intervention by ultrasonography, and quadriceps muscle strength was measured using the Smart KEMA tension sensor (KOREATECH Co., Ltd.).
Results: There were significant differences in the pre- and post-intervention thicknesses of the RF and VI muscles as well as the quadriceps muscle strength in both groups (p < 0.05). RF thickness was significantly greater in the ST group (F = 4.294, p = 0.048), but there was no significant difference in VI thickness (F = 0.234, p = 0.632) or knee extension strength (F = 0.775, p = 0.386).
Conclusion: EMS can be used to improve quadriceps muscle strength and RF and VI muscle thickness, and ST can be used to improve RF thickness in the context of athletic training and fitness.
Background: Although various conventional approaches have been employed to reduce spasticity in neurological rehabilitation, only a few studies have shown scientific evidence for its effectiveness. Thus, we introduced a different concept (Ueda method) of rehabilitation therapy that can complement the limitations of conventional therapy.
Objects: This study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of the application of the Ueda method on patients with spasticity after stroke via an electrophysiological study.
Methods: We conducted a randomized double-blind pilot study in two rehabilitation hospitals involving 30 stroke patients who were randomly allocated to the Ueda (n = 15) and convention (n = 15) groups. Electromyographic data of six examined muscles in both upper extremities of all patients were recorded. The A-ApA index and activation ratios of upper extremity muscles were evaluated and compared between the groups to confirm post-intervention changes in upper-extremity flexor spasticity and flexion synergies. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to confirm the therapeutic effect (2 × 2) as a function of group (Ueda vs. convention) and time (pre-/post-intervention) on all outcome measures (p < 0.05).
Results: In the Ueda group, the mean A-ApA index values differed significantly before and after the intervention (p = 0.041), indicating a weak evidence level; however, the effect size was medium (d = –0.503). The interaction effects of the A-ApA index between the Ueda and convention groups and between pre-intervention and post-intervention stages were significant (p = 0.012). The effect size was large (np 2 = 0.220). In the Ueda group, the activation ratios of the anterior deltoid fiber significantly decreased after the intervention in all reaching tasks.
Conclusion: The Ueda method reduces upper-extremity flexor spasticity and changes its synergy in stroke patients and should be considered a rehabilitation therapy for spastic stroke patients.
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a representative disease, and LBP is characterized by muscle dysfunction that provides stability to the lumbar spine. This causes physical functional problems such as decreased posture control ability by reducing the muscular endurance and balance of the lumbar spine. Pelvic compression using instruments, which has been used during recent stabilization exercises, focuses on the anterior superior iliac spine of the pelvis and puts pressure on the sacroiliac joint during exercise, making the pelvis more symmetrical and stable. Currently, research has been actively conducted on the use of pelvic compression belts and non-elastic pelvic belts; however, few studies have conducted research on the application effect of pelvic compression using instruments.
Objects: This study aimed to investigate whether there is a difference in trunk muscular endurance and dynamic and static balance ability levels by applying pelvic stabilization through a pelvic compression device between the LBP group and the non-LBP group.
Methods: Thirty-nine subjects currently enrolled in Daejeon University were divided into 20 subjects with LBP group and 19 subjects without LBP (NLBP group), and the groups were compared with and without pelvic compression. The trunk muscular endurance test was performed with 4 movements, the dynamic balance test was performed using a Y-balance test, and the static balance test was performed using a Wii balance board.
Results: There was a significant difference the LBP group and the NLBP group after pelvic compression was applied to all tests (p < 0.05). In the static and dynamic balance ability test after pelvic compression was applied, there was a significant difference in the LBP group than in the NLBP group (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: These results show that pelvic compression using instruments has a positive effect on both those with and without LBP and that it has a greater impact on balance ability when applied to those with LBP.
Background: The serratus anterior (SA) muscle prevents scapular winging (SW) by stabilizing the medial border of the scapula during arm movement. The upper trapezius (UT) and lower trapezius (LT) muscles may compensate for the weak SA muscle in individuals with SW during shoulder flexion. However, there is no study to examine whether compensation by UT and LT occurs in individuals with SW.
Objects: This study compared the muscle activities of UT, LT, and SA as well as the SA/UT activity ratio between individuals with and without SW during shoulder flexion with load.
Methods: This study recruited 27 participants with SW (n = 14) and without SW (n = 13). Electromyography data of the SA, UT, and LT muscles and SA/UT activity ratio were recorded and analyzed during shoulder flexion with 25% load of the maximal shoulder flexion force. Independent t-test was used to compare the UT, LT, and SA muscle activities and SA/UT ratio between the groups with and without SW; statistical significance was set at α of 0.05.
Results: SA activity was significantly lesser in the group with SW than in the group without SW. However, there were no significant differences in the UT and LT activities and SA/UT activity ratio between the two groups.
Conclusion: The SA activity was lesser in the group with SW than in the group without SW with 25% load of the maximal shoulder flexion force, but there was no compensatory muscle activity of the UT and LT observed. Therefore, further studies are warranted to clarify the compensatory strategy of scapular stabilization in individuals with SW during shoulder flexion under other heavy load conditions.