The kinematics involved in different landing strategies may be related to the occurrence of trauma. Several sources suggest that the angle of knee extension on touchdown and impact with the ground determines the magnitude of the impact force and, indirectly, knee loading. This study compared the initial knee angle and maximum knee flexion angle at the instant of impact on drop-landings between healthy men and women. In this study, 60 participants (30 males, 30 females) dropped from a height of 43 cm. A digital camera and video motion analysis software were used to analyze the kinematic data. When landing, there was significant difference between the two groups ( in male, in female) in the mean knee flexion angle. The range of knee flexion on landing ( in male, in female) also differed significantly (p<.05). The greater knee flexion that was observed in the male subjects would be expected to decrease their risk of injury. Women land with smaller range of knee flexion than men and this might increase the likelihood of a knee injury.
Individuals who propel wheelchairs have a high prevalence of upper extremity injuries (i.e., carpal tunnel syndrome, elbow/shoulder tendonitis, impingement syndrome). Musculoskeletal injuries can result from overuse or incorrect use of manual wheelchairs, and can hinder rehabilitation efforts. To better understand the mechanisms of upper extremity injuries, this study investigates the motion of the wrist during wheelchair propulsion. This study also examines changes in the variables that occur with fatiguing wheelchair propulsion to determine how the time parameters of wheelchair propulsion and the state of fatigue influence the risk of injury. A two dimensional (2-D) analysis of wrist movement during the wheelchair stroke was performed. Twenty subjects propelled a wheelchair handrim on a motor-driven treadmill at two different velocities (50, 70 m/min). The results of this study were as follows; The difference in time parameters of wheelchair propulsion (cadence, cycle time, push time, recovery time, and PSP ratio) at two different velocities was statistically significant. The wrist kinematic characteristics had statistically significant differences at two different velocities, but wrist radial deviation and elbow flexion/extension had no statistically significant differences. There were statistically significant differences in relation to fatigue in the time parameter of wheelchair propulsion (70 m/min) between initial 1 minute and final 1 minute. The wrist kinematic characteristics between the initial 1 minute and final 1 minute in relation to fatigue had statistically significant differences but the wrist flexion-extension (50 m/min) had no statistically significant differences. According to the results, the risk of musculoskeletal injuries is increased by fatigue from wheelchair propulsion. To prevent musculoskeletal injuries, wheelchair users should train in a muscle endurance program and consider wearing a splinting/grove. Moreover, wheelchair users need education on propulsion posture, suitable joint position, and proper recovery patterns of propulsion.
Many muscles of the trunk and hip are capable of contributing to the stabilization and protection of the lumbar spine. To have optimal effectiveness, a training program should include dynamic back/stomach/hip exercises. This study was designed to assess the L5 level paraspinal, external abdominal oblique, and gluteus maximus muscle activities during various low back stabilization exercises. Participants were 26 healthy adults (13 males, 13 Females), aged 21 to 28 years. The surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the L5 level paraspinal, external abdominal oblique, and gluteus maximus muscles. The recorded signal was averaged and normalized to the maximal electromyographic amplitude obtained during the maximal voluntary contraction. The measurements were taken during 3 low back stabilization exercises. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to examine the difference, and a post hoc test was performed with least significant difference. A level of significance was set at p<.05. The significance of difference between men and women, and between the electromyographic recording sites was evaluated by an independent t-test. The EMG activity for the externus oblique and gluteus maximus muscles had significant differences among 3 exercises (p<.05). In males, the EMG activity for the external abdominal oblique muscle had significantly increased differences during exercises 1 and exercise 2 (p<.05). The gluteus maximus muscle had significantly increased differences during exercise 2 and exercise 3 (p<.05). In females, the multifidus muscle had significantly increased difference during exercise 3 (p<.05), the external abdominal oblique muscle had significantly increased difference during exercise 1 (p<.05). and the gluteus maximus muscle had significantly decreased difference during exercise 3 (p<.05). The results were that the external abdominal oblique muscle was apparently activated during the curl-up exercise in females and males, and the multifidus muscle was apparently activated during the bridging exercise in females and during the sling exercise in males and females.1)In comparison of the %MVC between males and females, exercise 2 and exercise 3 apparently activated of the multifidus and gluteus maximus muscles in both males and females (p<.05). The EMG activity of the gluteus maximus muscle of the males significantly increased during exercise 2 and exercise 3 (p<.05). The EMG activity the multifidus muscle of the females was significantly increased during exercise 2 and exercise 3 (p<.05). More research is needed to understand the nature of motor control problems in the deep muscles in patients with low back pain.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the angle of a wedged insole on knee varus torque during walking. Fifteen healthy subjects were recruited. Knee varus torque was measured using three-dimensional motion analysis (Elite). Knee varus torque was normalized to gait cycle (0%: initial contact; 100%: ipsilateral initial contact) and stance phase (0%: initial contact; 100%: ipsilateral toe off). The average peaks of knee varus torque during the stance phase of the gait cycle according to the different insole angles (10 or 15 degrees) were compared using one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The results showed that in the early stance phase, the average peak knee varus torque increased significantly for both the medial 10 and 15 degree wedged insole conditions and decreased significantly for both the lateral 10 and 15 degree wedged insole conditions as compared with no insole (p<.05). However, there were no significant differences between the 10 and 15 degree wedged insole conditions with either the medial or lateral wedged insole (p>.05). In the late stance phase, the average peak knee varus torque increased significantly for the medial 10 and 15 degree wedged insole conditions (p<.05), but not for the lateral 10 and 15 degree wedged insole conditions as compared with no insole (p>.05). We suggest that these results may be beneficial for manufacturing foot orthotic devices, such as wedged insoles, to control medial and lateral compartment forces in the knee varus-valgus deformity. Further studies of the effects of wedged insole angle on knee varus torque in patients with medial-lateral knee osteoarthritis are needed.
It is not common in rehabilitation situation to encounter patients exhibiting paralysis or other disabilities which have no apparent organic basis. Even without organic causes for their signs and symptoms these patients often require comprehensive treatment and management. Patients with conversion disorder often pose particular difficulties because of diagnostic confusion and the lack of therapeutic strategies for rehabilitation management. We feel that systematic functional rehabilitation is helpful in resolving symptom and recovering normal function in the patient suffering from conversion disorder since it provides motivation and reduces reinforcements which contribute to sustained disabled state. This report describes the patient with hysterical motor paralysis who is successfully treated with structured physical therapy. The objectives of this report are to provide therapeutic guidelines for physical therapy and to emphasize the role of physical therapist in the assessment and treatment of hysterical paralysis.
Falls are common, costly, and a leading cause of death among older adults. The major predisposing factors of a fall may include age-related deterioration in the dynamic system composed of auditory, somatosensory, vestibular, visual, musculoskeletal, and neuromuscular subsystems. Older adults with a history of frequent falls demonstrated significant reductions in gait velocity, muscle force production, and balance performance. These altered neuromechanical characteristics may be further exaggerated when faced with conflicting multisensory conditions. Despite the important contribution of multisensory function on the sensorimotor system during postural and locomotor tasks, it remains unclear whether multisensory intervention will produce dynamic balance improvement during locomotion in older adults with a history of frequent falls. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to address important factors associated with falls in elderly adults and provide theoretical rationale for a multisensory intervention program model.
EMG is used in rehabilitation research to provide a method to infer muscle function. This paper will present an introduction to interpretation of electromyography (EMG) data for physical therapists. It is important for the physical therapist to have an understanding of the collection and reduction of raw electrical data from the muscle to allow the physical therapist to interpret findings in a research report, and improve planning of clinical research projects with respect to data collection. We will discuss factors that affect the type of EMG collected and the ways in which various common methods of data reduction will impact the findings from a study that uses EMG.