This study analyzes how different knee flexion angles affect the abdominal and pelvic muscle activity during supine bridging. Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. We used surface electromyography (EMG) to measure how three different knee flexion angles (100°, 70°, and 40°) affected the activity of the transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), external oblique (EO), biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles on the dominant side during supine bridging. The one-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the statistical significance of TrA/IO, EO, BF, RF and GM muscle activity and the GM/BF activity ratio. For the TrA/IO, EO, BF, and GM muscles, supine bridging with different knee flexion angles resulted in significant differences in abdominal and pelvic muscle activity. For the TrA/IO muscles, the post-hoc test demonstrated that muscle activity significantly increased at 40° compared to 70°; however, there were no significant differences between 100° and 70° or 100° and 40°. For the EO muscle, the post-hoc test demonstrated that muscle activity significantly increased at 40° compared to 100° and 70°; no significant difference was observed between angles 100° and 70°. For the BF muscle, the post-hoc test demonstrated that muscle activity significantly increased according to the knee flexion angle (40°>70°>100°). For the GM muscle, the post-hoc test demonstrated that muscle activity significantly increased according to the knee flexion angle (100°>70°>40°). However, for the RF muscle, there was no significant difference. Additionally, the GM/BF activity ratio significantly increased according to the knee flexion angle (100°>70°>40°). From these results, we can conclude that bridging with a knee flexion of 100° can strengthen the GM muscle, whereas bridging with a knee flexion of 40° is recommended to strengthen the IO, EO, and BF muscles. We can also conclude that knee flexion angles should be modified during supine bridging to increase the muscle activity of different target muscles.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in electromyographic (EMG) activities of upper limb muscles between cross- and parallel-aligned taping and to compare the effects of these 2 taping methods in healthy adults. Thirty subjects, who volunteered for this study, were tested under 3 taping conditions in random order: (1) no taping, (2) cross-aligned taping, and (3) parallel-aligned taping. EMG activities of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris, and extensor carpi radialis muscles were measured. All muscles showed significant differences in EMG activity among the 3 conditions (p<.05). In the post hoc test, biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles showed significant differences in EMG activity between the no taping and the cross-aligned taping conditions and between the no taping and the parallel-aligned taping conditions. Additionally, the EMG activities of the flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles appeared to be significantly different between the no taping and parallel-aligned taping conditions. These findings demonstrate that taping may be helpful for decreasing muscle activity, regardless of the direction of tape application. This study provides useful information to future researchers regarding the effects of taping on muscle activity.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of contralateral hip adduction (CHA) on the muscle activity of lumbar stabilizers and the angle of pelvic lateral tilting during hip abduction in side lying. Twenty healthy male subjects with no medical history of lower extremity or lumbar spine disorders were recruited for the study. Subjects randomly performed preferred hip abduction (PHA) and hip abduction with contralateral hip adduction in side lying. The muscle activities of the dominant side rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, quadratus lumborum, gluteus medius, and non-dominant side hip adductor longus were measured during PHA and CHA by using a surface electromyography (EMG) system. Pelvic lateral tilting motion was measured by using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Data on EMG and pelvic motion were collected at the same time during PHA and CHA. A paired t-test was used to compare EMG activity and the angle of pelvic lateral tilting in the two exercises. The study found that the EMG activities of all muscles were more increased significantly in CHA than PHA condition. The angle of pelvic lateral tilting was more decreased significantly in CHA than PHA condition. These findings suggest that CHA could be recommended as a hip abduction exercise for activating lumbar stabilizers and decreasing compensatory pelvic lateral tilting motion.
The aim of the present study was to compare measurement precisions of the Oswestry Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODQ) and a computer adaptive testing (CAT) method. The ODQ has been regarded as one of the most reliable condition-specific measure for back pain for decades. Cross-sectional study was carried out with two independent convenient samples from two out-patient rehabilitation clinics for back pain (n1=42) and non-back pain group (n2=42). Participants were asked to fill out the ODQ and CAT of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Activity Measure (ICF-AM). A series of Rasch analyses were performed to calculate person ability measures. The CAT measures had greater relative precision in discriminating the groups than did the ODQ measure in comparisons of the relative precision. The CAT measure appears to be more effective than did the ODQ measure in terms of measurement precision. By administering test items calibrated in a way, CAT measures using item response theory may promise a means with measurement precision as well as efficiency.
Abdominal curl-up exercise may excessively increased superficial neck flexor such as sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. Also, the muscle activity of the abdominal muscles haven’t investigated during abdominal curl-up with craniocervical flexion (CCF). Therefore, the purpose of our study was to determine the effect of CCF on the muscle activity of the abdominal and SCM muscles during abdominal curl-up. Twelve healthy subjects (six men and six women) with no history of abdominal or lower back pain within 6 weeks were recruited. Surface electromyographic signals were collected on SCM, rectus abdominis (RA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles bilaterally during performing the traditional abdominal curl-up and the abdominal curl-up with CCF. Paired t-tests were used to compare the differences in the muscle activity of the bilateral SCM, RA, EO, and IO muscles between the traditional abdominal curl-up and the abdominal curl-up with CCF (p<.05). There was significantly lower electromyogram (EMG) activity of the both SCMs during the abdominal curl-up with CCF (Right SCM, 39.50±15.29%MVIC; Left SCM, 38.24±17.31%MVIC) than with the traditional abdominal curl-up (Right SCM, 54.85±20.05%MVIC; Left SCM, 53.18±26.72%MVIC) (p<.05). The activity of abdominal muscles were not significantly different between the traditional abdominal curl-up and the abdominal curl-up with CCF. The abdominal curl-up with CCF requires significantly less muscle activity of SCM. Consequently, the abdominal curl-up with CCF is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during abdominal curl-up exercise.
The purpose of this study was to determine which spatiotemporal gait parameters obtained during hemiplegic walking could be a predictive factor for the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). Two hundreds nine subjects who had suffered a stroke were recruited for this study. They were participated in two assessments; the TUG test and gait analysis. The relationship between the TUG test and spatiotemporal parameters was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. In addition, to predict the spatiotemporal gait parameters that correlated most with the TUG scores, we used multiple linear regression analyses (stepwise method). The results show that the normalized velocity was strongly correlated with the TUG performance (r=-.72, p<.001). Additionally, single support percentage (SSP), double support percentage (DSP), step time difference (STD), and step length difference (SLD) significantly were correlated with the TUG test. Normalized velocity, STD, DSP of affected side, and SSP of non-affected side explained 53%, 8%, 3%, 2%, of variance in the TUG test respectively. In conclusion, an increase in gait velocity and a decrease in STD would be effective indicators of improvement on the functional mobility in the stroke rehabilitation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of active and passive postural perturbation on ankle dorsiflexor responses in stroke patients. The subjects consisted of 13 stroke patients. Using wireless electromyography, the patients’ ankle dorsiflexor muscle responses were measured under the following conditions: active dorsiflexion (AD), active perturbation (AP), and passive perturbation (PP). Tibialis anterior muscle activity increased most significantly during PP of the affected side (118.64±56.28). The most significant increase for the non-affected side was in AD (72.64±24.56). Tibialis anterior muscle activity was compared under each condition. The affected side showed significant differences between PP and AD and between PP and AP (p<.05). The non-affected side showed not significant differences between each condition. The ratios of tibialis anterior muscle activity under AP to that under AD were 1.00 on the affected side and .75 on the non-affected side and the difference was not significant (p>.05). The ratios of tibialis anterior muscle activity under PP to that under AD were 3.30 on the affected side and 1.14 on the non-affected side and the difference was significant (p<.05). Passive perturbation improved tibialis anterior muscle activity on the affected side, and training based on this approach may have the potential to improve the ankle dorsiflexion of people with stroke.
The first purpose was to identify the plantar pressure distributions (peak pressure, pressure integral time, and contact area) during level walking, and stair ascent and descent in asymptomatic flexible flatfoot (AFF). The second purpose was to investigate whether peak pressure data during level walking could be used to predict peak pressure during stair walking by identifying correlations between the peak pressures of level walking and stair walking. Twenty young adult subjects (8 males and 12 females, age 21.0±1.7 years) with AFF were recruited. A distance greater than 10 ㎜ in a navicular drop test was defined as flexible flatfoot. Each subject performed at least 10 steps during level walking, and stair ascent and descent. The plantar pressure distribution was measured in nine foot regions using a pressure measurement system. A two-way repeated analysis of variance was conducted to examine the differences in the three dependent variables with two within-subject factors (activity type and foot region). Linear regression analysis was conducted to predict peak pressure during stair walking using the peak pressure in the metatarsal regions during level walking. Significant interaction effects were observed between activity type and foot region for peak pressure (F=9.508, p<.001), pressure time integral (F=5.912, p=.003), and contact area (F=15.510, p<.001). The regression equations predicting peak pressure during stair walking accounted for variance in the range of 25.7% and 65.8%. The findings indicate that plantar pressures in AFF were influenced by both activity type and foot region. Furthermore the findings suggest that peak pressure data during level walking could be used to predict the peak pressure data during stair walking. These data collected for AFF can be useful for evaluating gait patterns and for predicting pressure data of flexible flatfoot subjects who have difficulty performing activities such as stair walking. Further studies should investigate plantar pressure distribution during various functional activities in symptomatic flexible flatfoot, and consider other predictors for regression analysis.
The purpose of the current study was to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of muscle thickness (MT) measurement of the psoas major (PM) using ultrasonography (US) conducted at different inward pressures of approximately .5 ㎏, 1.0 ㎏, 1.5 ㎏, and 2.0 ㎏. Twelve healthy male subjects were recruited for the study. The thicknesses of both PMs of each subject were measured by two different examiners in a random manner to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability. The measurement values were analyzed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). ICC (2,1) was used to determine the inter-rater reliability and ICC (3,1) was used to assess the intra-rater reliability of the MT measurement of the PM. The results indicated higher ICC values for intra-rater reliability compared to inter-rater reliability. In addition, the value for intra-rater reliability with .5 ㎏ inward pressure [ICC=.99 (95%CI=.98∼.99)] was higher compared to 1.0 ㎏, 1.5 ㎏, and 2.0 ㎏. Other inward pressures for intra- and inter-rater reliability in current study were also demonstrated to have excellent values (ICC=.94∼.99). These findings showed that maintaining consistent inward pressure is essential for maintaining reliability of the results when the MT of the PM is measured by different examiners in a clinical setting.