The purpose of this study was to compare the experimental pain threshold when used in luminous lamp radiation and nonluminous lamp radiation with healthy person. Thirty normal subjects were randomly assigned two groups: a luminous lamp radiation group, and a nonluminous lamp radiation group. The infrared lamps were applied on L3 for thirty minutes. Each group was measured for experimental pain threshold and local temperature before, 15 and 30 minute radiation. For statistical differences in change of the experimental pain threshold and local temperature due to differences in lamp ray was compared using the independent t-test. And, General linear model for profile plots test was used. The results were as: 1. Local temperature was significantly increased in the nonluminous lamp group (p<.01). 2. Experimental pain thershold was significantly increased in the luminous lamp group (p<.05),(p<.01). This study indicate that luminous lamp radiation was more effects of increase experimental pain thershold than nonluminous lamp radiation. Further study is needed to compare the effects of after period radiation.
The purpose of this study was to find the effect of rear foot wedge angle on peak plantar pressures on the forefoot during walking. Twenty normal healthy subjects (10 female, 10 male) were recruited. Peak plantar pressure was measured using pressure distribution platforms (MatScan system) in medial forefoot (under the first, second metatarsal head) and lateral forefoot (under the third, fourth, fifth metatarsal head). The subjects walked at the comfortable velocity under seven conditions; bare footed, , and wedges under the medial and lateral sides of the hindfoot. The three averaged peak plantar pressures were collected at each condition at stance and toe off phases. The results showed that a significant increase in lateral forefoot plantar peak pressure investigated in the medial wedge and a significant decrease in lateral forefoot plantar peak pressure investigated in lateral wedge at stance phase (p<.05). These results suggest that rear foot wedge may be useful to modify the peak plantar pressure on the forefoot.
This study examined the muscle recruitment order during extension of the hip joint in normal subjects, and evaluated whether the external support obtained from wearing a lumbosacral corset had an effect on muscle recruitment leading to increased lumbar stability. The subjects were 40 normal adults (32 male, 8 female) with no history of low back pain and no pathological findings in the nervous or musculoskeletal systems. All subjects extended their hip joints under 3 positions (prone, sidelying, standing). During extension, the onsets of contraction of the rectus abdominis, gluteus maximus, and semitendinosus muscles were measured. Electromyographic activity was measured using a surface electrode, and the muscle contraction onset time was designated as the point exceeding a threshold of 25 ms, using a mean plus twice of the standard deviation. To compare the average order of muscle contraction onset time, a Freedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks was used. The relative difference between muscle contraction onset time wearing and not wearing a lumbosacral corset was measured using a paired t-test. A difference in the average muscle contraction onset order for the rectus abdominis, gluteus maximus, and semitendinosus muscles was observed (p<.05) among three positions. However, wearing a lumbosacral corset did not. change the contraction order. In addition, wearing a lumbosacral corset produced a significant difference (p<.05) in the relative onset time between the rectus abdominis and gluteus maximus in the standing position, but no difference was observed for the other muscles or positions. In the future, patients suffering from low back pain should be compared with normal subjects to determine the effectiveness of a lumbosacral corset in changing muscle recruitment order.
In this study, vertical acceleration of center of mass was observed along normal gait phases in 9 healthy male volunteers (aged ). The developed wireless accelerometric device was attached on the intervertebral space between L3 and L4 using a semi-elastic waist belt. A three-dimensional motion analysis system, synchronized with the accelerometry, was used for detecting gait phases. There was no significant correlation between the body weight and the acceleration. The first peak curve covered loading response phase. The second downward peak point was matched accurately with the opposite toe-off. In mid-stance and terminal stance, the acceleration curve highly resembled the vertical ground reaction force curve. There was no significant difference in timing between the final upward peak point and the initial contact. Therefore, the developed accelerometry system would be helpful in determining determine temporal gait pattems in patients with gait disorders.
This study examined the correlations among the Berg Balance Scale, which is a clinical tool used to evaluate balance ability, spatiotemporal parameters of gait, and falling; determined the parameters most closely related to falling; and identified a discriminatory parameter and its predictability. Thirty-four subjects aged 72 to 92 years participated in this study. Following a questionnaire survey about falling, the Berg Balance Scale and spatiotemporal parameters of gait were measured. The results revealed that the incidence of falls increased with aging and an accompanying reduction in the flexion range of motion of the hip joint. The gait characteristics of elderly people who fell easily included a slower walking speed, shorter stride, and longer stance time than other elderly. When the cutoff score was set at 45, the Berg Balance Scale was able to identify correctly those individuals who truly have experience of falling than when the cutoff score was set at 39. But when the cutoff score was set at 39, the scale's specificity identifying correctly those individuals who truly have not experience of falling was higher than at the cutoff score of 45. Therefore, the Berg Balance Scale is an appropriate screening method in a clinical setting for the early detection of elderly people at risk of falling. In conclusion, elderly people with a Berg Balance Scale score. below 45 are the most likely to fall owing to their decreased balance ability.
We report the reorganization of motor network resulted from intensive unilateral coordination training and the effect of cross education on the untrained side in patient with traumatic brain injury using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A 22 year-old male patient who had suffered from diffuse axonal injury for 58 months showed coordination deficit in the left hand at initial examination. Intensive motor training including complex finger movements and coordination activities using a metronome was introduced to the patient 4 hours per day for a week. FMRI was performed on a 3T ISOL Forte scanner. All functional images were analyzed using SPM-99 software. Hand function was improved after training not only in the trained left hand, but also in the untrained right hand. There was no activation in the right primary motor area (M1) during left hand movement before training whereas robust activation of left M1 was demonstrated by the right hand movement. Profuse activation of bilateral prefrontal lobes was seen during both hand movements before training. After training of left hand, right M1 became prominently activated during the left hand motion. The activation of bilateral prefrontal lobes disappeared after training not only for the left hand movement but also for the right, which clearly demonstrated the effect of cross education. This case report demonstrated the learning-dependent reorganization of the M1 and the effect of cross education.
Asymmetrical stance posture, balance, and gait disturbance are common problems in hemiplegic patients. Posterior leaf springs (PLS) are frequently prescribed to correct these problems. Recently, anterior leaf springs (ALS) have also been prescribed, but only limited studies have been performed to investigate the effects of ALS. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three conditions, i.e., wearing an ALS, wearing a PLS, and not wearing an AFO (ankle foot orthosis),: on 1) the distribution of weight bearing on the affected side, 2) standing balance, and 3) the gait patterns of hemiplegic patients. Eleven hemiplegic patients (10 men and 1 woman) participated in this study. The data were analyzed by the Friedman test. The results were as follows: 1) More weight bearing on the affected leg was observed in the ALS and PLS conditions than in the condition without an AFO. No significant difference between the ALS and PLS conditions was found. 2) There were statistically significant differences in the composite equilibrium scores (CES) among the three conditions. The CES in the PLS condition was significantly higher than in the ALS condition or the condition without an AFO. 3) Gait patterns improved significantly in the ALS and PLS conditions. No statistically significant difference between the ALS and PLS conditions was found. These results suggest that both ALS and PLS effectively improve the distribution of weight bearing on the affected side, standing balance, and gait patterns of hemiplegic patients. Further study using three-dimensional kinematic analysis and dynamic electromyography is needed to support these findings.
Traditionally, ultraviolet (UV) has been used for treating the pressure sore and skin wound. The effects of UVA and UVB radiation on disinfection have been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of UVC radiation on disinfection of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium in vitro. Three bacterium were radiated by UVC (250 nm, 20 seconds) and incubated at for 24 hours at the agar culture medium. Kill rates of all three bacterium were 99.9%. UVC radiated on three kinds of bacterium for 30 or 60 seconds. Kill rates were 99.9% both 30 and 60 seconds. This data suggests that UV light at 250 nm could be a useful method to minimize infection and shorten healing time in pressure sore and skin wound condition.
The purpose of this study was to determine EMG biofeedback training effect on the muscle activities in 3 unilateral facial palsy patients along with multiple baseline design across subjects. The auditory feedback about facial muscles (orbicularis oris, orbicularis oculi, frontalis) was provided with each patient during facial exercise training. Electromyographic (EMG) activity during maximal voluntary contraction and maximal compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude elected by supramaximal electrical stimulation on facial nerve of facial muscles were measured pre- and post- EMG biofeedback training to evaluate motor learning. EMG activity during maximal voluntary contraction was increased after EMG biofeedback training and CMAP amplitude elected by supramaximal electrical stimulation was not changed in all subjects. The results indicate that EMG biofeedback training is useful method to improve motor learning of facial excercise training in unilateral facial palsy patients.
The objectives of this study was to investiage the effects of sitting posture on carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) continues to be one of the most widely publicized maladies of the cumulative trauma disorder. Many studies have reported a positive association between CTS and highly repetitive work, high force, and poor posture. High force and repetitive work have especially been associated with CTS, but the evidence for work being a primary cause of CTS is strongest when these factors are combined. In addition to carpal tunnel syndrome, hand, wrist, and other disorders are attributed to these work-related movements. Such disorders are referred to as repetitive stress injuries, cumulative trauma disorder, overuse syndromes, and chronic upper limb pain syndrome. Incorrect posture also may play a role in the development of CTS in people who work at a computer and other types of keyboards. The tendency to roll the shoulders forward, round the lower back, and thrust the chin forward can shorten the neck and shoulder muscles, compressing nerves in the neck. This, in turn, can affect the wrist, fingers, and hand. The treatment and prevention of carpal tunnel syndrome continue to be approached with a segmental view of the human body. For example, the most common ergonomic solution for carpal tunnel syndrome associated with keyboard use is to keep the wrists in a neutral position by using a wrist rest in front of the keyboard and good sitting posture.
In most of the medical literature that discusses the common problem of movement in patients with cerebral lesions. This critical problem is ascribed to a mechanism involving uninhibited neural activity. The goals of neurological physical therapy are focus on reduce of muscle hypertonicity, facilitates muscle activities, and improve of performance in living environment. A variety of studies suggest that spasticity is a distinct problem and separate from the muscle weakness. It has become increasingly recognized that the major functional deficits following brain damage are largely due to negative features such as muscle weakness and loss of performance rather than spasticity. Adequate recruitment of prime mover, not release was able to carry out the movement tasks well. The strengthening exercise of spastic limbs on changes in muscle properties and performance skill, the repeated motor practice has been identified as crucial for motor recovery. This article support the concept that strengthening is an appropriate intervention to improve the quality of physical function in patients with central nervous system lesions. Further studies and therapeutic approaches should be efforts at improving motor neuron recruitment in agonist rather than reducing activity in antagonists while retraining muscle strengthening.