The purpose of this study was to measure intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and range of motion for measurement of passive shoulder internal rotation range of motion and to compare anterior glide distance of humeral head in three methods. Fifty healthy subjects and fifty patients with shoulder musculoskeletal pain were recruited for this study. The subjects' passive shoulder internal rotation range of motion was measured by visual estimation, manual stabilization, and pressure biofeedback unit methods. In two trials, measurements were performed on each subject by two examiners. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC(3,1)) was used to determine the reliability of each measurement. The intra-rater reliability of the three methods was excellent (ICC=.77~.93) in both groups. The inter-rater reliability of the visual estimation method was poor (ICC=.20, .29), the manual scapular stabilization method was poor and fair (ICC=.09, .50), and the pressure biofeedback unit method was excellent (ICC .86, .75) in the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, the difference of examined range of motion by each examiner was significant in the visual estimation method and manual scapular stabilization method, but there was an insignificant difference between the groups is the pressure biofeedback unit method. This result suggests that the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of a pressure biofeedback unit was better than the other methods. The difference in distance of the anterior glide of humeral head was insignificant among all the methods. The pressure biofeedback unit method was the most reliable method, so it is proposed to be a new and reliable method to measure internal rotation range of motion.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of balance training with 'TETRAX' system, a balance training and assessment tool, on balance and mobility in acute hemiplegic patients. Nineteen matched subjects were assigned randomly into either an experimental group or a control group. An experimental group with 10 subjects received balance training with 'TETRAX' exercise program and conventional physical therapy interventions 5 times per week during 4 weeks. A control group with 9 subjects received conventional physical therapy interventions 5 times per week during 4 weeks. Outcome measures were taken before and after 4 weeks of interventions using the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM), the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), gait speed, and the fall down index. Results indicated that both exercise groups improved significantly in STREAM, BBS, and gait speed (p<.05). The experimental group had a little improvement than the control group. Both exercise groups did not show statistical significance in fall down index (p<.05). Following 4 weeks of intervention, except gait speed there was no statistically significant difference between two groups. However, these findings suggest that conventional physical therapy interventions with visual feedback training could be effective on improving balance and mobility than conventional physical therapy alone in acute hemiplegic patients.
This study examined whether any changes by mental task types on postural control in chronic stroke persons. Sixteen chronic stroke persons (mean age=53.75 yr) and sixteen age-and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age=54.44 yr) took part in this study. Participants randomly performed three different tasks on the stable and unstable surfaces. The no mental task was to stand while holding a 100 g weight in each hand, the arithmetic task (mental task) was to perform a silent 1-backwards counting while standing and holding a 100 g weight in each hand, and the simple task (mental task) was to stand and hold with both hands a tray (200 g) on which a glass filled with water has been placed. Sway path and sway velocity of the center of pressure (COP) were measured to assess standing postural control by task performance using the force platform. According to the results, in stroke group, total sway path and total sway velocity of COP was significantly decreased during arithmetic and simple task compared to no mental task on the stable surface (p<.05), and sway path (anteroposterior AP, mediolateral ML) of COP, total and sway velocity (AP, ML, total) of COP was significantly decreased during arithmetic and simple task compared to no mental task on the unstable surface (p<.05). Especially, sway path (AP, total) of COP and sway velocity (AP, ML, total) of COP was significantly decreased under the simple task when compared to the arithmetic task on the unstable surface (p<.05). In healthy control group, sway path (AP, ML, total) of COP and sway velocity (AP, ML, total) of COP was significantly decreased during arithmetic and simple task compared to no mental task on the stable and unstable surface (p<.05), and sway path (AP, total) of COP and sway velocity (AP, ML, total) of COP was significantly decreased under the simple task when compared to the arithmetic task on the unstable surface (p<.05). In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that arithmetic and simple task improved standing postural control for chronic stroke patients and the type of arithmetic and simple tasks were critical factor that reduced standing postural sway in dual-task conditions. Future research should determine whether dual-task conditions, including simple task, would be effective as a training program for standing postural control of stroke patients.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sciatic nerve mobilization technique on perceived pain, straight leg raise test (SLR), and strength of knee extensor, location of symptoms (LOS) in patients with chronic low back pain. 22 patients with chronic low back pain were recruited for this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG), with 11 patients in each group. All patients received a routine physical therapy (hot pack and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation). The mobilization technique of the sciatic nerve was performed for 10 min in the case of the EG subjects. Outcome measurements included the level of the perceived pain, SLR, and strength of the knee extensor, LOS. The measurements were recorded 3 times: before the intervention, after the intervention, and at 1 hour of follow up. The two groups did not significantly differ with regard to the level of perceived pain, SLR, and strength of the knee extensor, LOS before the test (p>.05). In the case of the EG subjects, all the variables measured after the intervention significantly differed from those measured before the intervention (p<.05). However, in the case of the CG subjects, a significant difference was noted only with regard to the level of perceived pain (p<.05). The findings indicate that sciatic nerve mobilization technique exerts a positive effect on the control of subjective symptoms and knee strength in patients with chronic low back pain. Further studies are required to generalize the result of this study.
The purposes of this study were to compare the reliability and validity of an 88-item version of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and a 66-item version of GMFM (GMFM-66) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The GMFM was completed in 154 children with CP (age range = 6~12). The internal consistency of the GMFM was calculated by Cronbach's for judging reliability. The reliability of GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 were both above .99. The validity of measurement obtained by the GMFM was assessed by examining the unidimensionality of items and by comparing Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels with tests of the GMFM. Both the GMFM-88 and GMFM-66 were satisfied with unidimensionality. Discriminant validity was demonstrated on significant decreases in scores with increasing GMFCS levels in both measurements. However, GMFM-66 was a more sensitive discriminant in GMFCS level 1 and level 2 and in level 2 and level 4. This study reported a comparison of the reliability and validity of GMFM-88 and GMFM-66. The results of this study have implications for the information on the psychometric properties of two versions of GMFCS. This information will be useful for the selection of tools in clinics.
The aim of this study was performed to determine the inter-rater reliability of the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) translated in Korean. This was a new clinical measurement tool for evaluating the recovery of voluntary movement and basic mobility following stroke. A direct-observation reliability study was conducted on 20 patients who had strokes and were in a rehabilitation setting. Subjects were assessed by two physical therapists. The reliability of the STREAM scores was demonstrated by weighted kappa statistics for inter-rater agreement on scores for individual items ranged from .83 to 1.0, intraclass correlation coefficients for total score was .99, and for subscale scores was ranged from .96 to .99. The internal consistency of the STREAM scores was demonstrated by Cronbach alphas of greater than .99 on the subscales and overall. These high levels of reliability support the use of the STREAM translated in Korean instrument for the measurement of motor recovery following stroke.
Mortality rates from stroke have been declining. Because of this, more people are living with residual disability. Rehabilitation plays an important role in functional recovery of stroke survivors. In stroke rehabilitation, early prediction of the obtainable level of functional recovery is desirable to deliver efficient care, set realistic goals, and provide appropriate discharge planning. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of functional outcome after stroke using inpatient rehabilitation as measured by Functional Independence Measure (FIM) total scores. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed on data collected retrospectively from two-hundred thirty-five patients. More than moderate correlation was found between FIM total scores at the time of hospital admission and FIM total scores at the time of discharge from the hospital. Significant predictors of FIM at the time of discharge were FIM total scores at the time of hospital admission, age, and onset-admission interval. The equation was as follows: expected discharge FIM total score = 76.12+.62×(admission FIM total score)-.38×(age)-.15×(onset-admission interval). These findings suggest that FIM total scores at the time of hospital admission, age, and onset-admission interval are important determinants of functional outcome.
The purpose of this study was to establish reliability and validity of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) translated into Korean for neck pain patients. Sixty-two subjects (35 males, 27 females) with neck pain enrolled in the study. They completed a standardized self-administered questionnaire that included pain intensity, sleeping, sensory at night, duration of symptoms, carrying, reading and watching television, working, social activities, and driving. Reliability was determined by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha by internal consistency. Validity was examined by correlating the NPQ scores to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score. Test-retest reliability of the translated versions of the NPQ was good ICC(2,1)=.83 (95%CI=.85~.95). Cronbach's alpha value for NPQ was found to be .87 and this was statistically significant (p<.05). The criterion-related validity coefficients was .75 (p<.01). We concluded that the Korean version NPQ was shown to be a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of neck pain.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the variations in gait parameters in terms of the type of arm sling used in hemiplegic patients. Ten patients with hemiplegia and ten healthy adults participated in this study and walked at self-selected speeds on a GAITRite-instrumented carpet. The activities of the opposite shoulder girdle muscle including the latissimus dorsi, anterior deltoid, and posterior deltoid were simultaneously recorded using surface EMG during gait. They were randomly assigned a condition: without an arm sling, a single strap arm sling, a Harris hemi arm sling, a Rolyan humeral cuff arm sling, and a Bobath roll arm sling. The following gait variables were analyzed: the temporo-spatial parameters of velocity, step length, stride length, swing phase, stance phase, single support, step time and toe in/toe out. The statistical analysis was one-way ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the variation of each variable. In comparison of parameters in each trial in the hemiplegia group, the non-affected side stride length, single support, and toe in/toe out resulted in statistically significantly changes (p<.05). But without an arm sling group did not show any gait parameter differences with arm slings. This study found that several arm slings varied gait patterns in patients with hemiplegia and in healthy adults. In the EMG analysis, the Rolyan humeral cuff arm sling and the Bobath roll arm sling were higher muscle activity for the latissimus dorsi muscle than did the single strap ann sling. Further study should examine the problems that appeared in patients who worn arm slings by focusing on a larger number of subjects and by studying the variety of responses in more detail using an assessment tool that measures variation.