Motor skill learning can be acquired implicitly without consciousness of what is being learned. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of implicit motor learning in young and elderly people using a perceptual-motor task. Forty normal young and elderly subjects participated. A modified version of the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) using six blocks of twelve perceptual motor sequences was administered. The paradigm consisted of the first random sequence block followed by the four patterned blocks and another random block. In each block, the go signal consisted of an asterisk displayed in the one of the four parallel arrayed boxes in the middle of the screen. Subjects were instructed to push the corresponding response buttons as quickly as possible. Young subjects demonstrated shorter reaction times during the consecutive patterned blocks reflecting appropriate learning accomplished. Elderly subjects were able to learn a perceptual-motor task with implicit knowledge, but the performance was lower than that of the young persons. These results indicated that implicit sequence learning is still preserved in elderly adults, but the rate of learning is slower.
The purpose of this study was to validate the Korean version of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) using Rasch analysis. The data was obtained from the assessments of 59 children with cerebral palsy in Korea and were applied to Rasch's rating scale model to estimate the difficulty and goodness-of-fit of each item. Rasch modeling helped us to identify 76 items from the original 88-item GMFM that form an unidimensional hierarchical scale to rearrange 76 items in order of difficulty. Reliability coefficients of the 88-item and 76-item GMFM were .99 and .99, respectively. In this preliminary report, the Korean version of GMFM seems to have significant validity and reliability. These results may be useful in assessment of gross motor functions in children with cerebral palsy.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of applied insole types to lower extremities muscle fatigue during treadmill exercise. The control group and each different insole type group consisted of ten healthy male subjects. In the control group and each different insole type (soft type; 10 shore, semi-rigid type; 33 shore, rigid type; 50 shore) treadmill exercise was performed in twenty-five minutes. The electromyography (EMG) signals of four muscle (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris) were recording at sampling rate of 1024 Hz during treadmill exercise. The localized muscle fatigue (LMF) can be investigated using power spectral analysis. When did data analysis that excepted initial five minutes. The raw EMG signals was processed using the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and the median power frequency value was determined in initial ten second period and in last ten second period. Fatigue index was calculated and collected data were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 10.0 two-way using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures () was used to determine the main effect and interaction. Post hoc was performed with least significant difference. A level of significance was .05. Muscles fatigue index were significantly decreased in insole types (p<.05) and not significantly different in muscle (p>.05). Post hoc analysis shows that fatigue index in soft insole type, semi-rigid insole type and rigid insole type were lower than that control group (p=.028, p=.146, p=.095). There were no interaction between insole type and muscles (p>.05). The finding of this study can be used as a fundamental data when insole is applied and insole can be used to decreased of a fatigue during the dynamic exercise.
The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of wedged insole and foot progression angle (FPG) on lateral thrust of knee in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recruited from Suncheon First College, in Suncheon. The subjects randomly walked at the comfortable velocity under five conditions: bare footed, medio-lateral wedged insoles, toe-in and toe-out gait. The lateral thrust was measured by a accelerometer with telemeter during walking. Data was collected while each subject walked for about 10 gait cycle on a flat, level walkway at their normal speed. The middle three gait cycle were used for averaged peak value of lateral acceleration. The three averaged peak value of lateral acceleration were collected under each condition at heel strike. The results showed that averaged peak value of lateral acceleration increased significantly in medial wedged insole and toe-in gait and decreased significantly in lateral wedged insole and toe-out gait as compared with bare footed (p<.05). These results suggest that wedged insole as well as walking strategy, such as foot progression angle, may prevent progression of degenerative knee osteoarthritis.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation and characteristics between electromyographic (EMG) activities of lower leg muscles and the posturographic assessment of static balance control in normal adults. Twenty-four young, healthy adults(12 males, 12 females) participated in the study. Center of pressure (COP) parameters were obtained using force platform as total path distance, total sway area, X mean frequency and Y mean frequency for 20 seconds in the following conditions: (1) comfortable standing with eyes opened or closed, (2) uncomfortable standing (feet together) with eyes opened or closed, (3) virtual moving surround delivered using Head mount display (HMD) with four different moving patterns. The virtual moving patterns consisted of close-far, superior-inferior tilting (pitch), right-left tilting (roll), and horizontal rotation (yaw) movements. Surface electromyographic activites were recorded on the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius muscles under each condition. Correlation between the posturographic measures and EMG activities were evaluated. Total path distance and total sway area of COP were significantly increased during uncomfortable standing. EMG activity of tibialis anterior was significantly more during uncomfortable standing and virtual moving surround stimulation than during comfortable standing. Total path distance and sway area of COP during comfortable standing with closed eyes showed significant positive correlation with the EMG activities of the lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle. Total path distances and total sway area of COP during muscle. Total path distances and total sway area of COP during presentation of virtual moving surround also had significant positive correlations with EMG activities of the lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle under close-far movement.
In most tissues, apoptosis plays a pivotal role in normal development and in regulation of cell number. Therefore inappropriate apoptosis is revealed in a variety of diseases. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of acupuncture and needle electrode electrical stimulation on the change of caspase-3, 9 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactive cells in the sprague dawley rats (SD rat). In immobilized SD rats (n=5), enhanced caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression were detected in the reticular part of substantia nigra, and enhanced nNOS was detected in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (DL-PAG) of midbrain and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry. Following the immobilization, acupuncture (n=5) and needle electrode electrical stimulation (n=5, 2 Hz) was applied at Hg (LI4) acupoint of SD rats, respectively. The stress-induced enhancement in the expression of caspase-3, 9 and nNOS were The present results demonstrate that and needle electrode electrical stimulation are effective in the modulation of expression of caspase-3, 9 and nNOS induced by immobilization.
These were two main purposes of this study. The first was to research the relevance between gross motor function measurement (GMFM) and the spatiotemporal parameters of gait in children with cerebral palsy. The second was to research the relevance between gross motor performance measure (GMPM) and the spatiotemporal gait parameters. Twelve children ( years) with cerebral palsy participated in this study. GMFM and GMPM were performed and the spatiotemporal parameters of gait were measured by using WalkWay MG-1000. There were no significant correlations between the GMFM score and the stride length, step length, step width, cadence, and velocity (p>.05). The GMPM score also had no significant correlation with the spatiotemporal gait parameter (p>.05).