The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the applicability of audio-visual modeling for improving the efficiency of rehabilitative programs by analyzing the effects of observing these various models on the capacity of stroke patients to perform upper limb activities. Twenty-one stroke patients participated in the experiment and were randomly assigned to either task modeling, sport modeling, or control group. During 2 weeks of intervention, subjects in all groups participated in the physical practice of experimental tasks. These tasks comprised of a Nine Hole Peg Test, the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function tests, and locomotion. These tasks were performed 5 days a week, 30 min per day. In addition to the physical practice, the task modeling group observed a model performing experimental tasks and locomotive activities for 20 min, while the sport modeling group observed a model performing various sport activities for 20 min. Subjects' ability to perform the experimental tasks was measured 3 times, before, immediately after, and 1 week after the intervention. Analyses of the capacity to perform upper extremity activities displayed significant improvement from the pre-test to immediate and delayed post-tests in all groups. However, the amount of improvement was the highest in the task modeling group. The task modeling group was superior to the control group in the post-test of all experimental tasks, whereas the sport modeling group did not display significant differences from the control group. These results suggest that audio-visual modeling can be used as an effective cognitive intervention for facilitating the rehabilitation of stroke patients, and its rehabilitative effect can be maximized when the program is comprised of performance scenes directly related to the target task.
The development of neonatal neuromuscular system is accomplished by the functional interaction between the spinal neurons and its target cells, skeletal muscle cells, and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting this process. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of suspension unloading (SU) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) upon the development of the neonatal spinal cord. For this study, the neonatal rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, an experimental group I, and an experimental group II. The SU for experimental group I and II was applied from postnatal day (PD) 5 to PD 30, and the NMES for experimental group II was applied from PD 16 to PD 30 using NMES that gave isometric contraction with 10 Hz for 30 minutes twice a day. In order to observe the effect of SU and NMES, this study observed neutrophin-3 (NT-3) and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord (L4-5) at the PD 15 and PD 30. The results are as follows. At PD 15, lumbar spinal cord of experimental group I and II had significantly lower NT-3 and MAP2 immunoreactivity than control group. It proved that a microgravity condition restricted the spinal development. At PD 30, lumbar spinal cord of control group and experimental group II had significantly higher NT-3 and MAP2 immunoreactivity than experimental group I. It proved that the NMES facilitated the spinal development by spinal cord-skeletal muscle interaction. These results suggest that weight bearing during the neonatal developmental period is essential for the development of neuromuscular development. Also, the NMES on its target skeletal muscle can encourage the development of the spinal cord system with a full supplementation of the effect of weight bearing, which is an essential factor in neonatal developmental process.
The purpose of this study was to compare the onset times of muscle activities and the order of muscle firing in erector spinae, multifidus, rectus abdominis and biceps brachii during perturbation between subjects with and without work-related chronic low back pain (LBP). Twenty-nine subjects, 14 with and 15 without LBP, participated in this study. The muscle responses were measured by surface EMG (electromyography) during perturbation in eye opened and eye closed conditions. The EMG onset times of the erector spinae, multifidus, rectus abdominis and biceps brachii were similar between groups in eye closed condition. But the onset times of the erector spinae, multifidus, rectus abdominis were significantly delayed in subjects with LBP in eye opened condition. The results provide an evidence for impaired feed-forward control of the trunk muscles in subjects with LBP. Further studies are needed to identify whether the impaired feed-forward control of the trunk muscles is the contributing factor to LBP.
Muscle tone (stiffness/hardness) or muscle compliance changes during muscle contraction. The purposes of this study were to assess the intrarater and interrater reliabilities of the Myotonometer®, electronic device that quantifies muscle tone. Two raters used the Myotonometer to assess the right bicep brachia and quadriceps muscles of 30 voluntary persons without any orthopedic or neurological problems (age range, 18~21 yrs). Muscles were measured in a relaxed state and during brief sustained voluntary maximal isometric contraction. Intrarater correlation coefficients were calculated for each muscle and for each condition (relaxed and contracted). Intrarater reliabilities (intraclass correlation coefficients, ICCs) ranged from .778 to .954, relaxed, biceps brachia), .926 to .963 (contracted, biceps brachia), .935 to .990 (relaxed, quadriceps) and .679 to .952(contracted, quadriceps). Interrater reliabilities ranged from .652 to .790 (relaxed, biceps brachii), .813 to .907 (contracted, biceps brachii), .831 to .950 (relaxed, quadriceps) and .849 to .937 (contracted, quadriceps). Myotonometer measurements had high to very high intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements of the biceps brachia and quadriceps muscles.
Electrical acupuncture has been shown to induce hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The Zusanli acupoints have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve symptoms of diabetes mellitus. But, the effects of electrical acupuncture stimulation of different frequencies are still unclear. We designed an experiment to investigate the effect of electrical acupuncture of high (100 Hz) and low (2 Hz) frequencies on Zusanli acupoint for 15 minutes in streptozotocin diabetic rats. They were divided into 4 groups, high frequency electrical acupuncture (HFEA group, n=5), low frequency electrical acupuncture (LFEA group, n=5), without any treatment (control group, n=5) and normal group (n=5). After 2 weeks of treatment, the HFEA and LFEA groups had a significantly decreased glucose concentration in serum in comparison to the control group. Additionally, the HFEA group had a significantly decreased glucose concentration in serum compared with the LFEA group. Both the HFEA and LFEA groups had a significantly decreased Immunoglobulin G concentration in serum compared with control group. The LFEA and control groups had a significantly increased cholesterol concentration in serum compared with the normal group, but the HFEA did not have a significantly increased cholesterol concentration. Thus we suggest that electrical acupuncture stimulation at the Zusanli acupoints is effective on hypoglycemic effect and immune function. Overall, the therapeutic effects of electrical acupuncture at 100 Hz was better than effects at 2 Hz.
This study was carried out to compare the muscle activities of the shoulder stabilizers between persons with and without winging scapular during push-up plus exercise (adds the scapular protraction to the general push-up exercise). For this study, eleven males with winging scapular and eleven healthy males were recruited. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and pectoralis major while the subjects performed the push-up plus. Each push-up plus was subdivided into three phases according to the elbow position which was measured using the 3-D motion analysis system: elbow flexion (EF), elbow extension (EE), and shoulder protraction phases (SP). Two-way repeated measure ANOVA (phase group) were used for statistical analysis. There was significant phase by group interaction only on the EMG composition ratio of the serratus anterior (p>.05). The EMG composition ratio of the serratus anterior was significantly higher in SP than in either EF or EE however, it was not different between winging scapular and normal groups. For both groups, the EMG composition ratio of upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and pectoralis major was significantly different across the phases of push-up plus, but the infraspinatus EMG composition ratio was not. For both groups, in EF and EE phases, the EMG composition ratio of both pectoralis major and serratus anterior were relatively higher than that of other muscles. However, in both groups, the EMG composition ratio of the serratus anterior became much more predominant than that of the pectoralis major. In addition, infraspinatus activated greater than pectoralis major. These results showed that the push-up plus exercise is effective to selectively strengthen the serratus anterior for both individuals with and without winging scapular, but not equally effective for other shoulder stabilizers.
The objective of this study was to discover the effects of the short-term home visiting physical therapy program involving patients with some chronic brain disorders at Gimhae City, Kyongnam. Recovery of activities of daily living (ADL) is a very important factor of rehabilitative procedures, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) is a useful standard of evaluation for it. The FIM is widely used in brain disorder research because it measures real functional activities of daily living. We applied the physical therapy exercise program twice per week (10~15 times repeatedly); a warm-up and cool down exercise performed every ten minutes by active & active-assistive ROM and stretching exercises. Main exercises were composed of getting up & laying down in bed, standing training, walking exercise in the room, and window or wall sliding exercise using affected upper limbs for a total duration of 30 minutes. We collected the data from 20 patients with chronic brain disorders at his/her home and analyzed by means of SPSS/PC+ program (Ver. 10.0). After the six week long physical therapy exercise program, the average was 56.10±22.59 point compared with initial 50.55±19.12 point by FIM, improved functional ADL ability about 5.55 point, and these changed scores were statistically significant (p=.000). We also studied another factor regarding patient's satisfaction. The majority of subjects (10 people) rated the program with the maximum score of ten points (50.0%), and three people rated it a seven point program (15.0%), the other two subjects gave a rating of nine and eight points (10.0%). Because the program was effective at improving the physical ADL ability and satisfaction of each subject, we suggest continual development and implementation of a home visiting physical therapy program. Further study should involve a longer period of observation with a larger population that is involved in an individually designed home physical therapy program.
The purpose of this study was to examine inter- and intra-examiner reliability of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) anatomical landmarks palpation. Two physical therapists and one doctor specializing in rehabilitation examined 22 asymptomatic subjects. They examined anterior superior iliac supine (ASIS), posterior superior iliac supine (PSIS) and iliac crest (IC). For the assessment of intra-examiner reliability, 3 examiners repeated the measurements 3 times over a 2-week interval. Kappa (Kg) yielded intra-examiner reliability that ranged between slight to fair for the ASIS (Kg=.06 to .26; mean Kg=.19), and slight for the PSIS(Kg=-.04 to .18; mean Kg=.07) and slight to fair for the IC (Kg=.06 to .32; mean Kg=.21). Inter-examiner reliability was slight (ASIS Kg=.13; PSIS Kg=.05; IC Kg=.14). These results suggest that the reliability of the assessing SIJ anatomical landmarks using palpation and observation as an indication of SIJ dysfunction still remains questionable. Before this test can be relied upon as an accurate indicator of SIJ dysfunction, it must undergo further research. This further research needs to examine not only reliability, but also validity, sensitivity and specificity.
Reductions in strength and range of motion in older persons have been associated with decreased functional mobility and risk of falls. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of intensive dynamic balance exercise (DBE) during 8 weeks on onset time of medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle contraction after perturbation in older women. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned into DBE group or control group. The DBE group participated in 50 minutes 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Surface electromyography (EMG) activity was recorded from the medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles of left side. Outcome data were collected both groups at the pre-exercise and post-exercise. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used to determine the statistical difference. Results showed that the passive range of motion and functional reach test were significantly increased in the DBE group than the control group at the post-exercise (p<.05). The onset time of both muscles and discrepancy of onset time significantly reduced in the DBE group than the control group at the post-exercise (p<.05). The onset time of both muscles were significantly reduced in the post-exercise than the pre-exercise in the DBE group (p<.05). The discrepancy of onset time in the DBE group was significantly reduced in the post-exercise than the pre-exercise (p<.05). These findings suggest that intensive dynamic balance exercise for the eight weeks was effective in improving the postural control with older persons.
This study was designed to determine the efficacy of ultrasound and laser therapy for sub-acute lower back pain. Twenty-seven patients with sub-acute low back pain were recruited, who were randomly assigned to three groups: Ultrasound group (actual ultrasound, 1.1 MHz, , duty cycle 100%, 10 min/session, n=9), laser group (actual laser, 904 nm, 155 ns, 13.5 W, 12 mW, 90 sec/point, n=9), and control group (placebo ultrasound or placebo laser, n=9). All of treatments including placebo procedures were applied to patients over a period of 2 weeks, five times a week. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Modified Schober's Test (MST), and Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ) were used by the clinical and functional evaluations before and after intervention. At post-hoc, significant differences were observed in all groups with respect to VAS, MST (p<.05), except MODQ. VAS and MST score were more significantly improved in the ultrasound group than the laser and control group (p<.0167). However, no significant difference was present between the laser group and the control group. Therefore, this study revealed that ultrasound therapy was effective in pain relief and improvement of lumbar mobility in patients with sub-acute lower back pain. However, laser therapy did not show the effects for sub-acute lower back pain.
In many manufacturing occupations, industrial workers reported foot or lower leg problems such as discomfort, pain or orthopedic deformities. This study investigated the effects of two different working conditions upon assembly worker's perception of discomfort and foot pain associated with various body parts. Twenty-three male volunteers performed work in the factory. Ergonomic intervention has been to modify the flooring in an attempt to alleviate the problems associated with constrained standing and walking work. The worker's standing conditions consisted of standing on a hard floor while wearing shoe insoles. Questions were asked regarding body discomfort and foot pain. Significant differences in body discomfort and foot pain were found when comparing the overall effects of wearing shoe insoles on a hard floor (p<.05). This investigation indicated that shoe insoles reduced body discomfort and foot pain (p<.05).