Most exercise for Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) has focused on selectively strengthening the vastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO). Although open chain knee extension exercises are effective for increasing overall quadriceps strength, they are not always indicated for PFPS rehabilitation. This study was designed to identify the effect of combined posture of lower extremity on Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) and VMO during static squat exercises. The subjects were twenty young adult males who had not experienced any knee injury and their Q-angle was within a normal range. They were asked to perform static squat exercises in five various postures using their lower extremities. The EMG activity of the VL and VMO were recorded in five exercises by surface electrodes and normalized by %MVC values derived from seated, isometric knee extensions. The normalized EMG activity levels (%MVC) of the VL and VMO for the five postures of the lower extremities were compared using one way ANOVA with repeated measures. Results of repeated measures of ANOVA's revealed that exercise 3 and exercise 5 produced significantly greater EMG activity of VMO/VL ratios than exercise 1 (p<.05). When the static squat exercise was combined with hip adduction and toes pointed outwardly, the EMG activity of VMO/VL rates was increased. The EMG activity of VMO/VL ratio was highest during static squat exercises performed on a decline squat. These results haveimportant implications for progressive and selective VMO muscle strengthening exercises in PFPS patients.
This study is aimed at investigating the influence of different quantitative knowledge of results on the measurement error during lumbar proprioceptive sensation training. Twenty-eight healthy adult men participated and subjects were randomly assigned into four different feedback groups(100% relative frequency with an angle feedback, 50% relative frequency with an angle feedback, 100% relative frequency with a length feedback, 50% relative frequency with a length feedback). An electrogoniometer was used to determine performance error in an angle, and the Schober test with measurement tape was used to determine performance error in a length. Each subject was asked to maintain an upright position with both eyes closed and both upper limbs stabilized on their pelvis. Lumbar vertebrae flexion was maintained at for three seconds. Different verbal knowledge of results was provided in four groups. After lumbar flexion was performed, knowledge of results was offered immediately. The resting period between the sessions per block was five seconds. Training consisted of 6 blocks, 10 sessions per one block, with a resting period of one minute. A resting period of five minutes was provided between 3 blocks and 4 blocks. A retention test was performed between 10 minutes and 24 hours later following the training block without providing knowledge of results. To determine the training effects, a two-way analysis of variance and a one-way analysis of variance were used with SPSS Ver. 10.0. A level of significance was set at .05. A significant block effect was shown for the acquisition phase (p<.05), and a significant feedback effect was shown in the immediate retention phase (p>.05). There was a significant feedback effect in the delayed retention phase (p<.05), and a significant block effect in the first acquisition phase and the last retention phase (p<.05). In conclusion, it is determined that a 50% relative frequency with a length feedback is the most efficient feedback among different feedback types.
The purposes of this study were to analyze gait patterns of patients with chronic lumboscaral radiculopathy and to investigate gait parameters which can reflect a functional deficit in relation to the level of lumbosacral radiculopathy. The study population consisted of 25 patients of chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy and 25 healthy control subjects. Conventional physical examinations and three-dimensional gait analyses were performed on all participants. The data were analyzed using an independent sample t-test. The results were as follows: (1) In the patients' group, cadence, walking velocity, stride length and double support time were less than in the control group (p<.05). (2) In the patients' group, maximum flexion of hip, maximum flexion of loading response, maximum flexion of swing phase on the knee and maximum plantar flexion of pre-swing were less than the control group (p<.05). Using three-dimensional gait analysis, we could identify specific gait parameters to reflect a functional deficit related to the level of lumbosacral radiculopathy.
The use of a gym ball is becoming more popular for dynamic balance exercises. However, little is known about the effects of the dynamic ball exercises in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to compare balance and functional mobility after dynamic balance exercises using a gym ball to reduce the risk factorfor falls. All of the 15 subjects were women between the ages of 68 and 91 (mean age=79.9 yrs, SD=5.87) at anursing home in Wonju. Seven of fifteen subjects were placed in the experimental group and the others in the control group. Three clinical tests were used to determine the degree of balance and functional mobility before beginning the exercise program, after 4 weeks of gym ball exercise, and after 8 weeks of gym ball exercise. These three tests included Timed Up & Go (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Dynamic ball exercises training for 8 weeks (5 days per week) included side stretching, prone walking, bridging, marching and opposite arm and leg lifting. There were significant differences found before the gym ball exercise program began and after 4 weeks and then 8 weeks in the experimental group (p<.05). Significant differences between the groups were shown for TUG and BBS (p<.05). No significant difference was noted between the groups for FIM. Therefore, gym ball exercises can improve dynamic balance and may be recommended to include in a therapeutic program to help the elderly reduce their risk of a fall.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of rehabilitation exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation on a visual analysis scale and functional visual analysis scale regarding functional capacity. A total of 7 consecutive patients with the complaint of patellofemoral pain syndrome who received this diagnosis from a sports medicine physician were recruited to assess the effect of rehabilitation exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Functional Visual Analog Scale (FVAS), functional capacity patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The exercise rehabilitation consisted of a complex training program requiring five treatments a week for eight weeks. The training program consisted of four phases, and each lasted for two weeks. Statistical analyses were one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The results were as follows: (1) There were significant differences in the VAS and FVAS during 8-weeks of rehabilitation exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (p<.01). (2) There were no significant differences in the functional capacity during 8-weeks of rehabilitation exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (p<.05). In conclusion, at the end of the eight weeks of this rehabilitation program and neuromuscular electrical stimulation, a significant reduction was found in VAS and FVAS, but there was no significant difference in functional capacity at the end of the treatment.
This study was designed to determine the effects of different widths in the base of support (BOS) on trunk and lower extremity muscle activation during upper extremity exercise. Twenty-seven healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. Exercises were performed for a total of 10 trials with a load of 10 repetitions maximum (10 RM) for each of the various widths of BOS (10 cm, 32 cm, 45 cm). The width of a BOS is the distance between each medial malleoli when a subject was in a comfortable standing position. Electromyography was used to determine muscle activation. Surface bipolar electrodes were applied over the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, upper rectus abdominis, and elector spinae muscle. Electromyographic (EMG) root mean square (RMS) signal intensity was normalized to 5 seconds of EMG obtained with a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). The data were analyzed by atwo-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated-measures () and Bonferroni post hoc test. The results were as follows: (1) There were significant differences in the width of the BOS (p=.006). (2) The post hoc test showed significant differences with the BOS between 10 cm and 32 cm, between 10 cm and 45 cm and between 32 cm and 35 cm (p=.008, p=.003, p=.011). (3) There was no interaction with the BOS and muscle. (p=.438) There were no significant differences in the muscle activation (p=.215).
The purpose of this study was to compare the postural muscle activity during wearing a lead apron with and without applying waist belt at working posture. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. Electromyography using a surface EMG recorded the activity of the splenius capitis, trapezius, and erector spinae. EMG activity was recorded at quiet standing, 45 degrees of neck flexion, 45 degrees of neck flexion with 15 degrees of trunk flexion. The testing order was selected randomly. The subjects were asked to maintain the each posture for 3 minutes. The mean root mean square (RMS) of EMG activity was calculated. EMG activity was normalized using the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) elicited using a manual muscle testing technique. Two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the average RMS value of EMG activity for each condition. The EMG activity of trapezius muscle was significantly decreased with applying waist belt (p<.05). The muscle activity of splenius capitis and erector spinae showed significant difference according to postures (p<.05). These results suggest that applying waist belt during wearing a lead apron will be useful to prevent shoulder pain.
The purpose of this study was to propose a task-related circuits program for stroke patients and to test the difference in functional improvements between patients undergoing conventional physical therapy and those participating in a task-related circuits exercise program. The subjects were 10 stroke in-patients of the Korea National Rehabilitation Center in Seoul. We measured the following variables: Motor Assessment Scale (MAS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Tone Assessment Scale (TAS), speed of gait, rate of step, physiological costs index, age, weight, height, site of lesion, onset day and whether the subject participated in an exercise program. Collected data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 10.0/PC using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Spearman's correlation. The results of the experiment were as follows: (1) In the pre-test and post-test for function, there was not a statistical significance between the group partaking in a task-related circuits program and the group of conventional physical therapy (p>.05). (2) In the MAS, BBS and speed of gait test, the group undergoing conventional physical therapy showed a statistical significance (p<.05). (3) In the MAS, BBS, speed of gait, PCI, TAS (passive, associated reaction, TAS total score), the group of task-related circuits program showed a statistical significance (p<.05). As a result, the group participating in a task-related circuits program had a more functional improvement than the group participating in conventional physical therapy. Therefore, an intervention recommended for a stroke patient would be a task-related circuits program consisting of a longer session of each task for a more improved functional recovery.
This study analyzes the factors involving clinical practice which have an influence on the satisfaction of students majoring in physical therapy at colleges or universities located in the Pusan and Kyungnam area. We investigated using a self-reporting method 305 students receiving a grade point average between 2.0 and 4.0 and who had finished their clinical practice. We also investigated the characteristics of clinical settings which make up the clinical practice, the general characteristics of the students involved and the characteristics of a clinical teaching method performed by physical therapists versus a teaching method by a professor of a university. The number of students divided according to educational background are as follows: 149 people (48.9% of the total group) were 4 year students, 156 people were 3 year students (51.1% of the total group). Sixty-nine students' or 22.6% of the group were men while women consisted of 236 persons or 77.4% of the group. Four year students had a longer clinical practice period than that of the 3 year students (p<.05). An average satisfaction score of students with their clinical practice was 3.84. The satisfaction scores showed no significant difference between genders, educational backgrounds, and grades. (p>.05). There were no significant differences in the satisfaction score of students with their clinical practice was 3.84. The satisfaction scores showed no significant difference between genders, educational backgrounds, and grades. (p>.05). There were no significant differences in the satisfaction scores regarding the student management system among varying gender or educational backgrounds between the 3 year and 4 year programs. The average satisfaction score with the environment of the physical therapy room was 3.35. And there were no significant differences in the physical therapy room satisfaction score based on sex or educational system (p>.05). The most influential factor of determining clinical practice satisfaction was a student management system of the clinical practice (p<.01). The next most influential factors were the clinical practice period (p<.05), size of facilities (p<.01) and relationship with physical therapists (p<.01) (=.554).
The purpose of this study was to find the difference in muscle firing rate between each muscle according to the knee angle with the quadriceps femoris which is a representative action muscle of the lower extremity. Seven normal healthy subjects were recruited. The median frequency (MDF) of muscle contraction was recorded from vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and rectus femoris muscles using the surface EMG, in 5 seconds, during maximal isometric knee extension. The data were analyzed by the two-way repeated ANOVA. The results of the study were as follows: 1) median frequency of muscle contraction was significantly higher at the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and rectus femoris in descending order. 2) median frequency of muscle contraction was significantly higher at the , , and in descending order. Consequently, muscle recruitment at the knee decreases the EMG activity of the lengthened muscle. This study suggests that the change in EMG activity at different muscle lengths resulted in affecting the muscle firing rate during the knee extension.