Background: Lumbopelvic stability is highly important for exercise therapy for patients with low back pain and shoulder dysfunction. It can be attained using a pelvic compression belt. Previous studies showed that external pelvic compression (EPC) enhances form closure by reducing sacroiliac joint laxity and selectively strengthens force closure and motor control by reducing the compensatory activity of the stabilizer. In addition, when the pelvic compression belt was placed directly on the anterior superior iliac spine, the laxity of the sacroiliac cephalic joint could be significantly reduced.
Objects: This study aimed to compare the effects of EPC on lumbopelvic and shoulder muscle surface electromyography (EMG) activities during push-up plus (PUP) and deadlift (DL) exercise, trunk extensor strength during DL exercise.
Methods: Thirty-eight subjects (21 men and 17 women) volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects were instructed to perform PUP and DL with and without the EPC. EMG data were collect from serratus anterior (SA), pectoralis major (PM), erector spinae (ES), and multifidus (MF). Trunk extensor strength were tested in DL exercise. The data were collected during 3 repetitions of all exercise and the mean of root mean square was used for analysis.
Results: The EMG activities of the SA and PM were significantly increased in PUP with pelvic compression as compared with PUP without pelvic compression (p<.05). In DL exercise, a significant improvement in trunk extensor strength was observed during DL exercise with pelvic compression (p<.05).
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that lumbopelvic stabilization reinforced with external pelvic compression may be propitious to strengthen PUP in more-active SA and PM muscles. Applying EPC can improve the trunk extensor strength during DL exercise. Our study shows that EPC was beneficial to improve the PUP and DL exercise efficiency.
Background: Passive straight leg raising (PSLR) is the common clinical test to measure of hamstring muscle length. Hip flexion angle contributes to change the lumbopelvic rotation during PSLR. Pressure biofeedback unit (PBU) is commonly used to detect lumbopelvic movement during lower limb movements. Thus, there may be the relationship between pressure of PBU and lumbopelvic motion during PSLR.
Objects: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between pressure of PBU and lumbopelvic motion during PSLR.
Methods: Thirty two subjects participated in this study. A three-dimensional motion analysis system were used to measure the lumbopelvic angle during PSLR, while recording the pressure of PBU according to angle of PSLR by 10 degree increments. Pearson product moment correlations and linear regression analysis were used to describe the relationship between variables.
Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between the lumbopelvic and angle of PSLR (Pearson’s r=.83, p<.05), between the pressure of PBU and angle of PSLR (Pearson’s r=.75, p<.05), and between lumbopelvic motion and pressure of PUB (Pearson’s r=.83, p<.05). Linear regression equation using lumbopevic angle as an independent factor was as follows: Pressure of PBU = 47.35 + (2.55 × angle of lumbopelvic motion) (R2=.69, p<.05).
Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that pressure of PBU can be used to indirectly detect the amounts of lumbobevic motion during muscle length test or stretching of hamstring.
Background: Genu varum is also known as bow leg. It is a deformity wherein there is lateral bowing of the legs at the knee. it does give rise to pain, and persistent bowing can often give rise to discomfort in knees, hips and ankles.
Objects: This study investigated the effect of narrow squats on the knee joint during a gait and distance between the knees of person with genu varum.
Methods: This study analyzed 23 patient with genu varum that grade Ⅲ, 12 narrow squat group and 11 genenal squat group in motion analysis laboratory. The subjects of experiment took gait before and after intervention, the range of joint motion, moment of knee joint adduction, power, distance of the knees were measured. And in order to make an analysis between groups, an paiered t-test and independent t-test was carried out. For statistical significance testing, it was decided that significance level α be .05.
Results: It was shown that the group of narrow squat exercise significantly decreased in distance of knees (p<.05),In moment of adduction of knee joint, it was shown to significantly decrease in two groups (p<.05), was significantly decreased in adduction, abduction, and rotation (p<.05). In relation of peak-knee adduction moment and valgus angle, there was significant decrease in narrow squat group (p<.05).
Conclusion: When the above result of study were examined, a narrow squat exercise given to the genu varum patients significantly decreased the distance between the knees, range of knee adduction and abduction, knee adduction moment, knee power. And stability gains through the decrease of excursion of knee medial part be effective for the correction of genu varum deformation.
Background: At present time, smartphones have become very popular and powerful devices, and smartphone applications with the good validity have been designed to assess human balance ability.
Objects: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of smartphone acceleration in the assessment of postural control ability for six different conditions.
Methods: Twenty healthy college-aged individuals volunteered. Static balance ability was measured twice with one-day interval using smartphone application and 3D motion capture system under the six different conditions.
Results: Dominant frequencies for each test condition did not show significant differences except for two conditions. The intra-rater correlation coefficient between the first and second tests showed high correlations in six conditions(r>.70, p<.05). Smartphone acceleration and the acceleration calculated from the 3D marker position data showed high correlation coefficient(r>.80, p<.001).
Conclusion: Acceleration recorded from a smartphone could be useful assessment variables for balance test in the clinical field.
Background: High string instrument (violin, viola) players are at high risk for developing musculoskeletal problems. In particular, a higher prevalence of shoulder problems has been reported. However, evidence of the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise for musicians with this condition is lacking until now.
Objects: This case series study investigated the effect of a specific exercise program on shoulder pain, dysfunction, and posture of professional orchestral high string musicians.
Methods: Five professional orchestral high string players with shoulder pain participated in this study. A six-week specific exercise program focus on scapular stability for shoulder pain consisted of scapular muscle exercise. Physical examinations for pain and dysfunction, posture were performed, were identified among all subjects before starting the exercise program.
Results: The results revealed that shoulder pain decreased by 67.86% and the effect of pain on instrument play decreased by 63.33%. The shoulder pain and disability Index and the performing arts module-quick disability of the arm, shoulder and hand scale decreased by 71.72% and 51.61% respectively. The exercise program improved function and posture.
Conclusion: A specific exercise program for high string players was effective in managing shoulder pain. This case series is intended to provide empirical data on the effectiveness of an exercise program aimed at assessing the effect of exercise on pain, dysfunction, and posture of professional orchestra musicians associated with specific instrument groups.
Background: Despite muscle latency times and patterns were used as broad examination tools to diagnose disease and recovery, previous studies have not compared the dominant arm to the non-dominant arm in muscle latency time and muscle recruitment patterns during reaching and reach-to-grasp movements.
Objects: The present study aimed to investigate dominant and non-dominant hand differences in muscle latency time and recruitment pattern during reaching and reach-to-grasp movements. In addition, by manipulating the speed of movement, we examined the effect of movement speed on neuromuscular control of both right and left hands.
Methods: A total of 28 right-handed (measured by Edinburgh Handedness Inventory) healthy subjects were recruited. We recorded surface electromyography muscle latency time and muscle recruitment patterns of four upper extremity muscles (i.e., anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, flexor digitorum superficialis, and extensor digitorum) from each left and right arm. Mixed-effect linear regression was used to detect differences between hands, reaching and reach-to-grasp, and the fast and preferred speed conditions.
Results: There were no significant differences in muscle latency time between dominant and non-dominant hands or reaching and reach-to-grasp tasks (p>.05). However, there was a significantly longer muscle latency time in the preferred speed condition than the fast speed condition on both reaching and reach-to-grasp tasks (p<.05).
Conclusion: These findings showed similar muscle latency time and muscle activation patterns with respect to movement speeds and tasks. Our findings hope to provide normative muscle physiology data for both right and left hands, thus aiding the understanding of the abnormal movements from patients and to develop appropriate rehabilitation strategies specific to dominant and non-dominant hands.
Background: Progressive muscle weakness is aggravated not only in the skeletal muscles but also in the respiratory muscles in many patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD). Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been reported as therapy for pulmonary rehabilitation to improve respiratory strength, endurance, exercise capacity, and quality of life, and to reduce dyspnea.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of playing harmonica for 5 months on pulmonary function by assessing the force vital capacity (FVC), peak cough flow (PCF), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) in patients with NMD.
Methods: Six subjects with NMD participated in this study. The subjects played harmonica once a week for 2 hours at a harmonica academy and twice a week for 1 hour at home. Thus, training was performed thrice a week for 23 weeks. The examiner assessed pulmonary function by measuring FVC in the sitting and supine positions and PCF, MIP, MEP, and MVV in the sitting position at the beginning of training and once a month for 5 months.
Results: Both sitting and supine FVC significantly increased after playing harmonica (p=.042), as did MIP (p=.043) and MEP (p=.042). Conclusion: Playing harmonica can be used as an effective method to improve pulmonary function in patients with NMD.