Background: The lateral step down (LSD) is a form of stair negotiation used by the elderly because it requires less movement of the lower extremity. Although it is necessary to study the amount of pelvic drop and the strength of a hip abductor during LSD for intervention, limited studies have investigated the relationship between the amount of pelvic drop and strength of a hip abductor during LSD in elderly people.
Objects: This study aimed to determine the relationship between the amount of pelvic drop on an unsupported leg and the strength of the hip abductor during LSD in the elderly.
Methods: Thirty elderly people (male: 17, female: 13) were recruited. Subjects performed the LSD task, and the evaluator measured and the amount of pelvic drop on an unsupported side. Also, the isometric strength of the hip abductor was measured in a supine position.
Results: We found significant relationships between the strength of the hip abductor and the amount of pelvic drop (r = –0.386). The average hip abductor strength normalized by body weight was 1.06 N/kg (max: 1.99, min: 0.52) and the average contralateral pelvic drop (CPD) angle was 4.16° (max: 15.3, min: 0).
Conclusion: Our results indicated that the strength of the hip abductor had a moderate correlation with the CPD during a LSD in the elderly. Hip abductor weakness could translate into altered movement of the pelvis.
Background: For the elderly, masticatory function is one of the most important oral functions and the masticatory ability is related to the wearing of dentures. Many older people wear dentures for their masticatory function, but a significant number of older people who use dentures have found that they feel uncomfortable when performing their daily activities, such as performing masticating functions or talking.
Objects: The purpose of this study is to investigate how the forward head posture (FHP), respiratory function and thickness of masseter (MS), and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) are affected by the presence or absence of dentures in the elderly, and what kind of correlation there is between these variables.
Methods: The study was conducted on 11 patients in the normal group and 13 in the denture group. The participant’s cognitive ability was evaluated using Mini-Mental State Examination Korean (MMSE-K), and the FHP was evaluated by measuring the craniovertebral angle (CVA). The thickness of the MS and SCM muscles were measured using ultrasound, and respiration was measured with a spirometry. As for the statistical method, the correlation of each variable was investigated using Spearman’s correlation coefficient.
Results: In the normal group, there was a significant correlation between forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (p < 0.001), and in the denture group, FVC and FEV1 (p < 0.001), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) (p < 0.001), CVA and Lt. MS (p = 0.012).
Conclusion: CVA and Lt. MS of the denture group have a high negative correlation, it is related that the thickness of MS may be thick when the elderly wearing dentures are FHP.
Background: Virtual reality (VR) programs based on motion capture camera are the most convenient and cost-effective approaches for remote rehabilitation. Assessment of physical function is critical for providing optimal VR rehabilitation training; however, direct muscle strength measurement using camera-based kinematic data is impracticable. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method to indirectly estimate the muscle strength of users from the value obtained using a motion capture camera.
Objects: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the pedaling speed converted using the VR engine from the captured foot position data in the VR environment can be used as an indirect way to evaluate knee muscle strength, and to investigate the validity and reliability of a camera-based VR program.
Methods: Thirty healthy adults were included in this study. Each subject performed a 15-second maximum pedaling test in the VR and built-in speedometer modes. In the VR speedometer mode, a motion capture camera was used to detect the position of the ankle joints and automatically calculate the pedaling speed. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess the isometric and isokinetic peak torques of knee flexion and extension.
Results: The pedaling speeds in VR and built-in speedometer modes revealed a significantly high positive correlation (r = 0.922). In addition, the intra-rater reliability of the pedaling speed in the VR speedometer mode was good (ICC [intraclass correlation coefficient] = 0.685). The results of the Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant moderate positive correlation between the pedaling speed of the VR speedometer and the peak torque of knee isokinetic flexion (r = 0.639) and extension (r = 0.598).
Conclusion: This study suggests the potential benefits of measuring the maximum pedaling speed using 3D depth camera in a VR environment as an indirect assessment of muscle strength. However, technological improvements must be followed to obtain more accurate estimation of muscle strength from the VR cycling test.
Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is used for muscle strengthening. While voluntary muscle contraction follows Henneman et al.’s size principle, the NMES-induced muscle training disrespects the neurophysiology, which may lead to unwanted changes (i.e., declined balance ability).
Objects: We examined how the balance was affected by abdominal muscle training with the NMES.
Methods: Fifteen young adults (10 males and 5 females) aged between 21 and 30 received abdominal muscle strengthening with NMES for 23 minutes. Before and after the training, participants’ balance was measured through one leg standing on a force plate with eyes open or closed. Outcome variables included mean distance (MDIST), root mean square distance (RDIST), total excursion (TOTEX), mean velocity (MVELO), and 95% confidence circle area (AREA) of center of pressure data. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test if these outcome variables were associated with time (pre and post) and vision.
Results: All outcome variables were not associated with time (p > 0.05). However, all outcome variables were associated with vision (p = 0.0001), and MVELO and TOTEX were 52.4% (45.5 mm/s versus 95.6 mm/s) and 52.4% (364.1 mm versus 764.5 mm) smaller, respectively, in eyes open than eyes closed (F = 55.8, p = 0.0005; F = 55.8, p = 0.0005). Furthermore, there was no interaction between time and vision (F = 0.024, p = 0.877).
Conclusion: Despite the different neurophysiology of muscle contraction, abdominal muscle strengthening with NMES did not affect balance.
Background: The range of motion (ROM) and balance ability of the ankle joint affect the stability of the ankle and prevent injuries or hurts from falling. In the clinical tests conducted recently, the floss band is widely used to enhance the range of joint motion and exercise performance, and there are many studies that have applied it to ankle joint increasing dorsi flexion (DF) angle.
Objects: This study compared the effects on the range of ankle motion and static/dynamic balance ability of the ankle through three conditions (before floss band intervention, after floss band intervention, and after active exercise intervention) for adults.
Methods: One intervention between floss band and active exercise was applied randomly and another intervention was applied the next day. After each intervention, the ROM of the ankle joints and the static balance was checked by measuring conducting one leg test. And the dynamic balance was checked by conducting a Y-balance test.
Results: In the case of DF, the range of joint motion showed a significant increase after floss band intervention compared to before floss band intervention (p < 0.05). Static balance ability showed a significant increase after the intervention of floss band and active exercise compared to before the intervention of floss band (p < 0.05). The dynamic balance ability showed a significant increase after the intervention of the floss band compared to before intervention of the floss band and after active exercise intervention (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Based on these results, it was confirmed that the application of floss band to the ankle joint increases DF and improves the static and dynamic balance ability. Based on this fact, we propose the application of a floss band as an intervention method to improve the ROM of the ankle joint and improve the stability of the ankle in clinical field.
Background: Pilates exercises are used for body shape correction because they can achieve correct posture alignment through spinal stabilization.
Objects: This study aimed to determine whether the use of reformers increases the effectiveness of Pilates core exercises on body alignment in standing.
Methods: The study included 30 women without known diagnoses of musculoskeletal and neurological disorders or cancer. Those who had taken more than 10 Pilates lessons were excluded. The participants were randomly assigned to either the reformer exercise group or the mat exercise group, and interventional Pilates exercises were performed for 60 minutes a day, three times a week, for a total of 8 weeks. Ten movements of the reformer and mat Pilates core exercise programs were included. Exbody® 9100 MOMI musculoskeletal analysis equipment (Exbody Inc.) was used to assess the alignment of the standing posture in the frontal plane.
Results: As a result of comparing the differences within and between the groups before and after the intervention using the two-way mixed analysis of variance test, height differences in the head, pelvis, left and right, shoulders, scapulas, knees, and ankles in the frontal plane after the intervention were found in both groups. For example, the left-right symmetry of the body alignment in the standing posture was significantly improved within each group (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between the groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: Both the reformer and mat Pilates core exercises were effective for standing posture alignment, which has clinical significance. If an exercise program is developed based on the analysis of movements necessary for posture improvement and the target muscles to be strengthened, the same effect can be achieved only with mat exercise without using the reformer equipment at the beginner stage.