The main purposes of this study were to find the correlation between walking ability assessment tools using the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Spinal Cord Injury Measurement II (SCIM II), Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI), walking velocity, and walking endurance. The study population consisted of 56 patients with spinal cord injury referred to the department of Rehabilitative Medicine in the National Rehabilitation Hospital. All subjects were ambulatory with or without an assistive device. All participants were assessed by MBI, FIM, SCIM II, WISCI, walking velocity, and walking endurance. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis and X2. There was significant correlation between the MBI, FIM, SCIM II, WISCI, walking velocity, and walking endurance (p<.01). In particular, WISCI has a significant correlation with SCIM II(p<.001). Therefore the WISCI scale is an appropriate assessment tool to predict the gait ability of patients with spinal cord injury. Further study about MBI, FIM, SCIM II, WISCI, walking velocity, and walking endurance is needed using a longitudinal study design.
Skeletal muscle injury occurs frequently in sports medicine and is the most general form of injury followed by physical impact. There are growth factors which conduct proliferation, differentiation, and synthesis of myogenic prodromal cells and regulate vascular generation for the continued survival of myocytes. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and electrical stimulation (ES) on muscle recovery processes according to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into 2 experimental groups and a controlled group. All animals had suffered from crush damage in the extensor digitorum longus for 30 seconds and were killed 1, 3, and 7 days after injury. 30 Hz and 1 mA impulsion for 15 minutes was applied to the EA experimental groups Zusanli (ST36) and Taichong (LR3) using electroacupuncture and the same stimulation was applied to the ES group using an electrical node. Hematoxyline-Eosin staining and VEGF immunohistochemistry were used to ascertain the resulting muscle recovery. There were few morphological differences between the EA and ES groups, and both groups were observed to have tendencies to decrease atrophy as time passed. In the controlled group, gradually diminishing atrophy could be observed, but their forms were mostly disheveled. There were few differences in VEGF expression between the EA and ES groups, and tendencies to have an increased quantity of VEGF with the lapse of time were observed in both groups. In the controlled group, a little VEGF expression could be observed merely 7 days after injury. In conclusion, EA and ES contributed to muscle recovery processes and could be used for the treatment of muscle injury.
The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of young adults during descent ramp climbing at different inclinations. Twenty-three subjects descended four steps at four different inclinations (level, -8˚, -16˚, -24˚). The 3-D kinematics were measured by a camera-based Falcon System. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. The kinematics of descent ramp walking could be clearly distinguished from the kinematics of level walking. On a sagittal plane, the ankle joint was more plantar flexed at initial contact with -16˚/-24˚ inclination, was decreased in the toe off position with all inclinations (p<.001),and was decreased at maximum plantar flexion during the swing phase (p<.001). The knee joint was more flexed at initial contact with the -24˚ inclination (p<.001), was more flexed in the toe off position with all inclinations (p<.001), and was more flexed at minimum flexion during stance phase and at maximum flexion during swing phase with -16˚, -24˚ inclination (p<.001). The hip joint was more flexed in the toe off position with -16˚, -24˚ inclination and was deceased at maximum extension during stance phase with -16˚, -24˚ inclination (p<.05). In the frontal plane, the ankle joint was more everted at maximum eversion during stance phase with -16˚, -24˚ inclination (p<.01) and was decreased at maximum inversion during swing phase with -16˚, -24˚ inclination (p<.01). The knee joint was more increased at maximum varus during stance phase with -16˚, -24˚ inclination (p<.001). The hip joint was deceased at maximum adduction during stance phase with -24˚ inclination (p<.05). In a horizontal plane, only the knee joint was increased at maximum internal rotation during stance phase with -24˚ inclination (p<.05). In descent ramp walking, the different gait patterns occurred at an inclination of over 16˚ on the descending ramp in the sagittal and frontal planes. These results suggest that there is a certain inclination angle or angular range where subjects do switch between level walking and descent ramp walking gait patterns.
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of group therapeutic exercise programs on the cognitive function, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and balance-performing ability in older adults. Fifteen community-dwelling subjects (mean age 73.7 yrs, standard deviation 2.4) participated in this study. An 8-week group therapeutic exercise program, including strengthening and balance training, breathing and gait exercise, and recreation, consisted of activities related to daily living. The Mini-Mental State Examination-Korean (MMSE-K), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Functional Reaching Test (FRT), and Timed Up & Go (TUG) test were measured during pre-exercise and post-exercise points. The results of this study were as follows: 1. After eight weeks, the MMSE-K and MBI total score was more significantly increased for post-exercise tests than pre-exercise tests (respectively, p<.05, p<.01). 2. Of the MBI contents, personal hygiene, dressing, ambulation, and chair/bed transfers scores were significant increased for post-exercise tests. 3. Post exercise BBS, FRT, and TUG scores were higher than the pre-exercise scores. The difference was statistically significant (respectively, p<.05, p<.05, p<.01). These findings suggest that group therapeutic exercise can be used to improve the cognitive function, ADL, and balance-performing ability in elderly persons.
The walker provides stability for walking for people whose lower extremities are disabled. It is important to measure and determine the appropriate height of a walker to conserve energy and to improve function. The purposes of this study were to examine effects of walker height and gait velocity on triceps, latissimus dorsi muscle activation, and energy expenditure index (EEI) during ambulation with a walker. Fifteen healthy subjects participated in this study. Each subject was assigned a walker with one of three heights (high, standard, lower height) and of two gait velocities (comfortable gait velocity or fast gait velocity). Electromyographic data were collected from triceps and latissimus dorsi, and EEI was determined from each condition. Two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the statistical significance. Post hoc comparison was performed with the Bonferroni test. The results of this study were summarized as follows: 1. There was a significant difference in the %MVIC of triceps among different walker height factors. Post hoc comparison revealed that %MVIC of dominant triceps brachii was more significantly increased in patients who used the higher walker than those who used the lower walker (p<.05). 2. There were significant differences in the %MVIC of the latissimus dorsi among different walker height factors and gait velocity factors. Post hoc comparison revealed that the %MVIC of dominant latissimus dorsi was also more significantly increased in patients who used the higher walker than those who used the lower walker (p<.05) and in those who used the faster gait velocity than those who used the slower gait velocity (p<.05). 3. There were significant differences in the EEI among different walker height factors and gait velocity factors. Post hoc comparison revealed that the EEI was significantly increased among those who used higher and lower walkers compared with the standard walker. The EEI was also more significantly increased among those who used the fast gait velocity than those who used the slower gait velocity (p<.05). It has been concluded that increased muscle activation in triceps and latissimus dorsi was required when the walker height increased and that more energy was exp ended when the gait velocity increased. Therefore, from the findings of this study, it is recommended that walker height be adjusted according to the purposes of gait training and that healthy subjects conserve energy when ambulating with standard walkers in a comfortable gait velocity.
The term thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is used to describe patients with compressed subclavian arteries, veins, and brachial plexuses in the region of the thoracic outlet. The objective of this study was to evaluate a scalenus stretching exercise that aims to restore normal function to patients with TOS. This study consisted of 60 patients with symptoms of TOS, and divided the patients into 3 groups: one that received manual therapy, one that practiced self stretching, and a control group. Each group consisted of 20 patients. This study assessed the efficacy of scalenus stretching exercise by examining the resting pain, tenderness, spherical grip power, and pinch grip power of patients. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Scheffe post hoc test, and independent t-test. The results showed that resting pain was statistically significant within the manual therapy and self stretching groups (p<.05), and that the resting pain of the manual therapy group was more statistically significant than that of the self stretching group (p<.05). Tenderness, spherical grip power, and pinch grip were statistically significant within the manual therapy and self stretching groups (p<.05), but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p>.05). Finally I could see that there were no statistical differences between manual therapy and self stretching to improve the symptoms of the patients with TOS. These results imply that self stretching by patients is as important as manual therapy by a physical therapist.
Muscle weakness in the hemiplegia following stroke is an important factor which determines the quality of life in the future. Therefore, muscle strengthening exercise is essential for functional recovery in hemiplegic patients. Even though the popular conception is that muscle strengthening exercise causes spasticity and associated reaction that hemiplegia patients don't want, and that it disturbs functional recovery, recently there have been many new reports against that opinion. Therefore, the effects of strengthening exercise programs on functional recovery in hemiplegic patients are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of strengthening exercise programs for the knee joint using isokinetic exercise on the associated reaction of the upper extremities. Comparing the muscle activities of biceps brachii and triceps brachii during, before, and immediately after 2 and 5 minute intervals of isokinetic exercise, we examined the increase and decrease of associated reaction. Twenty stroke inpatients participated in this study. Surface electromyography was used to get muscle activity data from biceps brachii and triceps brachii. The major findings of this study were as follows: 1. The flexor and extensor peak torque were significantly higher on the sound side than the affected side (p<.05). 2. Before and after strengthening exercise, there was no significant difference in muscle activities (surface electromyographic root mean square values) between the sound and affected side. 3. Muscle activities were examined during, before, and immediately after 2 and 5 minute intervals of isokinetic exercise. There were significant differences in muscle activities between, before and during the exercises, during exercise and 5 minutes after exercise in the biceps brachii (p<.05), and during exercise and 5 minutes after exercise in the triceps brachii (p<.05). In conclusion, there was no relation between strengthening exercise and associated reaction in the upper extremities. Rather, muscle activities after exercise had a tendency to decrease relative to before the exercise. Thus, it is considered that intensive strengthening exercise contributes to improvement of functional recovery without increase in associated reaction in hemiparetic patients.
The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyography (EMG) activities of the lumbar extensor muscles during motion of trunk flexion-extension and compare range of motion (ROM) with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system of the lumbar region between subjects with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and healthy subjects during the trunk flexion-extension, trunk rotation and trunk lateral flexion cycle. Thirty CLBP subjects and thirty healthy subjects were included. We measured the root mean square (RMS) value of the lumbar extensor muscles from resting, standing, lumbar flexion and return position. The RMS ratio was normalized from maximal EMG activity of the lumbar extensor muscles during trunk motion. The results of this study showed that the RMS ratio of the lumbar extensor was significantly higher in CLBP subjects than healthy subjects during all of trunk motion (p<.05). The ratio of the highest RMS value during flexion and extension was higher in CLBP subjects than in healthy subjects (p<.05). The ROM of the lumbar region was significantly lower in CLBP subjects than healthy subjects during trunk flexion-extension, trunk rotation and lateral flexion cycle. The relationship between the RMS ratio for full lumbar flexion and the ROM of lumbar flexion was not correlated significantly. CLBP subjects have both decreased ROM of the lumbar region and higher muscle activities of the lumbar extensor muscle than healthy subjects.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hip extension velocity (7.5 degree/second, 30 degree/second) on the relative onset time of the gluteus maximus in relation to the hamstring during hip extension in prone position. Thirteen healthy male subjects (mean age=22.6 years [SD=1.8], mean weight=73.4 kg [SD=10.3], mean height=176.1 cm [SD=6.3]) voluntarily participated in this study. Electromyographic data was collected on the gluteus maximus and hamstring to determine onset time. Statistical analyses were performed with the paired t-test. The results showed that the onset time of the hamstring was significantly faster than that of the gluteus maximus in both fast and slow hip extension velocity. The gluteus maximus began contraction .079 seconds later following the contraction of the hamstring. The onset time of the hamstring was significantly faster in fast hip extension velocity compared with slow hip extension velocity. In conclusion, it was determined that the onset time of the gluteus maximus was faster with fast hip extension velocity compared with slow hip extension velocity. There was a statistically significant difference between the onset times of the gluteus maximus and hamstring in relation to the two velocities (p<.05). Further study is needed to examine whether the velocity of hip extension can influence the onset time in a similar fashion in patients with low back pain.
Although conservative management of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) has been well documented, relatively little is known about the response to the treatment. The purposes of this case report were to describe the use of a therapeutic approach based on motor development in physical therapy intervention for an infant with CMT and to report the result of the treatment. The patient was a 20-day-old baby boy with left CMT presenting muscular mass in the left sternocleidomastoid muscle. The angle of the lateral head tilt was 20 degrees. The size of muscular mass was 5.3 mm in ultrasonography. Intervention included ultrasonic therapy, soft tissue massage, passive and active range of motion exercises, motor developmental therapy, and parent instruction. The procedures of motor developmental therapy and changes in the amount of lateral head tilt were documented using photography. The size of the mass was decreased to .3 mm before the 5-month follow-up. The patient also maintained a midline head position in the supine position and a midline head alignment during all functional activities. A therapeutic approach based on motor development is a beneficial method for reducing an asymmetrical head and neck position, and facilitating normal development as a component of physical therapy intervention.