This paper describes dynamic characteristics of a power transmission tower consisting of lots of power lines and insulators. A numerical 3D modeling for the static, dynamic and buckling analyses of the power transmission tower is presented considering the case when the power lines are cut. Eigenvalue analysis indicates that the transmission tower shows different behavior comparing to usual structures governed by several low modes. The transmission tower is governed by lots of modes. It is verified that the transmission tower is structurally safe against the static wind and buckling loads. But the structural and buckling safety is not guaranteed when all power lines are cut, which comes to collapse the transmission tower. Further study is in need to overcome such case. Wind dynantic analysis shows that fluctuating wind loads increase the response of the tower.
Substructuring technique is a method that an original structural model is divided into two parts; experimental and numerical substructures, and then its dynamic characteristic is replicated with only experimental substructure which is manufactured as a physical model and is tested. This paper proposes a shaking table testing method based on the substructuring technique and discuss its experimental verification. By applying the substructuring technique to an original structural model, it is decomposed into two parts; an upper experimental substructure with multi degrees-of-freedom and an lower numerical substructure. At the moment, interface force becomes to act between their interfaces due to artificial dividing into two parts. In this paper, numerical substructure corresponding to the lower part with single or multi degrees-of-freedom of the original multi degrees-of-freedom is incorporated in control computer of shaking table, to produce the interface acceleration by inputting the interface force which is experimentally measured from the upper experimental substructure. Finally, shaking table is used for exciting the upper experimental substructure with the motion of the interface acceleration. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed method that an experiment can be implemented by feedback of the interface acceleration.
Because of building higher story and larger buildings, and because current concrete, a basic construction material, needs higher strength rather than normal strength, the use of high-strength concrete becomes more widely spread. High-strength concrete shows very high temperature increase due to inside heat of hydration different from normal-strength concrete, and because mass concrete under low temperature shows temperature stress due to temperature difference between inner and outer parts, it is known or reported that there is a significant difference between the compressive strength of srtucture and that of specimen for management, and between the compressivestrength of circular specimen made by standard underwater curing and structure concrete Therefore, in this research, an adiabatic curing box was manufactured which can provide hydration heat hysteresis of high strength mass concrete members and similar hydration heat hysteresis, using insulating materials, as a easy and exact method to manage compressive strength of rnass concrete member under low temperature, and the features of concrete member and those of specimen for management were compared.
Exterior tile setting can be divided into two types: post-bonding method, and pre-bonding method. Pre-bonding method. In pre-bonding method, different from the post-bonding method, the process of background mortaring is eliminated, saving cost of materials, work hour, and labor expenses, and it doesn’t require time for curing. It is proved that pre-bonding method of manufactured PC tile is economical in terms of Life Cycle Cost, because it method is high in stability and reduces a term of work, and cost low in maintaining and repairing. There are many problems in applying pre-bonding method to real construction work, including the efflux of cement pastes during the process of vibration tampering, and the falling off or breaking of PC tile caused by the contact of vibrator, the cost increase that results from manufacturing overly strength-revealing concrete regardless of the strength of concrete used in the manufacturing of PC cotton wall. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to present ways to resolve above problems by using fluidized concrete in PC manufacturing, and, to find out an appropriate mixture of high fluidized concrete used for PC manufacturing, targeting 280kgf/cm² of specified concrete strength by conducting fundamental experiments, and to provide basic data for bringing pre-bonding method of high fluidized concrete tile into practical use. For this purpose, this study compares adhesive strengh between tiles attached on mock experimental structure, with different mixture rate and curing method, and review and compares marginal concrete deformation rate with the drying shrinkage of concrete by imposing vertical compressive loading until the falling-off of concrete
The seismically design of building has objects to minimize in judge of people by preventing brittle fracture and to guarantee serviceability of building. But I come to the conclusion that the seismically design is not easy to use, even though we recently use it applyed with shear wall-type evaluation method, because we don't know how to estimate seismic performance of existing reinforced concrete wall-type apartment and evaluation method of wall-type apartment. so in this study, we conduct analysis program by using MIDAS-Gen & MIDAS-SDS, structure analysis program, after conducting a preliminary evaluation about research apartment by seismic performance evaluation method of existing safety & Technology corporation. In addition we show the problem when research apartment is applied with shear wall-type evaluation method that is estimate and grade of seismic performance level by capacity spectrum method.
The apartment structures built using tunnel form method in 1980's, are vulnerable to lateral loads since wall elements don't exist in longitudinal direction and especially they were not seismically designed. In this study, in order to evaluate the seismic performance of those apartment structures, nonlinear analysis was performed and static test was conducted using small scale partial specimen. Both shear and moment should be considered for the structure subject to lateral load. Most existing methods, however, consider only shear force in test specimen because it is difficult to realize the actual moment distribution of the practical structure, and furthermore axial force is often neglected. This study propose a testing method which can realize similar moment and axial force distribution of a specimen to that of the practical structure by controlling the lateral loading condition. Numerical analysis was performed using moment-curvature curve considering stiffness degrading parameter, ductility-based strength and energy dissipation. The result of this study shows that only 15~20% difference exist between analysis and test, which confirms that the performance of wall elements in a non-seismically designed wall type reinforced concrete apartment can be accurately evaluated.
In this study, in order to investigate the effectiveness of tuned liquid damper (TLD) for the seismic performance enhancement of the existing reinforced concrete (RC) apartment structure which is not seismically designed, shaking table test was conducted for the small scale five story RC structure with TLD. TLD model was constructed to have the frequency tuned to the first modal frequency of the structure, 2% mass ratio of the first modal mass, and 0.08 liquid depth ratio. White noise with 0.2~5Hz frequency bandwidth and harmonic load tests were performed using the shaking table at Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, and the displacement and absolute acceleration of each floor were measured. Test results indicate that more than 30% seismic responses reduction can be achieved using TLD for RC structure under white noise and harmonic load.
Corrosion level of reinforcing bar is investigated in this study. Seventy-two specimens are designed with 12 different target corrosion levels, two types of reinforcing bars, 3 different concrete covers. Corrosion current density, corrosion potential and ohmic resistance of concrete are measured on these specimens using Gecor device. Metal loss measurements are performed in accordance with ASTM G1-90, method C3.5, after specimens cracked. The actual corrosion weight loss of the steel reinforcing bars is then compared to the result obtained from the corrosion level measurement. Finally, the estimation of corrosion level can be made using electrical potential and current intensity measured. The experimental results show that the actual corrosion levels of steel bars embedded in concrete are less than the expected corrosion levels. And non-destructive corrosion measurement technique is applicable in order to assess corrosion level in reinforcing bars. This study suggests the relationship between corrosion level and measured electrical potential and measured current intensity.
This paper presents a design process for viscoelastic dampers and a full-scale test of a 5-story steel structure with added viscoelastic dampers. The mechanical properties of viscoelastic dampers and the dynamic characteristics of the model structure were obtained from experiments, and the results were used in the design process. The additional damping ratios required to reduce the maximum response of the structure to a desired level were obtained first by the convex model. Then the size of dampers to realize the required damping ratio was determined using the modal strain energy method by observing the change in modal damping ratio due to the change in damper stiffness. The designed viscoelastic dampers were installed in the first and the second inter-stories of the model structure, and the system was excited by a hybrid mass driver located on the fifth floor. The experimental results indicated that after the dampers were installed the dynamic response of the full-scale model structure reduced as desired in the design process.