Concrete Carbonation is usually measured as discoloration, as it has one of strengths to be economical, and simple and immediately confirm the given results in the spot. And, when Carbonation is measured as Phenolphthalein Solution, it is possible to confirm the scope of alkali through acid and basic reaction. Then, Concrete Basic Reaction is decided according to alkali concentration depending on Potassium Hydroxide Now that Carbonation is gradually produced toward inner side from outer side, with time going by, it doesn’t work, to some adequate depth, in as fast time as compulsory facilitating test. Thus, this research thesis made a comparative analysis on concrete phenomenal discoloration borderline following Phenolphthalein Solution, as part of a bid to measure Carbonation. Also, the thesis measured 'Concrete Alkali Concentration. The result showed that concrete coloring is classified into red and scarlet according to alkali concentration, and into borderline breakpoint of the speckle of scarlet and carbonation reaction. The higher chroma becomes with concrete decolorizing, the higher alkali concentration becomes. Also, it was demonstrated that for long-term concrete discoloration borderline, discoloration degree can be determined by amounts of Potassium Hydroxide. Such result proved that limiting the extent of only red color as alkali, in the process of deciding on the scope of concrete alkali, can be served as an error in measuring service life of Concrete Carbonation.
As the durability, reparability and maintainability of reinforced concrete structures are emphasized, the early perfomance degradation of concrete structures becomes a serious problem. Moreover, defects in construction materials and constructions inconsistent with the design promote the degradation of perfomance. Some worst buildings have fallen into an irreparable state within a few years. In particular, carbonation in concrete structures has been handled as the most fundamental and critical factor related to the durability of reinforced concrete. As a result, there have been efforts to develop repair materials to control carbonation. As one of these efforts, alkali recovery agents have been presented as materials for increasing the re-alkalization and durability of carbonated concrete structures. However, in applying them in the field, the performance and quality of concrete recovered after an alkali recovery agent is applied has not been fully assessed. Therefore, to examine the recovered perfomance of concrete structures resulting from the application of an alkali recovery agent, the present study assessed the depth of carbonation and the degree of deterioration of 20 years or older reinforced concrete structures, and analyzed the quality of concrete after applying an alkali recovery agent to the structures. This study aimed at providing basic infomation for the application of alkali recovery agents in the fleld. In this experiment, alkali recovery agents of the lithium silicate line, which are most common in Korea, were applied and cured using concrete of the same size. The degree of recovery was investigated according to the length of time in the initial curing stage, and based on the investigation, the maintenance perfomance of the alkali recovery agent was assessed according to the age of exposure to the open air. For these tasks, this experiment sampled concrete of different degrees of deterioration, applied alkali recovery agents to them, and observed re-alkalization and changes in the internal texture of the concrete.
A bi-axial tuned liquid mass damper(TLMD) was proposed and evaluated on its control performance. The proposed TLMD controls structural response in a specific one direction by using the liquid sloshing of TLCD. Also, the TLMD controls structural response in the other orthogonal direction by TMD behavior which mass consists of the container itself and liquid within container of TLCD installed on linear motion guides. Force-vibration tests on a real-sized structure with the TLMD were performed to verify its independent behavior in two orthogonal directions. Test results showed that the responses of a structure were considerably reduced by using the proposed TLMD and its usefulness for structural control in two orthogonal directions.
The existing apartment supplied in large quantities in the 1970-80s has a problem of superannuation today. It is at a wornout management means. I can consider Build& and remodeling. However, in the case of remodeling, they are being social and an economical and environmental advantage. It can be said that it is better than Build&. Research of a book is research on a Remodeling ease evaluation system. Remodeling was realized by the technique and construction method which re-design based on the existing apartment，take in the component engineering, and improve the function and performance of a building. if it sees in a certain viewpoint, the development and spread of remodeling technology need to be managed like logical approach of the existing building where the remodeling fishing port planning division also gets, and is applied. The ease of remodeling is estimated by two sides. Remodeling Feasibility is evaluated by two aspects. The first is Macro Level Approach of Remodeling Feasibility Evaluation on a Apartment Complex, and The second is Micro Level Approach of Remodeling Feasibility on each housing part is evaluated about removal and dismandement.
LCVA has an advantage that its natural frequency can be easily controlled by changing the area ratio of the vertical column and horizontal part. The previous studies investigated the dynamic characteristics of the LCVA under harmonic load. This study experimentally obtained the first and second mode natural frequencies of the LCVA from shaking table tests using white noise and compared the values with the ones by previous study. Test results show that the measured first mode natural frequency of the LCVA is larger than the calculated one when the area ratio is larger than 1. The second mode frequency increases with the increasing area ratio, which is due to the sloshing motion effect resulting from the large area of the vertical column.
This paper focused on the application of finite element model updating technique to evaluate the structural properties of the reinforced concrete specimen using the data collected from shaking table tests. The specimen was subjected to six El Centro(NS, 1942) ground motion histories with different Peak Ground Acceleration(PGA) ranging from 0.06g to 0.50g. For model updating, flexural stiffness values of structural members(walls and slabs) were chosen as the updating parameters so that the converged results have direct physical interpretations. Initial values for finite element model were determined from the member dimensions and material properties. Frequency response functions(i.e. transfer functions), natural frequencies and mode shapes were obtained using the acceleration measurement at each floor and given ground acceleration history. The weighting factors were used to account for the relative confidence in different types of inputs for updating(i.e. transfer function and natural frequencies). The constraints based on upper/lower bound of parameters and sensitivity-based constraints were implemented to the updating procedure in this study using standard bounded variable least-squares(BVLS) method. The veracity of the updated finite element model was investigated by comparing the predicted and measured responses. The results indicated that the updated model replicates the dynamic behavior of the specimens reasonably well. At each stage of shaking, severity of damage that results from cracking of the reinforced concrete member was quantified from the updated parameters(i.e. flexural stiffness values).
In this paper, a new waffle-shaped(WAS) precast concrete panel was developed through the geometrical modification of the conventional double tee panel. It is a one-way joisted panel with a shallow depth and a boxed shape by wide edge beams. To investigate the structural performance of the connections between W AS panels, loading tests called by WIW were performed at the connections along short edges of two WAS panels. WIW tests were executed according to two different width of shear key(50mm and 80mm) and three types of reinforced topping concrete(wire-mesh alone, wire-mesh plus HD 10, and wire-mesh plus HD13). As a result, the grouting width of shear keys did not act on the ultimate behaviors significantly, and the flexural strength of WIW connections along the long edges of W AS panels was superior to nominal flexural strength. The connections with proper details of steel reinforcement can distribute the positive bending moment at mid-span of W AS panels to the negative moment, which is useful for efficient member design.
An experimental study was performed to investigate the cyclic behavior of steel plate walls with reinforced concrete frames. Three specimens of three-story steel plate walls with reinforced concrete frames were tested. The parameters for the test specimens were the reinforcement ratio of the column and coupling wall. A reinforced concrete infilled wall and a reinforced concrete frame were also tested for comparison. The steel plate walls with reinforced concrete frames exhibited much better ductility and energy dissipation capacity than the reinforced concrete infilled wall and the reinforced concrete frame. The results showed that unlike other structural systems, the steel plate wall with reinforced concrete frames has excellent deformation capacity as well as strength, and can therefore be used as an effective earthquake-resisting system. This result indicates that not only steel frames but also reinforced concrete frames can be used in the steel plate wall system.
Real-time hybrid testing technique (RT-HYTT) is a structural dynamic testing method that the numerical calculation of the equations of motion of a structure and the experimental measurement of the reaction forces resulting from the application of this motion to the numerical structure are simultaneously implemented in real time. In this paper, structural control performance of the magneto-rheological (MR) damper installed in a real-scaled 5 story building is experimentally evaluated through real-time hybrid test method. In this method, a numerical substructure is based on a structural model identified from the forced vibration testing results of a real-story building, and an MR damper that is used as an experimental substructure is physically tested with a universal testing machine (UTM). In the test, load cell on the UTM measure the force necessary to attain the required story displacement and these structural reaction forces are returned to the computer for use in next time step calculation of a numerical structural model. Test results show that the higher level of control force generated by the Mr damper causes the lower level of controlled response of a structure.