Recent projects for transferring Public Office buildings and estimation of appropriate construction expense are highly important for both government and construction firms. Moreover, estimation and management of construction expense can be regarded as extremely important duties for effective execution of a national budget as nation’s finance is invested in the Public office building projects progressed by the government. To progress one project for Public office building, not only the organization demanding the project but also an investment screening organization, a budget-managing organization, a feasibility assessment institution and many other related organizations participate in the project and a lot of decisions arisen from the project operation are made on the basis of construction expenses calculated for relevant stages. And estimation of rational construction expense is also critical for designers in order to create design within the fixed budget simultaneously with securing the quality and efficiency of structures to the maximum. Therefore this research suggested an improvement process to analyze problems in current construction expense management process and to administer the construction expenses effectively.
The interest for the stability of the structures against earthquake, which is increasing recently, is rapidly increasing. But, currently, school buildings among the reinforced concrete(RC) structures in Korea are not designed with seismic design or there are many cases of being designed with the old seismic design code, so it is estimated to have not only lives but also a great deal of economic damage are likely to occur when an earthquake occurs. In this study, proposed horizontal friction system(HFS) with rotary friction damper installed as a method to reinforce strength and hardness and to increase ductility for the low story structure of 5 stories or lower such as school buildings. For the seismic retrofitting design with horizontal friction system in which rotary friction damper is installed, Peak displacement response ratio according to elastic and inelastic behavior and ductility demand is calculated to decide elastic stiffness and strength of the HFS, design model and procedure to decide the capacity of HFS thereof is decided, and the feasibility and performance are reviewed through pushover analysis.
Environmental lighting zone-setting has suggested regulatory standards according to the influence of artificial illumination on natural environment and human life. Then, it is necessary to check out the viability of environmental lighting zone division as it is limited to use-zone division. This study aims to suggest some problems, which occur when environmental lighting zone is set by use-zone only, by comparing and analyzing the artificial illumination luminance. In addition, this study aims to suggest basis for the environmental lighting zone-setting and eventually, more effective environmental lighting zone division.
With the development of artificial lighting technology, human can breakout the limitation of the natural light and make it possible to create a brilliant civilization. However, the wide used outdoor artificial lighting caused severe environmental problem called "Light Pollution" due to human's less cognition of using light and excessive light. Obtrusive light at nighttime can do harm to the human health and observation activity. In this paper, the upward light control process of general lighting fixtures was suggested for reducing the adverse effects such as sky glow in the central city and light trespass in the residential areas.
In this study, the drying shrinkage of concrete used for the reduction of expansive additive and shrinkage reducing agent committed to the concrete Mixing characteristics, compressive strength and drying shrinkage of examining my new honhwajaeryoin elements by putting in concrete Their characteristics were compared and analyzed. Experiments, SP was fixed jeryangeul equally expansive additive and shrinkage reducing agent in the formulation of the Injection rate increased with increasing fluidity, shrinkage reducing air flow rates increase the amount of air even if the input Increases with, and if the expansion of re-injection rates increase rather than decrease was found that the volume of air. I committed to the elements of the concrete, but an increase in inputs even if the air content of concrete or no liquidity Were confirmed to have no effect. In addition, the compressive strength test Shrinkage Reducing the dosage increases, Tended strength falls, inflation 5.0% of material inputs in the formulation was found to be the highest. Element material Concrete with Shrinkage Reducing committed a similar compressive strength falls with increasing dosage tended Unlike the small degree of shrinkage reducing agent was affected. Shrinkage characteristics include all three admixture With increasing dosage can reduce the drying shrinkage was observed that, if the shrinkage reducing agent, of the elements and almost Reducing the level of contraction was found to be. Therefore, the element first, if you commit to concrete admixtures to Characteristics of the concrete mix does not affect the lapse rate contract that can be used as a highly admixture is judged to be
Cost estimating is essential in decision-making for conducting project management on early design stage. The cost estimating method for each stage varies according to level of design detail. Therefore, in the cost estimating method for each stage, it must distinguish quantity items that can be directly measured from quantity items that should be predicted. The parametric estimating method is able to support cost planning for various design attributes as it is possible to set impact factors related to design features as parameters. This study suggests a prediction method for quantity information that is required to estimate the final cost during the early design stage. The case study suggests an predicting method for the steel (rebar) ratio of office buildings. The suggested parametric cost estimating model enables users to predict the steel (rebar) quantity for various design alternatives according to design features. During quantity predictions, IG(Information gain) measurements for the design attributes were analyzed, by setting the ratio of steel-rebar quantity(Ratio: ton/Concrete_㎥) as the dependent variable.
This study proposed simply design procedure of a single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure equipped with friction dampers. General method is suggested in order to reduce the structural seismic response by using friction dampers. The analysis model was transformed into an equivalent mass-spring-dashpot system by approximating nonlinear friction damping force with equivalent viscous damping force. A closed form solution for dynamic amplification factor (DAF) for steady-state response was derived by the energy balance equation. The equivalent damping ratio was defined by using DAF at natural frequency. The transfer function between input harmonic excitation and output structural response was obtained from the DAF, and the response reduction factor of the root mean square (RMS) for displacements without and with friction dampers was analytically determined. Using the proposed procedure the friction force required for satisfying given target response reduction factor was obtained. Mean response reduction factors matched well with the target values based on the dynamic analysis results. It is concluded that the proposed method is quite simple for the design of friction dampers to reduce seismic response of the structure.
The recent progressive collapse analysis method of structures assumes the threat-independent removal of vertical load-carrying elements. In reality, a blast-induced column-missing event will produce the damage on adjacent structural elements and the rapid dynamic response of the structures. In this study, the strain rate effects on the dynamic collapse behavior of blast-damaged steel moment frames are investigated by performing the blast-induced sequential progressive collapse analysis of a three-storey steel moment frame.