Many school buildings are not applied seismic code because of small size structures. But it must be designed to show enough structural performance when subject to earthquake. Especially, most of school buildings are generally used as public shelters when the natural disasters such as flood and earthquake occur. In this study, the seismic risk of the reinforced concrete school building structure was evaluated by using the seismic performance evaluation methods of low-story RC structures developed in Japan and the required seismic performance index. In this paper, the seismic performance of the school building is evaluated by considering this short-column effects, building shape and deterioration.
Recently, practical application of high tension bar is attempted. The main object of using high tension bar is strengthening of material property and decreasing of steel amount. If using high tension bar which is not a definite yield strength，according to strain ratio of high tension bar tensile and compressive dominate mode ciearly, there being a possibility dividing becoming difficult. Specially, Providing steel ratio of balanced destruction is very difficult. In this study, high tension bar to apply to flexural member and the behavior experiment bending after one, will consider high tension bar the application possible standard of existing.
In this study, vertical extension type TMD(VE-TMD) whose vertically extended stories behave like a tuned mass damper, with Lead-Rubber Bearing(LRB) between the top of existing structures and the bottom of the extended stories was proposed. A shaking table tests for a 5-story reinforced concrete model, which is of 2.2 Hz natural frequency. A vertical extended model consisted of a steel frame, with two base isolators between the top of the RC model and the bottom of the extended stories. Those base isolators' lateral stiffness was equal to 31.392 kN/m which was calculated with the fundamental period plus 0.2 tonf, weight of a single story of the model. The test for the specimen was shaking table test excited by a harmonic loads for the fundamental period of the structure. The test results indicated that the VE-TMD improved seismic performance by 40 % in displacement responses for all of frequency-domain.
Light pollution is a side effect of industrial civilization. It obscures the stars in the night sky for city dwellers, interferes with astronomical observatories, and, like any other form of pollution, disrupts ecosystems and has adverse health effects. It is most severe in highly industrialized, densely populated areas of North Arnerica, Europe, and Japan. Nowadays, light pollution has become a global problem and the public concerns on disputes of light pollution have been on the rise. Unfortunately, we haven't had any comprehensive and systematic regulation of lighting pollution yet. Therefore, we need to make our own regulation of lighting pollution to deal with it. The purpose of this study is making a research on the standards and countermeasures of light pollution at home and abroad before establishing our own regulation based on which we can resolve and reduce the light pollution.
As people pays more attention to remodeling as a method to effectively improve, maintain, and manage building properties, it is important to ensure the economic feasibility of remodeling compared to reconstruction, instead of focusing on systematic regulations. In order to identify core technologies, the study set criteria to survey cost of a remodeling project by analyzing current status of remodeling projects. Based on the criteria, the study calculated average construction cost for two remodeling projects that were conducted recently, compared the cost with new construction projects, and examined major level works that are essential in a remodeling project. Based on the major level works, the study conducted interviews with construction experts to draw core technologies in design, structure and construction of a remodeling project.
This paper presents an investigation on dynamic characteristics of Heunginjimun through both ambient vibration and impact hammer tests. Heunginjimun, treasure No. 1 in Seoul, Korea, is a traditional wooden structure. Ambient vibration test is performed and spectrum analysis of time history is carried out to identify dominant frequency contents of Heunginjimun. Impact hammer test is undertaken to find the natural frequency of Heunginjimun with frequency response functions and phase information. Test results show that natural frequencies are 1.lHz, l.5Hz, 3.2Hz and 4.2Hz in two principal axes. Natural frequencies obtained by the tests are used to find the lateral stiffness of Heunginjimun. Simple dynamic models for Heunginjimun are suggested based on the moment resistance from joint beams and the restoring force due to column rocking. Lateral stiffness is found with identified natural frequencies and simple dynamic models.
This study deals with the design of a bi-directional liquid damper for a SDOF structure. Two dampers are usually needed to reduce wind-induced responses of tall structures since they are along and across wind ones. The proposed damper has the advantage of controlling both responses with a single damper. The damper shows dynamic behavior of both tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) and tuned sloshing damper (TSD) in the direction of two axes perpendicular with each other. This paper presents experimental verification to confirm its control performance. First, shaking table test is carried out to investigate reducing responses of a SDOF structure by the damper. Control performance of the damper is expressed by the transfer function from shaking table accelerations to SDOF structure ones. Testing results show that the damper reduced bi-directional responses of a SDOF structure. Also, it reduced torsion responses. It was confirmed from system identification results that damping ratio of a SDOF structure increased by the bi-directional liquid damper.