The behavior of the Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) which has been widely used for mitigating structural vibration is generally modeled by linear wave theory and its vibration control performance is evaluated using Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) analogy. However, some previous studies showed that the properties of the TLD such as natural frequency and damping ratio were dependent on the excitation amplitude. In this study, the dynamic nonlinear characteristics of the TLD are investigated by shaking table test with varying excitation amplitude. In case of harmonic excitation experimentation, the damping ratio, natural frequency, and effective mass are obtained through envelope curves overlap of time-history curve from measured base shear and analogy base shear using simulation a freedom of simple degree modeling. In the white noise experimentation, the parameters obtained through curve-fitting of the transfer function from the table acceleration to the base shear.
The control performance of LCVA designed for mitigation of wind-induced motion of Songdo high rise building is evaluated using 1/20 scaled test model. The effectiveness of the LCVA is then examined tuning LCVA to 90%, 100%, and 110% of the natural frequency, 0.74Hz. The test structure is excited using a sinusoidal signal ranging 0.2 ~ 1.2 Hz with 5.5mm displacement, and acceleration and displacement of structure, water height, and shear force are measured. Experimental results indicate that the LCVA tuned to 100% of the natural frequency with orifice opening ratio of zero reduce the peak and RMS displacement up to 67% and 72%.
In order to identify the exact behavior of corbel section, the horizontal force acting on corbel section should be considered as well as the vertical force. In this study, a new corbel section, which is economical and easy to construct, is developed by evaluating the exact strength of the section. Experiments were performed to verify the strengths of the proposed sections comparing with those of the currently used section. The summary of the experiment results are as follows: 1) In order to minimize the horizontal force effect, it was found that the use of pre-stressing was most effective, and that TB type corble section is a most efficient section in terms of economy and workability. 2) The experimentally obtained strength of corbel section matched well with that estimated using shear friction theory. Therefore, it is concluded that shear friction theory would be very useful if a precise crack angle in the corble section, which is pre-stressed by PS strings and threaded bolts, is available.
Ordinary concrete uses aggregate sufficiently soaked with water, and is weighed, mixed with other materials and placed in accord with performances required in the construction field. Recently special concrete with high fluidity and durability is required but it is difficult to use top-quality concrete due to lack of high-quality aggregate, delayed transportation because of traffic jam, etc. In addition, sometimes the use of a remicon is inevitable just for small-sized concrete constructions or it is difficult for a remicon to reach remote construction places such as mountainous areas. To solve these problems, this study attempted to pack concrete materials. In other words, it is to instantize concrete. This study dried aggregate, a material of concrete, and compared the change of absorption phase of the aggregate in water and in paste in order to examine the effect of the dryness of aggregate on its absorption rate and, based on the absorption rate, decided water addition ratio necessary for the reduction of unit quantity caused by the use of dry aggregate in designing concrete mixture, and analyzed the properties of unhardened concrete according to water addition ratio in manufacturing concrete using aggregate in the state of absolute dryness and in the state of surface dryness.
Recently Ultra high strength concrete is actively being developed and studied, and this trend is explained with the following effects. Technological effects expected from the application of Ultra high strength concrete include the reduction of section, the decrease of structure mass and the improvement of workability. As for the reduction of section, the use of Ultra high strength concrete is effective for plane and height, and the effect is even higher when it is applied to high-rise buildings. The decrease of concrete mass resulting from high strength is advantageous for earthquake resistance, reduces the use of earthquake-resistant members, and brings resource substitution effects. In addition, forms can be removed early thanks to self-fillability and early expression of strength resulting from the high fluidity, and this increases construction efficiency and shortens construction period. Recently there is increasing interest and investment in high-rise buildings throughout the world, and countries are competing for higher buildings in order to display national status and technological power through high-rise buildings. In addition, the use of concrete materials in steel-frame building is increasing as residential buildings are growing higher. Currently the application of Ultra high strength concrete is limited to high-rise buildings and protective buildings for special purposes. However, its application is expected to expand to attain the effects of Ultra high strength concrete. For this purpose, we tested the field applicability of Ultra high strength concrete using simulated members. Mixture ratios derived from basic experiment were tested using reduced simulated members. Using the obtained results, the decrease of hydration heat and the increase of compression strength were compared and the optimal mixture ratio was selected. Concrete of the selected mixture ratio was produced at a ready-mixed concrete factory and placed at a construction site using a pump car. Through the experiment on field applicability, we presented basic materials on the construction-related and mechanical characteristics of Ultra high strength concrete.
The curtain wall design process of Korea can be mainly divided into Basic DWG phase performed in architectural design phase and Shop DWG phase performed in the curtain wall design phase. The designing in such process (the process of going over to Shop from Basic) is being performed mainly by the outcome. So it is difficult to communicate between subjects because the decision making or flow of information gets accomplished as one-way. Especially, because the curtain wall designing accomplished in the architectural design process gets performed without reflecting the engineering technology, it causes many problems in the design phasesuch as change of design or delay of decision making. In order to make an improvement on such problem, it is estimated that the existing one-way designing can be improved into the one based on cooperation by enabling the exchange of decision making details between concerned parties in the curtain wall design phase in this study and ultimately proposes a curtain wall design management system which enables generation and alteration of information on curtain wall products, information gathering and sharing of information, etc by materializing a design system of simultaneous engineering concept.
The objective of this research is to present client's requirements definition model that translates requirement information provided by client into design information to fully grasp client's requirements in pre-design phase and to prepare system that reflects it in the design. Suggesting classification system for requirement information grasped in the pre-design phase and dividing process defined by requirement into requirements elicitation, requirements analysis and requirements translation. Moreover, prototype system was embodied as a method to efficiently apply the suggested model.
It is considered that taking off such thought that our country is safe from earthquakes, the development of technologies to prevent secondary calamities due to seismic loads such as a fire and gas explosion is urgently required. The objective of this study is to establish the level of indices for determining the danger level of structures, which can be applied to a real-time seismic monitoring to minimize auxiliary damages of structures due to earthquakes. First, the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) closely related to the concept of averaged velocity of a certain earthquake wave and the spectral intensity (SI) values based on the velocity response spectrum are addressed to specify a certain level of indices for a real-time seismic monitoring. Then, the CAV and SI values are calculated with the artificial seismic waves that are produced based on the design response spectrum of a structure specified in the seismic criteria of KBC 2005. Finally, the early warning, shut-down of facilities and escape stages are proposed by determining the level of indices which are compared with the results of existing studies.
Optimal weighting matrix in LQR method for determining sliding surfaces is proposed for different types of sliding mode controllers (SMC). In order to identify the control performance variation of SMC accorcling to the dynamic characteristics of sliding surfaces, parametric study is performed for single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems and control force limit is considered. Also, based on the results from SDOF systems，a procedure for optimal weighting matrix is proposed for multi-degree-of-freedom systems. Numerical analyses show that the SMC using proposed weighting matrix provide better control performance than the existing SMC, and it uses less control energy.
Forced vibration testing is important for correlating the mathematical model of a structure with the realone and for evaluating the performance of the real structure. There exist various techniques available for evaluating the seismic performance using dynamic and static measurements. In this paper, full scale forced vibration tests simulating earthquake response are implemented by using a hybrid mass damper. The finite element(FE) model of the structure was analytically constructed using ANSYS and the model was updated using the results experimentally measured by the forced vibration test. System identification of real-scaled 5 story building structure which is located in UNISON INC. is conducted on the updated FE model.
The paper presents a new approach for analyzing mold growth risk in buildings, based on a mixed simulation approach with consideration of uncertainties in relevant building parameters. The approach is capable to predict and explain unexpected mold growth occurrences that would typically not show up in standard deterministic simulation. This study simulates the local environmental conditions at material surfaces in buildings by using a mix of standard simulation tools. By introducing uncertainties in relevant input parameters, this approach generates a statistical distribution of time aggregated mold growth conditions at a number of "trouble spots"in a specific building case. This distribution is then translated into an overall mold risk indicator. In addition, our method identifies those parameters whose uncertainty range has a dominant effect on an increase in mold risk. By thus identifying the critical influence of building components, building operation and maintenance factors on the increase in risk, appropriate actions during the building design and procurement process can be set up to address these risks.