A series of reinforced G109 type specimens was fabricated and cyclically ponded with a15 w/o NaCl solution. The concrete mix design included cements of two equivalent alkalinities (0.32 and 1.08) and water cement ratio 0.50. Potential and macro-cell current between top and bottom bars were monitored as indicators of the onset of active corrosion. The specimens were subsequently autopsied, and the number and size of air voids along the top half of the upper rebar trace were counted, both at the corrosion site and where the steel remained passive. Also, chloride concentration was determined from powder samples taken from passive locations along the upper rebar trace. The observations and data indicated that both cement alkalinity and air voids aftected occurrence of active corrosion. The results are discussed within the context of better understanding factors that cause loss of passivity and active corrosion of steel in concrete.
The box culvert is one of the simple and common structures employed repetitively in construction field. Although parametric computer applications have demonstrated a significant amount of time savings in designing simple and repetitive structures, circulating resultant electronic documents among project participants has not been fully integrated with these applications. This paper presents a development of Web applications to improve the process of a box culvert design and document management using XML and SVG. We developed a parametric Web application in order to facilitate not only engineering design of the box culvert but also management of resultant documents over the Web. This paper presents how XML Data Island and SVG were utilized to generate engineering drawings and display them in the Web page.
Recently, DFRCCs (Ductile Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites), materials with remarkable strain capacity when compared to ordinary fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) , have been developed and studied actively in the US, Japan, and many European countries. The transformation of failure behavior from brittle to ductile is achieved by incorporating fracture mechanics concept especially at micro-mechanical level in manufacturing ordinary fiber-reinforced cementitious composites to produce DFRCC. DFRCC has a similar or slightly greater elastic modulus, but has far superior strength and strain capacity and than ordinary FRC. Due to its enhanced material characteristics, DFRCC has been extensively studied to find practical applications. DFRCC is considered most suitable in concrete structure repair and strengthening due to its inherent cement based material characteristic similar to concrete. In order to fully understand the mechanical and failure behaviors of concrete members repaired with DFRCC, a practical application study using DFRCC as repairing material has been performed. In this study, the bottom tension section of plain concrete flexural members are replaced with the 10%, 20%,and 30% specimen height of plain concrete flexural specimensusing DFRCC. Using a four-point bending test, the flexural strengths of repaired flexural specimens are obtained. The results show that DFRCC can be effectively used for repairingmaterialsfor concrete structures.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of a MR fluid damper for seismic vibration control of a structure in terms of equivalent linear damping or stiffness based on linearization technique and to experimentally verify the results from linearization technique by comparing them to those from system identification of a building structure with MR damper. First, among the various models for MR damper, the equivalent stiffness and damping are estimated for Bingham model which is mathematically simple and for Bouc-Wen model which can describe any kind of hysteretic behavior. Second, transfer function of a building structure with MR damper is obtained by performing shaking table tests and the stiffness and damping matrices of the structure are constructed using the modal information obtained by the transfer function. It is observed that the damping mathematically estimated using linearization technique for Bingham model matches well with the damping coefficient experimentally obtained by system identification.
In this paper, various dynamic model of magnetorheological (MR) damper, is required for describing the hysteresis of MR damper and for their application are investigated to structural control. The dynamic characteristics and control effects of the modeling methods for MR dampers such as Bingham, biviscous, hysteretic biviscous, simple Bouc-Wen, Bouc-Wen with mass element, and phenomenological models are studied. Of these models, hysteretic biviscous model which is simple and describes the hysteretic characteristics, is chosen for numerical studies. The capacity of MR damper is determined as a portion of not the building weight but the lateral restoring force.
In this study, equivalent linear damping and stiffness of a single-degree-of-freedom(SDOF) structure with a rotational friction damper are estimated using the result of experiments and compared with those obtained from non-linear time history analyses. First, the transfer function of the test model is constructed and then the equivalent stiffness and damping are calculated, using the half-power bandwidth (HPB) method. For comparative study, those properties are estimated based on stochastic theory in the time domain. Both equivalent linear systems identified from experiments and numerical analyses correspond well. Further, it is observed that there exists an optimal clamping force on the rotational friction damper from estimated equivalent damping.
The reinforced concrete wall type apartments built before 1988 in Korea, which are rarely seen in other countries, were constructed using tunnel form method for convenience of construction. Tunnel form method, however, do not arrange bearing walls in the direction of long side of the apartment, and this results in little resistance capability against lateral loads in that direction. Consequently, there exists significant collapse possibility due to the formation of plastic hinge at the joints of wall and slab during earthquake. This study experimentally investigates the reinforcement methods using carbon sheet and L-shaped steel which were not seismically designed. The reinforcement method using carbon sheet and L-shaped angle, has following advantages; construction workability, usage of light-weight material, and little requirement for the installation room. The specimen with steel bar fill up using modified epoxy mortar in the mid-span of the slab shows the same stiffness as the standard specimen without reinforcement and the stiffness of the specimen reinforced by carbon sheets without L-shaped steel was increased by only about 13%, implying that those existing methods cannot provide significant reinforcement effects. For the specimens of which wall-slab joints were reinforced using both carbon sheet and L-shaped steel, the increase of stiffness ranges from 43% to 496% and the increase of energy dissipation amount ranges from 120% to 233%. Also it was identified that the linkage method using penetration bolts was more efficient than the one using expansion anchors in increasing stiffness, strength and energy dissipation capacity.
Before incorporating the earthquake-resistance design in design code(1988), most of existing residential buildings were built without having lateral resistance capacity in addition to their structural peculiarity such as exterior stair ways, exterior elevator room. For these reasons, the retrofitting research demands for existing buildings arise recently and many retrofitting methods are proposed. These tasks are irnportant to reduce the enormous economic loss and environmental issues. The objective of this study is to predict the perforrnance increase due to various strengthen schemes and suggest adequate strengthen methods for wall type apartment buildings not designed to resist earthquake.
This paper presents the results of experimental investigations on the response control performance of tuned liquid damper(TLD). Steel frame building model is used for the experiments. Shaking table is controled by velocity consol. Experimental variables are mass ratios(u=mass of TLD/mass of structure), shape ratio(depth of water/ length of TLD), number of nets(N) and tuned frequency ratio(fl/fs). Results show that the greater the mass ratio is, the more good the control performance is. So, it can be concluded that TLD is able to be used for the remodeling of existing buildings that are not designed to resist earthquake