PURPOSES : Road surface conditions are vital to traffic safety, management, and operation. To ensure traffic operation and safety during periods of snow and ice during the winter, each local government allocates considerable resources for monitoring that rely on field-oriented manual work. Therefore, a smart monitoring and management system for autonomous snow removal that can rapidly respond to unexpected abrupt heavy snow and black ice in winter must be developed. This study addresses a smart technology for automatically monitoring and detecting road surface conditions in an experimental environment using convolutional neural networks based on a CCTV camera and infrared (IR) sensor data. METHODS : The proposed approach comprises three steps: obtaining CCTV videos and IR sensor data, processing the dataset acquired to apply deep learning based on convolutional neural networks, and training the learning model and validating it. The first step involves a large dataset comprising 12,626 images extracted from the acquired CCTV videos and the synchronized surface temperature data from the IR sensor. In the second step, image frames are extracted from the videos, and only foreground target images are extracted during preprocessing. Hence, only the area (each image measuring 500 × 500) of the asphalt road surface corresponding to the road surface is applied to construct an ideal dataset. In addition, the IR thermometer sensor data stored in the logger are used to calculate the road surface temperatures corresponding to the image acquisition time. The images are classified into three categories, i.e., normal, snow, and black-ice, to construct a training dataset. Under normal conditions, the images include dry and wet road conditions. In the final step, the learning process is conducted using the acquired dataset for deep learning and verification. The dataset contains 10,100 (80%) data points for deep learning and 2,526 (20%) points for verification. RESULTS : To evaluate the proposed approach, the loss, accuracy, and confusion matrix of the addressed model are calculated. The model loss refers to the loss caused by the estimated error of the model, where 0.0479 and 0.0401 are indicated in the learning and verification stages, respectively. Meanwhile, the accuracies are 97.82% and 98.00%, respectively. Based on various tests that involve adjusting the learning parameters, an optimized model is derived by generalizing the characteristics of the input image, and errors such as overfitting are resolved. This experiment shows that this approach can be used for snow and black-ice detections on roads. CONCLUSIONS : The approach introduced herein is feasible in road environments, such as actual tunnel entrances. It does not necessitate expensive imported equipment, as general CCTV cameras can be applied to general roads, and low-cost IR temperature sensors can be used to provide efficiency and high accuracy in road sections such as national roads and highways. It is envisaged that the developed system will be applied to in situ conditions on roads.
1863년 1월, 미국 대통령 A.링컨에 의해 노예해방에 관하여 선언이 이루어졌음에도 불구하고, 2020년 5월 백인 경찰의 무릎에 눌려 숨진 흑인 조지 플로이드 사건으로 미국 전역에서 인종차별에 반대하는 항의 시위 및 저항이 일어나고 있다. 1970년 중반부터 동물과 관련하여 동물 복지 및 동물권이 등장한 이래 유럽, 미국, 일본 등에서 긍정적이고 발전적인 법안이나 제도가 마련되었음에도 동물 학대와 관련한 문제들은 여전히 발생하고 있다. 인간은 동물들을 인간의 이익증대를 위해 이용해 왔으며, 다양한 분야에서 동물의 본능을 억압시키고, 동물들의 삶을 착취했다. 동물을 존중하고, 보호하며, 그들의 권리를 지켜주는 역할은 인간과 동물의 생명 존중을 위한 첫걸음이다. 이는 인간에게도 긍정적인 결과를 가져올 것이다. 동물 생명 존중은 동물의 지위를 인정하는 것은 인간을 존중하는 것이다. 생명의 소중하다는 것은 모두가 알고 있다. 인간과 동물들 모두 자연 생태계 내에서 서로의 가치를 인정하고, 존중하기 위해 함께 존재하고 있으며, 잘 살아갈 수 있는 권리를 가지고 있다. 본 연구에서는 싱어의 동물해방(복지)과 리건의 동물권과의 차이에 관해 설명하였으나 싱어의 동물해방 개념에 근거하여 동물 복지를 다루고 있다. 동물 복지를 위해 동물의 도덕적 지위에 대한 고찰을 통해 동물 복지 및 동물권에 대한 찬반 논의가 국내에서 진행될 수 있는 계기가 되기를 희망하며 작성하였다.
하⋅폐수처리 MBR 공정을 운영함에 있어서 특정 오염물에 따른 멤브레인 회복률 저하를 자주 경험하게 되며, 이에 따른 화학세정 시 막오염 물질 제거에 필요한 약품선택에 많은 어려움을 겪는다. 본 연구의 목적은 하폐수 성상의 MBR 처리 시 발생할 수 있는 Ca 막오염에 대해서 다양한 세정약품 적용을 통한 멤브레인의 회복률 증대 방안을 찾고자 하는 것에 있다. 본 연구는 K 폐수처리시설에서 1년간 운영한 (주)에코니티의 분리막을 샘플링하여 투과도 측정 및 막표면 분석 후 막오염 물질을 우선적으로 확인하였으며, 이에 따른 각종 화학약품의 적용실험을 통하여 최적약품 도출 및 적용성을 평가하고자 하였다.
국내 563만 가구가 반려동물을 기르는 것으로 추정되며, 반려동물의 수는 지속적으로 증가하고 있다. 이와 동시에 유기동물도 급격하게 증가하고 있다. 농림축산식품부의 통계 자료에 의하면 2016년 89,000 마리가 유기되었다고 발표하였다. 이는 하루 244마리가 유기되고 있는 것이다. 유기동물의 증가와 더불어 정부에서 사용되는 처리 비용 또한 증가 하고 있으며, 원보호자를 찾거나, 재 입양을 가지 못한 반려동물의 경우 인도적 처리를 한다. 이는 안락사를 의미한다. 따라서 반려인에게는 반려동물의 입양경로와 애로점, 유기 동물 입양의사 및 사후처리과정 인지여부를 설문조사하였으며, 비반려인에게는 캣맘, 캣 대디에 대한 생각, 유기동물에 대한 생각 및 사후처리 과정에 대해 설문조사를 함으로써 반려동물 및 유기동물에 제도적 정비 및 선진화된 반려동물문화가 필요할 것으로 본다.
(주)에코니티에서 개발한 자유말단형 분리막모듈(End-Free type)은 기존 분리 막 모듈과는 달리 고농도의 MLSS(Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids) 에서도 지속적인 운전이 가능하며, 그 외 다양한 현장 문제 발생 시에서도 쉽게 대응이 가능하여 안정적으로 운영이 가능한 특징을 가지고 있다. 본 연구에서는 (주)에코니티 자유말단형 분리막의 MBR(Membrane Bioreactor) 장기 운전 성능을 평가하였다. 운영을 하는 동안 발생하는 이벤트에 대한 해결 방안을 확인하면서 최적의 운전조건을 검토하였다. 또한 하수처리수가 재이용으로 적용되는 시스템에서 MBR 처리수가 역삼투 멤브레인의 원수로 공급되는 만큼 안정적이며 양호한 수질이 생성되는지 지속적으로 검토하였다.
Volunteer is defined as a person who offer service for social welfare work without pay voluntarily and people who recognize the importance of volunteer activity and engage in volunteer work in government offices and non-governmental organizations. However, the disaster protection for the volunteers is still out of the law’s boundary. The volunteer in volunteer organizations, social welfare organization as well as teenage volunteer are now protected in nation through private health insurance but its coverage is limited and the guarantee level is not sufficient to protect volunteer. If volunteers cannot be protected from industrial accidents or paid proper compensation to realize their human dignity by assuring a basic right to live, it leads to serious loss personally and socially. If the volunteers are protected by occupational health and safety insurance that functions as social insurance and the industrial accident risk gets removed, it will contribute to invigorate the volunteer activities and thus, legal improvement and institutional strategy must be required so that volunteers enjoy various insurance benefits in Industrial Accident Insurance.
Unpaid family workers operate projects for business with my family is Officially, but are paid to the beneficiary of the joint cost of living in real terms or at a separate wage. In other words, as defined in employment laws that do not receive wages provide workers for the purpose of Labor Standards Act because they don't see that not be regarded as an employee. Therefore, unpaid family worker workers are excluded from the application of the statutory. Unpaid family worker are protected against the risk of an industrial accident or industrial disasters through Guarantee basic right to exist to them through appropriate compensation in the event. Safeguards to the realization of human dignity unless this is a personal level as well as social dimension in them a great loss and industrial insurance. There are subject to the need to expand to include social safety net.
수처리에 있어 막여과 기술은 안전한 처리수질의 보장, 시스템의 집약화 및 자동화 등의 장점으로 인해 활발히 도입되고 있다. 하지만 핵심 기자재인 막 모듈의 설계나 전체 정수처리 공정의 안정성 부분에 대해서는 아직 기술개발의 여지가 남아 있다. 본 연구에서는 막여과 공정의 연속 운전에 있어서 막오염을 완화시키기 위한 목적으로 수행하는 물리적인 역세척의 효율 향상과 더불어 이 때 발생하는 역세배출수를 막 모듈 외부로 원활히 배출할 수 있도록 한 가압식 막여과 기술과, 이 때 발생한 가압식 막여과 배출수를 이중 구조로 구획된 침지 막조 이용하여 원활히 처리할 수 있는 침지식 막여과 기술을 결합하여 기존 기술에 비해 고회수율의 달성은 물론, 집약적이고 실용적인 2단 막여과 정수처리 시스템을 개발하고자 하였다.
This study is on safety improvement measures through analysis of accident cases during plant storage tank construction. Storage tank is a general term for artificial ground facility constructed to store oil, water, gas, and other chemicals. Some companies have clustered storage tanks (tank farm). The construction methods vary according to the component and types of fluids. Because most of the construction procedures include lifting heavy weight materials using heavy construction equipment and are carried out at high places, storage tank construction contains more risk factors than normal aerial construction. Recently, major accidents such as storage tank collapse have occurred often, and cost many lives due to the characteristics of the structure. In this study we would like to analyze the cause of these accidents and propose measures to improve safety.
Occupational Safety and Health Expenses Law in construction industry was enacted in 1988 by the notification of Ministry of Employment and Labor and 22 revisions have been made since. The fact that revisions have been made almost every year since the first enactment shows that Occupational Safety and Health Expenses can effectively prevent construction accidents and the need for revisions to fit the reality has been raised continuously. Despite the construction industry has undergone various internal and external environmental changes, (such as the changes in the safety and health management techniques and the increase in the construction employees’ desire for safety) the appropriation standard of Occupational Safety and Health Expenses has been calculated based on the contract price. The construction industry has constantly suggested that the Occupational Safety and Health Expenses be calculated based on the estimated construction expenses since applying the current method doesn’t provide enough money to secure the safety. Also because it has become mandatory to hire a health manager since 2015, the lack of Occupational Safety and Health Expenses is expected to get worse. In this study, we will analyze the usage of Occupational Safety and Health Expenses and propose a more practical and realistic change in setting the appropriation standard of Occupational Safety and Health Expenses.
This study organizes not only the middle-long term developing plan of safety health education to put emphasis on a manufacturing industry, but also the developing plan of activating the domestic safety health education. On the basis of this study, current safety health education can be developed. To achieve a goal of implementing domestic safety health education, this study is carried out more deeply as follows.
This study analyzed the safety management efficiency through input-oriented BCC Model using DEA by making of Models, in which this study selected the number of staff affiliated with the construction site, number of staff members on the construction team, and number of safety personnel as Input Factor, along with the number of disaster victims and zero-accident accomplished hours as output elements, targeting 40-or-so apartment building construction sites which are being built by 3 domestic construction companies. As a result of efficiency, it was 0.643, the number of efficient DMU was 4. In the aspect of returns to scale, 21 construction sites(52.5%) found to be in a state of increasing returns while 14 construction sites(35%) was in a state of Decreasing returns. The reason for inefficiency was found to lie in technical factors in case of 30 construction sites(75%). Lastly, inefficient DMU is in need of 38.9 % and 66% reduction in site personnel and safety personnel. Based on study results, the 29 construction sites accounting for 72.5% of DMU for safety management efficiency evaluation object turned out to do inefficient safety management that doesn't fit the size of each company.
Currently, the construction industry in Korea implements the risk assessment that is implemented by managers and working team leaders. However, it is difficult to share the result of risk assessment meeting to substructural workers in korea system and the workers don't understand meaning and effect about risk assessment. The risk assessment is that the workers in the construction site have to know risk factors and reducing ways to the risks. But, the education and sharing methods for risk assessment system is insufficient in korea. For this risk assessment problems identified were surveyed. In order to improve the problems of the risk assessment, proposes the following three methods. First, Implement to educate the risk assessment during the basic safety and health training of construction industry. Second, the training way about workers' participation in risk assessment is necessary. For example, after watching videos, etc, the workers create risk assessment in person and make a presentation about it. Third, the risk assessment utilize during TBM(Tool Box Meeting). Before working every day, we need to educate risk factors and the reducing ways to the risk during TBM.