This study measured concentrations of formaldehyde, a pollutant in the indoor air in three departments, before and after the renovation of a medical facility used by the general public, and conducted a health survey on workers' subjective symptoms. The average concentration of formaldehyde was 25.8 ± 8.7 μg/m3 before the renovation and 47.3 ± 6.7 μg/m3 after the renovation. The concentration was increased; however, it did not exceed the maintenance standard set by the law. Measured concentration was high both before and after the renovation in the office, and the biggest difference was shown in the concentration change. For eight symptoms including dry throat, there were more workers who expressed the symptoms after the renovation than those who expressed them before the renovation. Factors that influenced subjective symptoms were the effects before and after the renovation. Even when formaldehyde does not exceed the maintenance standard set by the law, detailed and systematic management is required and adequate health effect evaluation or education is necessary, considering the characteristics of medical facilities.
The purpose of this study was to identify the observable symptoms of musculoskeletal disease from electronic components manufacturing workers who involved in many repetitive tasks and to provide the basic data for the prevention and management. The survey was conducted on 721 people from 15 April, 2013 to 17 May, 2013 by selfrecording type. The results of the study are as follows. First, symptom complaints based on different body parts are in following order, waist was 12.9%, shoulder was 10.5%, neck was 7.4%, hand/wrist/finger was 7.4%, leg/foot was 4.4%, arm/elbow was 2.8%, and 21.9% of the respondents showed symptoms in more than one body part. Sex, age, marital status, work experience, work intensity, and past accident experience were statistically significant. Second, in the job stress evaluation, all male and female workers were below the median of Korean workers in all of 8 categories. the higher the scores for lack of job autonomy, the higher the symptom complaints of musculoskeletal disease. In the case of patients complain observable symptoms of musculorskeletal disease, they should receive proper outpatient treatment, various programs such as stretching by body parts, setting up a desirable working posture, switching to cyclical work, should b developed as much as possible.
The purpose of this study is to detect metabolic syndrome components related to exposure of organic solventthrough comparison and analysis of metabolic syndrome components between workers at the workplace exposedto organic solvent (toluene, xylene, styrene) and workers at general workplace. During the period from Januaryto December 2010, the survey was conducted against male workers of 168,769 persons with age group 30-59completed medical checkup, dividing workers at organic solvent exposed work place and workers of generalworkplace against which comparisons were carried out about the result of general characteristics, blood test.Whether exposed to organic solvent and exposed period relationship with metabolic syndrome components wereidentified through execution of multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rate of the metabolic syndromeby age was 15.0% for the 30s, 19.8% for the 40s, 22.9% for the 50s. For the whole workers, the prevalence rateof the metabolic syndrome was 17.4% in exposed workplace and 18.4% in general workplace that was higherthan the rate in exposed workplace. Even if age, drinking, smoking, exercise, region and BMI were corrected,the exposure to the organic solvent was the higher the significance of blood pressure and fasting glucose werestatistically and also the longer the period of exposure was, the higher the significance of blood pressure wasstatistically. In this study, the exposure to the organic solvent showed a statistically significant relevance with bloodpressure and fasting glucose among the metabolic syndrome components and the period of exposure showed astatistically significant relevance with blood pressure. Further researches should be conducted by prospective cohortstudy about the organic solvent and the metabolic syndrome components supplementing the defects.
Objectives : The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics that affect the urinary phenol of workers exposed to phenol. Subjects and Methods : Total 41 workers were selected at bisphenol A manufacturing plant and their urinary phenol concentration were measured before and after work along with the phenol concentration in the workplace air, and carried out a survey on work characteristics and lifestyle factors that could affect urinary phenol. Results : The phenol concentration in air during work hours was 0.91 (non-detection~2.88) mg/m3, and the worker’s urinary phenol concentrations before and after work were 100.27±75.76 and 138.13±109. 58 mg/g creatinine, respectively, which showed a statistically significant increase. Comparing smoking and urinary phenol concentration, smokers had 194.54±137.52 mg/g creatinine while non-smokers had 108.88±80.10 mg/g creatinine, thus showing the urinary phenol concentration of smokers to be statistically significantly higher (p=0.046). The urinary phenol concentration increased as work hours, the frequency of skin exposure to phenol, and the amount of drinking increased, and there were differences in its concentration depending on the work type and whether or not workers wore protective gear. The results of carrying out a multiple regression analysis showed that phenol concentration in air, work hours, frequency of skin exposure, and smoking were statistically significant. In other words, the urinal phenol concentration increased more for smokers than for non-smokers, when work hours became longer, and when the frequency of skin exposure was over five times. Conclusions : The factors that influenced urinary phenol in workers exposed to phenol were phenol concentration in air, work hour, frequency of skin exposure, smoking, work and lifestyle habits. Accordingly, biological monitoring for phenol exposure assessment must reflect these factors, and effort must be made to reduce skin exposure at workplace.
This paper has attempted to find out the factors that have an influence on the consciousness of the release of hazardous materials into the air in a nail shop. For this, the concentrations of organic solvents in the air in 10 nail shop(31 employees) in 'S' District of Seoul have been measured. Furthermore, a questionnaire survey was conducted from January 18 to May 18, 2008. Most subjects were female with mean age of 25.61 years - 25 or younger: 19 (61.3%), older than 25 : 12 (38.7%). At the breathing height for employees in a nail shop, the concentrations of organic solvents were the highest (16.61ppm), followed by ethyl acetate 1.23ppm, butyl acetate 0.40ppm, toluene 0.27ppm, n-hexane 0.25ppm and isopropyl alcohol 0.21ppm. With regard to employees' consciousness symptoms (frequent fatigue' 100%, 'headache' 90.3%, 'nasal irritation' 77.4%, 'irritation in eyes' 71.0%, 'score throat' 64.5% and 'coughing' 51.6%), statistically significant difference has been observed (p<0.01). In particular, this paper has been aimed to suggest ground data for revision of the regulations that are related with the indoor air quality of nail shop and the guidelines for employees' health.
The importance of managing the exposure to radiation for radiological technologist is becoming more conspicuous as modern medical care increases the number of hospital exams involving radiation and as work of radiological technologists expand and increase in areas using advanced medical equipment for diagnosis and treatment purposes involving radiation. Measurements for individual exposure dose to radiation can differ according to the equipment and facilities in the work environment and the average number of exposures an individual is involved in. Therefore, systematic and reasonable controls on the exposure dose to radiation can be attained from core data. Shallow dose/Deep dose measurements were taken according to the year of the measurement, the technologist’s occupation post, gender, department, and age over a five year period from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007 using a sample of radiological technologists from ten general hospitals throughout S. Korea. When comparing individual exposure dose of each radiological technologist, there was no significant difference in the mean exposure dose according to the year the measurement was taken (p>0.05). Mean exposure dose for Deep/Shallow according to gender showed that men received significantly higher exposure dose than women (p<0.001). Mean exposure dose for Deep/Shallow according to age showed an increase in exposure dose as age decreases, however, it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). According to occupation post, technologists working in nuclear medicine received significantly higher dose than other occupation posts (p<0.001). The results of individual exposure dose were under the dose limits in accordance to all nuclear regulations. Furthermore, since stochastic effects may occur with long-term exposure to low level radiation, individual exposure dose data was thoroughly managed and the principle of As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) was implemented when establishing the design of this study.
This research was performed with the subject of 111 offices in a chemical plant of Korea. Airborne concentration level of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and total suspended particulates in the office rooms were measured along with temperature and relative humidity. Simultaneously, general characteristics and subjective health symptoms of 500 office workers were investigated through a questionnaire consisting of the five point weighting method : 0 = not at all, 1 = a little bit, 2 = moderately, 3 = quite a bit and 4 = extremely. Results showed that the mean values for temperature and relative humidity in investigated office rooms were 22.2℃ and 34.3%, respectively. The concentrations of formaldehyde, PM10, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide were 0.17 ppb, 28.8 ㎍/㎥, 0.95 ppm and 424 ppm, respectively. 56.4% of all the workers investigated replied with a sense of fatigue or weariness (mean=2.23), drowsiness or languidness (mean=2.22), sneezing (mean=2.11) and ophthalmia oreye fatigue (mean=2.07). Female workers, non-smokers, non-drinkers, workers who do shift more than nine hours a day, and workers in poor health experienced more subjective symptoms than other workers (p<0.05). Subjective symptoms of office workers were significantly associated with the following items of office characteristics: the purchase date of office equipment, the change of office furniture, the use of paint, smoking in the office, ventilation condition, the use of an individual air-conditioner, the use of a fax machine, the degree of office repair, the proportion of workers per office, the degree of satisfaction in office environment, and the operation hours of the air-conditioner. Also, subjective symptoms were positively correlated with indoor environmental factors such as relative humidity, carbon dioxide level, level of PM10, and formaldehyde (p<0.05). In conclusion, office characteristics and air quality in a chemical plant affected subjective health symptoms of office workers. Thus, in order to improve the health of workers, to enhance work efficiency, and to establish a better office environment, air quality control in office rooms by optimal ventilation, adequately occupied number of workers in one office, and maintenance of office equipment should be fulfilled thoroughly. keywords：Air quality, Subjective health symptom, Formaldehyde, PM10, Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide