We collected Seokganju minerals (regions in Gyeryong Mountain, Sangsin-ri, Banpo-myeon, GongjuChungcheongnam-province), which were used as natural color pigments for grayish-blue during the 15th~16th centuries of theJoseon era, and investigated their crystallographic features to develop a black pigment having a spinel structure. By a Ramananalysis, the color of Seokganju under transparent glaze as a pigment for painting was black because hematite (Fe2O3) inSeokganju was converted to magnetite (Fe3O4) However, Seokganju into the transparent glaze as a pigment was brown becauseof hematite (Fe2O3) and small amounts of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) in Seokganju minerals. Only Seokganju mineral is used, it isnot suitable for black pigment into the transparent glaze. This study tried to develop a spinel crystal black pigment stabilizedby Seokganju with CoO, Cr2O3, NiO, and MnO2 at 1280oC. A Raman spectroscopy analysis was performed to verify thepresence of Mn The results showed that it existed as spinel, and two crystal phases CoFe2O4 and MnFe2O4 were mixed.CoFe2O4 spinel has a dark grayish black color and Mn2O4 spinel has a greenish black color, and these two appeared as black.The color of a specimen calcined by adding 6wt% of pigment mixed with 5wt% of MnO2 added to lime glaze was analyzedwith a UV spectrophotometer. When applying the color pigment, it appeared black stabilized with L*24.23, a* 0.12, b* −2.29at 1260oC oxidative calcination, With 1240oC reduction firing, it is appeared black stabilized with low brightness of L* 23.13,a* −1.12, b* 0.54.
심각한 기후 변화와 증가하는 인구에 따른 전 세계적인 식량 부족 현상으로 농업분야에서의 자동화는 점점 중요성이 커지고 있다. 특히 우리나라와 같이 농업 인구의 고령화, 해외 수입 농산품과의 가격 경쟁력 향상과 고 생산성 요구가 거센 환경에서는 농업의 자동화는 다가오는 미래가 아니라 반드시 적용하고 해결해야만 하는 필수 요소가 되었다. 농업은 제한된 공간에서 저 노동력으로 최대의 생산성을 얻기위해서 다양한 최신 학문 영역과의 융합을 시도하고 있다.이 문서에서는 이에 관련하여 농업과 로봇(자동화) 산업의 결합에 중점을 두고 농업용 로봇과 식물공장의 주요 기술을 소개하고 사례를 설명하는 것을 목적으로 한다.
The Electron/Hole Pair is generated when the activation energy produced by ultraviolet ray illuminates to the semiconductor and OH- ion produced by water photocleavage reacts with positive Hole. As a results, OH radical acting as strong oxidant is generated and then Photocatalytic oxidation reaction occurs. The photocatalytic oxidation can oxidate the non-degradable and hazardous organic substances such as pesticides and aromatic materials easier, safer and shorter than conventional water treatment process. So in this study, many factors influencing the oxidation of chlorophenols, such as inorganic electrolytes addition, change of oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere, temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, chlorophenol concentration, were throughly examined. According to the experiments observations, it is founded that the rate of chlorophenol oxidation follows a first-order reaction and the modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood relationship. And the photocatalytic oxidation occurs only when activation energy acting as Electron/Hole generation, oxygen acting as electron acceptor to prevent Electron/Hole recombination, $TiO_2$ powder acting as photocatalyst are present. The effects of variation of dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature and inorganic electrolytes concentration on 2-chlorophenol oxidation are negligible. And the lower the organic concentration, the higher the oxidation efficiency becomes. Therefore, the photocatalytic oxidation is much effective to oxidation of hazardous substances at very low concentration. The oxidation is effective in the range of 0.1 g/L-10 g/L of $TiO_2$. Finally when the ultra-violet ray is illuminated to $TiO_2$, the surface characteristics of $TiO_2$ change and Adsorption/Desorption reaction on $TiO_2$ surface occurs.
The purpose of this study was to more fully evaluate the potential for chlorophenol degradation in anaerobic sludge. The pH effects on the ring cleavage of phenol and dechlorination of monochlorophenol isomers and dichlorophenl isomers. This study results are as follows ; Each of the monochlorophenol isomers were degraded in anaerobic sludge. The relatives rates were 2-Chlorophenol > 3-Chlorophenol > 4-Chlorophenol. Biodegradation results for the dichlorophenol isomers in anaerobic sludge are such as 2,3-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol was reductively dechlorinated to 3-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol to 4-chlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol to 2-chlorophenol. The two dichlorophenol isomers which did not contain an ortho Cl substituent 3,4-dichlorophenol and 3,5-dichlorophenol were persistent during the 6-week incubation. The rate of dechlorination was enhanced by the presence of a Cl group ortho, rather than para, to the site of dechlorination.
With the rapid industrialization, an ever-increasing quantity and kind of new organic compounds pose environmental problems due to their toxicity and physiological effect. However, research on the biodegradation of these compounds under anaerobic condition is very limited inspite of its efficiency and economical advantage. In this research, the pH effect on the ring cleavage of phenol under anaerobic condition was investigated, and the theory of phase separation was applied to the degradation of phenol for investigating the role of acidogenic bacteria. Results, obtained from biochemical methane potential(BMP) assay for 15.5 days of incubation, showed that acidic condition was more desirable for phenol degradation than alkaline condition. By both unacclimated methanogenic granular sludge and two mixed cultures, phenol was completely removed within six weeks of incubation with a gas conversion rate of over 86% of theoretical one. However, phenol was not degraded by unacclimated acidogenic culture, and thus it is considered as a syntrophic substrate. In case of phase separated biochemical methane potential(PSBMP) assay, in which acidogenic and methanogenic culture were seeded separately and consecutively, those that had been subjected to normal acidogens for 3 to 4 weeks showed higher gas production than those seeded with sterile or frozen culture.
The purpose of this study is to provide the demand information about services (S/W) and infrastructure (H/W) for rural welfare and culture. The survey was conducted on the overall satisfaction level, the condition change, the importance-satisfaction level of each field and the top priority items for administrative agencies and rural residents. In the overall satisfaction level, administrative agencies responded more than 'normal' to all fields, but the overall satisfaction level was lower than 'normal' in the fields excluding the healthcare field in the case of rural residents. In terms of condition changes compared to the past five years, both administrative institutions and local residents evaluated the improvement. IPA analysis was conducted to identify the priority ranking of each field and it was found that emergency medical facilities in the healthcare field, infant day care facilities in the social welfare field, movie theaters in the culture field, lifelong education institutions and academy facilities in the education field and private sports facilities in the leisure and sports field were most needed, respectively. The results of this study are expected to be helpful in increasing the efficiency and presenting the improvement direction about the development policy of the rural culture and welfare.
최근 런던협약 96의정서 발효에 따라 하수 슬러지의 해양투기가 금지되고 환경 정책 강화와 향후 에너지 자원 부족을 대비하기 위해 녹색 성장이 강조되면서 슬러지를 재이용화 및 자원화 시키려는 처리 기술방법들이 개발되고 있다. 하수슬러지 처리 공정의 중점은 발생량의 감량화와 개량화를 통해 탈수 효율을 높이기 위함이며 대표적인 전처리 방법으로 물리적인 방법과 화학적인 방법으로 약품 처리하는 것이 일반화되어 있다. 본 논문에서는 폴리머 응집제를 사용하여 총 4종류의 생, 잉여, 소화, 혼합슬러지에 대해서 적합한 유기 및 무기 응집제를 주입한 후 최적의 응집 조건을 선정하여 최종적으로 슬러지 탈수성의 효율을 비교 및 평가하도록 하였다. 혼합슬러지는 생슬러지와 잉여슬러지를 같은 부피 비율로 혼합하여 제조하였다. 최적의 응집 조건을 선정하기에 앞서 기본적으로 Jar Test 실험을 시행하였으며 200rpm에서 1 ~ 3분 완속 교반, 50rpm에서 5분 급속 교반 조건을 제시하였고, 유기 폴리머와 무기 폴리머 응집제의 단일 및 이액 주입 방식에 따라 응집 반응의 특성을 비교하였다. 실험결과는 슬러지 탈수성 및 최적 응집 조건 선정의 지표로서 응집을 형성시키고 방치 후, 고액 분리를 통해서 상등수의 탁도, pH, ORP, SS, 흡광도 (330nm), floc size와 TTF 실험을 하여 탈수성을 측정하였다. 따라서 응집제 주입 방법에 있어서 유기 응집제의 단일 방식 주입과 무기 응집제를 첨가하여 floc의 응결도를 높이는 이액 주입 방식으로부터 탈수성 효율에 미치는 결과를 본 논문에 나타내었다.
Ceramic welding backing material is a mullite-cordierite composite that is currently being used for welding processes in plant and shipbuilding. It is the optimal material for welding processes thanks to its extremely low thermal expansion coefficient and strong resilience against high temperature. However, due to the pollutants from welding such as iron and carbon, the entire amount of ceramic welding backing material is being land-filled after a single-time use. In this study, ceramic welding backing material was mixed with clay and kaolin to be used as a new ceramic body. A composition with 20 ~ 50% of ceramic welding backing material showed sufficient plasticity, and when fired at 1,250oC, it was deemed available for ceramic block and others with the porosity of 2.27 ~ 5.94%, water absorption ratio of 0.99 ~ 3.96% and bending strength of 720 ~ 810 kgf/cm2. In addition, color ceramic body, which was made from a waste welding backing material, of which iron was partially removed, added with 3wt% of high temperature pigment and fired at 1,250oC, displayed the unique color of the pigment, meaning that waste welding backing material could be used for ceramic bodies of a variety of colors.
We investigated how supercritical affected sterilization and enzyme inactivation in dongchimi, a conventional Korean fermented food. The growth of bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, in dongchimi juice tended to decrease with increased pressure and temperature during treatment with supercritical . D values were affected by pressure more than by temperature. The lowest total number of cells and D values of lactic acid bacteria were observed after treatment with supercritical at 25 MPa and ; these conditions also reduced polygalacturonase activity in radishes by approximately 40.3%. Supercritical can be used as an alternative method of sterilization and enzyme inactivation, minimizing sensory loss and textural changes in vegetable materials.
본 연구는 국내에 널리 분포되어 있는 감잎을 냉풍건조시켜 분말화하여 첨가한 냉면의 반죽과 숙면의 품질특성을 분석하였다. 수분결합능력은 무첨가구와 감잎 분말첨가구간의 차이는 없었으며, 아밀로그래프 상에서 호화개시온도와 최고점도 도달시간은 감잎분말 첨가량이 늘어날수록 증가하였고, 최고점도와 최종점도는 첨가량이 늘어날수록 감소하였다. 면의 조리적성에서 조리 후의 무게는 무첨가구가 가장 낮았으며 감잎분말 첨가량이 늘어날수록 증가하였고, 감잎분말 첨가량에
오미자를 이용하여 음료 제조를 하기 위한 오미자 추출의 최적조건을 알아보기 위하여 반응 표면 분석을 이용하였다. 각각의 반응표면분석 결과 고형분은 25배 이상의 용매비, 이상 온도, 시간, 총산은 25배 이상의 용매비, 의 온도, 시간, 페놀성 화합물은 25배의 용매비, 의 온도, 시간, 환원당은 25배 이상의 용매비, 이상의 온도, 시간, 비타민 C는 25배 이상의 용매비, 의 추출 온도와 시간의 추출조건에서 최적의 추출조건을 나타내었고,
본 연구는 경상도지역에서 예로부터 먹어오던 무말랭이 김치(골곰짠지, 오그락지)의 품질 변화를 연구하기 위하여, 천일건조와 열풍건조 그리고 천일건조의 문제점을 보완한 냉풍건조를 이용하여 말린 무말랭이의 품질 특성을 연구하였다. 건조방법에 따른 건조 속도는 열풍건조가 가장 빨랐으며 냉풍건조가 가장 낮은 건조속도를 나타내었다. 건조시 갈색도는 냉풍건조가 가장 낮은 수치를 보였고 열풍건조에서 가장 높게 나타났으며, Vitamin C의 함량은 냉풍건조가