조류의 이상증식을 일으키는 새만금호 부영양화를 평가하기 위해 Carlson 지수를 적용하였다. 연구를 위해 2021년 월별로 새만 금호내 총 7개 정점에서 수질조사를 실시하였다. Chl.a의 농도는 동계에는 만경수계가 약간 높았고, 춘계와 하계에는 동진수계가 약간 높 게 나타났으나, 일부 시기를 제외하고는 전체적으로 호소 수질환경기준 3등급과 비슷하거나 낮은 농도를 나타내었다. COD는 만경수계와 동진수계 모두 하계와 추계에 호소 수질환경기준 4등급과 유사하거나 상회하는 수질을 나타내었다. TOC는 모든 지점에서 3등급 이내의 수질을 보였다. 총인 농도는 호수 수질환경기준 4등급을 초과하였고, 월별로는 1월과 강우 후 8월에 높게 나타났다. 수질인자간의 상관성 분석에서 염분 농도에 대한 유기물, 총인, 총질소의 상관성이 상대적으로 높게 나타나 배수갑문을 통한 해수유입과 상류 하천을 통한 담 수 유입에 의한 담수역, 기수역, 해수역의 수질 특징을 반영하고 있었다. 영양상태지수에 의한 새만금호의 부영양화 변동 특성을 보면, Chl.a와 SD, TN의 지수에서 부영양화 초기 단계의 수질을 보였으며, TP 지수의 경우 심각한 부영양화 상태를 나타내고 있었다. 수질인자 간 부영양화 지수의 크기는 모든 수계에서 TSI(TP) > TSI(TN) > TSI(SD) > TSI(CHL)의 순으로 나타났다. TSI(CHL)에 대한 TSI(TP) 및 TSI(SD)와의 편차를 2차원 평면으로 나타낸 사분면 분석 결과를 보면, 조류 성장에 대한 총인이 영향에서는 모든 수계에서 대부분의 총인 (TP)에 의한 제한적 영향은 나타나지 않았으며, 빛 감쇠에 영향을 미치는 인자는 외부로부터 유입되는 적은 입자상 물질에 의한 영향이 크게 나타나는 것으로 평가할 수 있다.
본 연구에서는 뇌혈류 신호를 측정할 수 있는 시변자계 기반의 비접촉식 직물센서를 설계하여 뇌혈류 신호 검출 및 감성평가의 가능성을 탐색하고자 하였다. 직물센서는 40 denier의 은사를 30합사 한 후 컴퓨터 기계 자수하여 코일 형 센서로 구현하였다. 뇌혈류 측정 실험을 위해 코일형 센서를 경동맥 부위에 부착하고, ECG (Electrocardiogram) 전극과 RSP (Respiration) 측정 벨트를 부착 및 착용하도록 하였으며, 동시에 초음파 진단기기를 사용해 도플러 초음 파 검사(Doppler Ultrasonography)를 수행하여 혈류 속도를 측정하였다. 피험자에게 Meta Quest 2를 착용시키고, 실 험을 위해 조작된 영상 시각 자극을 보여주면서 혈류 신호를 측정한 후 시각 자극에 대한 감성평가 설문지를 작성하 도록 하였다. 측정 결과, 도플러 초음파 검사를 통해 측정된 혈류 속도 신호에 변화가 생길 때 직물센서로 측정한 신호도 함께 변화하는 것으로 나타났다. 이를 통해 코일형 직물센서를 이용하여 뇌혈류활동 신호를 측정할 수 있다 는 것을 검증하였다. 또한, 감성평가를 위하여 ECG 신호와 PLL 신호(직물센서 신호)에서 추출한 HRV를 계산해서 비교한 결과, 시각 자극으로 인한 교감신경계와 부교감신경계의 활성화에 따른 비율의 변화에 대해서는 직물센서로 측정한 신호와 ECG 신호를 이용해 계산한 값이 비슷한 경향을 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 결론적으로, 본 연구에서 개발된 시변자계 기반의 코일형 직물 센서를 통해 뇌혈류 변화 측정 및 감성 모니터링이 가능할 것으로 사료된다.
In this study, non-destructive technologies that can be applied to evaluate the integrity of valve materials, safety against internal pressure caused by corrosion, and the blocking function of large-diameter water valves during operation without requiring specimen collection or manpower entering the inside of the valve were tested to assess the reliability of the technologies and their suitability for field application. The results showed that the condition of the graphite structure inside the valve body can be evaluated directly through the optical microscope in the field without specimen collection for large-diameter water butterfly valves, and the depth of corrosion inside the valve body can be determined by array ultrasound and the tensile strength can be measured by instrumented indentation test. The reliability of each of these non-destructive techniques is high, and they can be widely used to evaluate the condition of steel or cast iron pipes that are significantly smaller in thickness than valves. Evaluation of blocking function of the valves with mixed gas showed that it can be detected even when a very low flow rate of mixed gas passes through the disk along with the water flow. Finally, as a result of evaluating the field applicability of non-destructive technologies for three old butterfly valves installed in the US industrial water pipeline, it was found that it is possible to check the material and determine the suitability of large-diameter water valves without taking samples, and to determine the corrosion state and mechanical strength. In addition, it was possible to evaluate safety through the measurement results, and it is judged that the evaluation of the blocking function using mixed gas will help strengthen preventive response in the event of an accident.
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to develop the data driven pavement condition index by considering the traffic and climatic characteristics in Incheon city. METHODS : The Incheon pavement condition index (IPCI) was proposed using the weighted sum concept with standardization and coefficient of variation for measured pavement performance data, such as crack rate, rut depth, and International Roughness Index (IRI). A correlation study between the National Highway Pavement Condition Index (NHPCI) and Seoul Pavement Condition Index (SPI) was conducted to validate the accuracy of the IPCI. RESULTS : The equation for determining the IPCI was developed using standardization and the coefficient of variation for the crack rate, rut depth, and IRI collected in the field. It was found from the statistical analysis that the weight factors of the IPCI for the crack rate were twice as high as those for the rut depth and IRI. It was also observed that IPCI had a close correlation with the NHPCI and SPI, albeit with some degree of scattering. This correlation study between the NHPCI and SPI indicates that the existing pavement condition index does not consider the asymmetry of the original measured data. CONCLUSIONS : The proposed pavement condition provides an index value that considers the characteristics of the original raw data measured in the field. The developed pavement condition index is extensively used to determine the timing and method of pavement repair, and to establish pavement maintenance and rehabilitation strategies in Incheon.
In this paper, seismic performance evaluation was carried out for eight circular reinforced concrete columns designed seismically by KRTAand KCI. Primary design parameters for such columns included many longitudinal reinforcements, yield strength of reinforcements, the vertical spacing of spirals, aspect ratio, and axial force ratio. The test results showed that all the columns exhibited stable hysteretic and inelastic responses. Based on the test results, drift ratios corresponding to each damage state, such as initial yielding, initial cover spalling, initial core concrete crushing, buckling, and fracture of longitudinal reinforcement and final spalled region, were evaluated. Then, those ratios were compared with widely accepted damage limit states. The comparison revealed that the existing damage states were considerably conservative. This implies that additional research is required for the damage limit states of such columns designed seismically by current Korean design codes.
PURPOSES : In this study, a method for evaluating concrete bridge deck deterioration using three-dimensional (3D) ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey data and its in situ application are discussed. METHODS : Field surveys are conducted on two bridges in Yongsan-gu (Bridge A) and Seodaemun-gu (Bridge B) in Seoul using 3D GPR. The obtained survey data are used to calculate the dielectric constant map of each bridge using the extended common midpoint method. In addition, random points on both bridges are selected for the chloride content test in accordance with the KS F 2713 standard. The results from the dielectric constant map and chloride content test are compared. RESULTS : For Bridge A, it is discovered that the percentage of sections with a dielectric constant of 5.0 or less is 1.57%, whereas that above 5.0 is 98.43%; this indicates that the percentage of deteriorated sections for Bridge A is low. Meanwhile, for Bridge B, the dielectric constants calculated for the entire bridge exceed 5.0, which suggests no deterioration for Bridge B. Moreover, all the points selected for the chloride content test have less than 0.15% chloride content and have dielectric constants ranging from 5.0 to 7.0, which are favorable condition for the bridge deck. CONCLUSIONS : The analysis results of the dielectric constants of the concrete bridge deck obtained from the 3D GPR system are consistent with the actual chloride content results. Furthermore, additional verification of this method through field surveys on bridge sections with severe deterioration is highly recommended for future improvements.
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to establish a scientific and rational structure pavement maintenance technique and management standard through field investigation and analysis method development for measuring damage to structure pavement such that fundamental quality improvement can be promoted and the life of pavement prolonged. METHODS : In this study, the crack, plastic deformation, IRI, and SPI values measured using the existing RoadScanner of a corresponding section, as well as the relative dielectric constant values of a lower deck measured using a ground penetrating radar are reduced. The results of a small impact load test are verified by comparing the modulus of elasticity measured. RESULTS : In the Hongjecheon Overpass, when comparing the suspicion points of deterioration between the center of the lane and the 25 measurement data points of the wheel pass section based on the elastic modulus of the light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD), it is discovered that the lane comprises four centers (16%) and 18 wheelpaths (72%). The percentage of suspected deterioration points in the center is higher than that in the wheelpath. In addition, in the case of the Seoho Bridge, by comparing the suspicious points of deterioration for 11 measurement data points in the middle of the lane and the wheelpath section based on the elastic modulus of the LFWD, it is discovered that five points (45%) in both the middle of the lane and the wheel pass are similar. CONCLUSIONS : In this study, a comparative analysis of the LFWD elastic modulus and SPI factors (crack rate, plastic deformation, and IRI) of the Hongjecheon Overpass and Seoho Bridge is conducted to confirm the factors of pavement breakage. Among them, it is confirmed that it affects the pavement condition the most; however, to consider the LFWD elastic modulus as an evaluation criterion for future structure pavement, the data points must be verified via additional experiments to ensure high reliability.
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study was to develop the evaluation methodologies for spraying amount and sprayed condition of curing compound based on IoT technology when concrete pavements are constructed. METHODS : To measure the spraying amount of curing compound, a turbine type flowmeter was selected and a number of laboratory experiments were performed to verify the applicability of the selected sensor. To evaluate the uniformity of the sprayed curing compound on the concrete pavement surface, image process technologies were examined using pictures taken from the actual construction sites and from the test specimens. RESULTS : By performing experiments using water and curing compound, the selected flowmeter was verified to properly be applied to measure the spraying amount of curing compound with an acceptable accuracy. By conducting image processing using pictures of the sprayed curing compound on the concrete pavement surface, it was found that the 8 color analysis method was the best to evaluate the uniformity of the sprayed curing compound. CONCLUSIONS : From this study, it was concluded that the spraying amount of curing compound could be accurately measured using a turbine type flowmeter and the uniformity of the sprayed curing compound on the concrete pavement surface could be properly evaluated using an image processing technology.
PURPOSES : Korea Expressway Corporation has been working on an early remodeling project for the Jungbu Expressway to prepare methods for the rehabilitation of the old CRCP(Continuous Reinforced Concrete Pavement). In this study, the distress of the old CRCP was classified, and the engineering properties of the core specimens for each failure type were evaluated. Based on the test results, the concrete conditions of the existing CRCP were evaluated. This provides a basis for the pre-treatment or repair of the existing CRCP in the JungBu Expressway.
METHODS : To evaluate the pavement condition of the Jungbu Expressway, existing PMS(Pavement Management System) data were analyzed, and field surveys were conducted for each pavement condition. The longitudinal rebar depth, rebar spacing, horizontal crack, and pavement thickness were examined through core sampling and non-destructive testing. In addition, the core specimens were used to evaluate the compressive strength, chloride penetration test, chloride ion penetration resistance, and freeze-thaw resistance.
RESULTS : From the analysis of existing PMS data, field surveys, and laboratory tests, it was found that the old CRCP condition of the Jungbu Expressway was not good. Various types of failures occurred, and horizontal cracks at the rebar location, upward rebar locations, and rebar corrosion were confirmed. In addition, the compressive strength was considerably high, but the durability-related index was judged to be poor.
CONCLUSIONS : For the remodeling project of the Jungbu Expressway, appropriate repairs should be carried out for each type of distress in the old CRCP.