Bioreactors are devices used by sewage treatment plants to process sewage and which produce active sludge, and sediments separated by solid-liquid are treated in anaerobic digestion tanks. In anaerobic digestion tanks, the volume of active sludge deposits is reduced and biogas is produced. After dehydrating the digestive sludge generated after anaerobic digestion, anaerobic digested wastewater, which features a high concentration of organic matters, is generated. In this study, the decomposition of organic carbon and nitrogen was studied by advanced oxidation process. Ozone-microbubble flotation process was used for oxidation pretreatment. During ozonation, the TOC decreased by 11.6%. After ozone treatment, the TOC decreased and the removal rate reached 80.4% as a result of the Ultra Violet-Advanced Oxidation Process (UV-AOP). The results with regard to organic substances before and after treatment differed depending on the organic carbon index, such as CODMn, CODCr, and TOC. Those indexes did not change significantly in ozone treatment, but decreased significantly after the UV-AOP process as the linkage treatment, and were removed by up to 39.1%, 15.2%, and 80.4%, respectively. It was confirmed that biodegradability was improved according to the ratio of CODMn to TOC. As for the nitrogen component, the ammonia nitrogen component showed a level of 3.2×102 mg/L or more, and the content was maintained at 80% even after treatment. Since most of the contaminants are removed from the treated water and its transparency is high, this water can be utilized as a resource that contains high concentrations of nitrogen.
Large amounts of waste and wastewater from aquaculture have negatively impacted ecosystems. Among them, shrimp aquaculture wastewater contains large amounts of nitrogen contaminants derived from feed residues in an aerobic environment. This study isolated candidate strains from adult rockworms to treat shrimp aquaculture wastewater (SAW) in an aerobic environment. Among 87 strains isolated, 25 grew well at the same temperature as the shrimp aquaculture with excellent polymer degradation ability (>0.5 cm clear zone). Six isolates (strains AL1, AL4, AL5, AL6, LA10, and PR15) were finally selected after combining strains with excellent polymer degradation ability without antagonism. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis revealed that strains AL1, AL4, AL5, AL6, LA10, and PR15 were closely related to Bacillus paramycoides, Bacillus pumilus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Bacillus paranthracis, Bacillus paranthracis, and Micrococcus luteus, respectively. When these six isolates were applied to SAW, they reached a maximum cell viability of 2.06×105 CFU mL-1. Their chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and total nitrogen (TN) removal rates for 12 h were 51.0% and 44.6%, respectively, when the CODCr/TN ratio was approximately 10.0. Considering these removal rates achieved in this study under batch conditions, these six isolates could be used for aerobic denitrification. Consequently, these six isolates from rockworms are good candidates that can be applied to the field of aquaculture wastewater treatment.
The production process of ultra-pure water (UPW) involves dozens of unit processes such as reverse osmosis (RO), pretreatments, membrane degasifier, and several ion exchange processes. Recently, continuous electrodeionization (CEDI) has replaced the 2-bed and 3-tower (2B3T) ion exchange process. As a result, the majority of wastewater in UPW production now comes from the RO concentrate. The important of RO in UPW production is to produce high-quality water with a low ion concentration (around 1 mg/L) for CEDI feed water. Minimizing RO concentrate is essential to reduce the wastewater produced in the UPW production process. This can be achieved by maximizing the recovery of the RO system. However, increasing the recovery is limited by the water quality of the RO permeate. To ensure high-quality permeate water, the RO system is designed with a two-pass configuration. The recovery of each pass in the RO system is limited (e.g., < 85%) due to the expected increase in permeate water concentration at higher RO feed water concentrations. Interestingly, tests using 4-inch RO modules with low concentration feed water (≤ 35 mg/L as NaCl) revealed that the permeate concentration remains almost constant regardless of the feed water concentration. This implies that the recovery of the first RO pass can be increased as long as the average feed/concentrate concentration of the second RO pass is less than 35 mg/L. According to this design criterion for the RO system, the recovery of the first and second RO pass, with a feed water concentration of 250 mg/L as NaCl, can be increased up to 94.8% and 96.0%, respectively. Compared to the conventional RO system design (e.g., 70% and 80% for the first and second RO pass) for UPW production, this maximum recovery design reduces the volume of RO feed and concentrate by up to 38.4% and 89.2%, respectively.
The object of this study is to feasibility assesment for co-digestion efficiency of food waste recycling wastewater(FWR) with thermal hydrolysis process dehydration cake (THP Sludge). As a result of THP pre-treatment experimental conditions to 160oC and 30 minutes, the solubility rate(conversion rate of TCOD to SCOD) of the THP sludge increased by 34%. And the bio-methane potential in the THP sludge increased by about 1.42 times from 0.230 to 0.328 m3 CH4/kg VS compared to the non-pre-treatment. The substrates of the co-digestion reactor were FWR and THP sludge at a 1:1 ratio. Whereas, only FWR was used as a substrate in the digestion reactor as a control group. The experimental conditions are 28.5 days of hydraulic retention time(HRT) and 3.5 kg VS/m3-day of organic loading rate(OLR). During the 120 days operation period, the co-digestion reactor was able to operate stably in terms of water quality and methane production, but the FWR digestion reactor deteriorated after 90 days, and methane production decreased to 0.233 m3 CH4/kg VS, which is 67% of normal condition. After 120 days of the experiment, organic loading rate(OLR) of co-digestion reactor was gradually increased to 4.5 kg VS/m3-day and operated for 80 days. Methane production during 80 days was evaluated to be good at the level of 0.349 m3 CH4/kg VS. As a result of evaluating the dehydration efficiency of the sludge before/after 150-180oC THP using a filter press, it was confirmed that the moisture content of the sludge treated before THP at 180oC was 75% and improved by 8% from 83-85% level. Therefore, it is expected that the co-digestion reactor of FWR and THP sludge will ensure stable treatment water quality and increase bio-methane production and reduction effect of dehydration sludge volume.
나노여과막(NF)은 식품가공, 제약 등 폐수는 물론 지자체 하수처리시설에서 배출되는 폐수 처리에 있어 훨씬 낮 은 압력으로 운용이 가능해 역삼투막(RO)보다 인기가 높다. NF막의 경우 분리 메커니즘은 투과확산 기작과 더불어 RO 박막 보다 낮은 가교밀도로 인한 체거름 메커니즘이다. 막 오염은 세라믹 막과 달리 고분자 막의 경우 나노 여과 공정의 고질적인 문제 중 하나이다. 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위해 차아염소산나트륨을 사용한 멤브레인 세척이 이루어진다. 폴리머 멤브레인 에 비해 세라믹 멤브레인은 이러한 화합물에 매우 안정적이다. 본 리뷰에서는 NF 프로세스에 의한 폐수 처리의 다양한 유형 의 세라믹 막 적용에 대해 논의한다.
석유 정제 시설 등에서 발생하는 함유폐수의 처리는 폐수의 유류 허용한계를 넘기지 않기 위해 중요한 공정이다. 세라믹 멤브레인은 유류 처리에서의 높은 효율, 내화학성, 내열성, 기계적 안정성, 그리고 단순한 작동 원리 등의 장점을 가지 고 있어 함유폐수의 처리에 효과적이다. 그러나 세라믹 멤브레인은 원재료의 높은 가격 때문에 널리 사용되는 데에 한계가 있다. 최근에는 이를 해소하기 위해 플라이 애시나 점토를 사용하는 노력도 있었다. 이 리뷰는 세라믹 멤브레인의 효율과 제 작을 실리콘, 알루미나, 그리고 폐석탄회의 재료로 나누었다.
Excess nitrogen (N) flowing from livestock manure to water systems poses a serious threat to the natural environment. Thus, livestock wastewater management has recently drawn attention to this related field. This study first attempted to obtain the optimal conditions for the further volatilization of NH3 gas generated from pig wastewater by adjusting the amount of injected magnesia (MgO). At 0.8 wt.% of MgO (by pig wastewater weight), the volatility rate of NH3 increased to 75.5% after a day of aeration compared to untreated samples (pig wastewater itself). This phenomenon was attributed to increases in the pH of pig wastewater as MgO dissolved in it, increasing the volatilization efficiency of NH3. The initial pH of pig wastewater was 8.4, and the pH was 9.2 when MgO was added up to 0.8 wt.%. Second, the residual ammonia nitrogen (NH4 +-N) in pig wastewater was removed by precipitation in the form of struvite (NH4MgPO4·6H2O) by adjusting the pH after adding MgO and H3PO4. Struvite produced in the pig wastewater was identified by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. White precipitates began to form at pH 6, and the higher the pH, the lower the concentration of NH4 +-N in pig wastewater. Of the total 86.1% of NH4 +-N removed, 62.4% was achieved at pH 6, which was the highest removal rate. Furthermore, how struvite changes with pH was investigated. Under conditions of pH 11 or higher, the synthesized struvite was completely decomposed. The yield of struvite in the precipitate was determined to be between 68% and 84% through a variety of analyses.
본 연구에서는 하수 재이용을 위한 역삼투막 공정에서 전처리 정밀여과막(MF) 손상에 대한 누출되는 다양한 수 질변화로써 막 손상 검지 방안을 제시하였다. 이를 위하여 역삼투막 유입수질 적합성 평가지표인 SDI (silt density index)를 3에서 5의 범위 내에서 막 손상 시 검지 감도를 정량화하기 위하여 전처리 분리막이 1에서 3가닥 파단에 따라 SDI는 1.92에 서 6.11까지 증가한 결과를 확인할 수 있었다. 일반적으로 3을 기준으로 역삼투막 유입수질로 설정하였을 때 분리막이 3가닥 까지 파단이 되어야만 막 손상 검지가 가능하다는 것을 의미하며 역삼투막의 오염은 잠재적으로 가속화되어 효율을 저하시 킬 수 있다. 또한 이때 누출되는 입자성과 유기물질에 대하여 0.45 μm 이상의 크기만 걸러주는 입자계수는 입도분포별 막 파 단 개수에 따라 일정한 패턴을 확인할 수 없었으며, TOC 농도는 약 2배의 변화패턴으로써 SDI와의 상관관계로써 TOC가 막 손상 수질지표로써 신뢰성이 높은 것으로 확인되었다. 수질분석결과와 더불어 USEPA에서 제시하는 막 손상 검지 방법 중 압력손실시험과 이를 기반으로 LRVDIT 모델의 적합성 평가를 한 결과 막 손상 또는 역삼투막 공정으로 유입되는 막오염물질 을 신속하게 확인할 수 있는 SDI 및 TOC를 포함한 LRVDIT 모니터링과 UCL 설정을 병행해야 한다.