The purpose of this study is to improve effectiveness of Korea’s Official Development Assistance (ODA) provided to developing countries. To do this, we analyze the efficiency of ODA provided to 38 recipient countries by Korea through data envelope analysis method. The effects of four factors including population, GDP, economic decline and poverty, and external intervention on efficiency are also investigated by utilizing tobit regression analysis. As a result of the DEA efficiency analysis, it is found that the average efficiency score of the total is about 59%. By region, the average efficiency score of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and the East and CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) are about 42%, 68%, 70%, and 74%, respectively. It indicates that the Asian countries are inefficient compared to countries of the other regions. It is also found that factors of population, GDP, economic decline and poverty, and external intervention have statistically significant effects on efficiency at 0.01 significance level. In the case of the population, the higher the population of the recipient country, the more negative (-) effect is on the efficiency. The other factors such as GDP, economic decline and poverty, and external intervention have positive effects on the efficiency.
Recently companies have increased the new projects to improve and innovate the business process in order to adopt the advanced technologies such as IoT (Internet of Things), Big Data Analysis, Cloud Computing, mobile and artificial intelligence technologies for sustainable competitive advantages under rapid technological and socioeconomic external environmental changes. However, there are obstacles to achieve the project goals, corporate's strategy and objectives due to various kind of risks based on characteristics of projects and conflicts of stakeholders participated on projects. Hence, the solutions are required to resolve the various kind of risks and conflicts of stakeholders. The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of the project governance, agency conflicts on the project success based on agency theory by using the statistical hypothesis testing the relationship among those variables. As a result of hypothesis testing, we could find that the project governance impacts positively on project success and negatively on the agency conflicts. Further, the agency conflicts impacts negatively on the project success. Finally, we could find that the agency conflicts such as goal conflict, different risk attitude and information asymmetry between project manager and team members impact negatively on the project success. Meanwhile, the project governance impact positively on the project success, negatively impact on the agency conflicts such as goal conflict, different risk attitude and information asymmetry between project manager and project team members. In order to increase the project success rate, the project governance institutions such as PGB (Project Governance Board), EPMO (Enterprise Project Management Office), PSC (Project Steering Committee) are needed to prevent or reduce the agency conflicts between project manager and team members. 1)
The cooperative relationship between Employer and Contractor in the construction industry is the most important factor to achieve the project success. Employer shall draw the Contractor’s cooperative behavior during executing the project. A study on the impact of the Owner’s power on the contractor’s cooperative behavior is rare in the construction industry in Korea even though the negative impact of the high-power distance between the Employer and the Contractor has been a hot issue in Korea. In this empirical study, it is shown that the Employer’s power can address the contractor’s cooperative behavior. The respondents were mostly employees in the domestic construction companies who have experienced in the construction projects. The total number of respondents was 317 effectively. The multiple regression analysis using SPSS 21.0 were conducted to verify the hypotheses. In conclusion, the Mediated Power is positively associated with the In-Role Behavior and with the Extra-Role Behavior. Some of Non-Mediated Power is positively associated with the In-Role Behavior and with the Extra-Role Behavior. It seems that the Contract underestimate the Employer’s Expert Power. It was known that the cooperative power caused by Non-Mediated Power is good for long term relationship of the business to business transaction. So it is highly recommended that the Employer shall foster its expertise.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of project-based organizational resources on the business performance in the resource-based view (RBV) and dynamic capability one and analyze their relationship through an integrated model. The RBV argues that firms get competitive advantages when they have VRIN characterized resources but dynamic capability view argues that RBV has its limitation under volatility so it enables them to obtain competitive advantages in ever changing environments. This study analyzes data collected from 270 survey questionnaires on the project management related staff at the project-based organization among major companies in Korea. The result demonstrates that two project organizational resources on strategic and executional management with VRIN characteristics are found to bring positive effects on the organizational dynamic capabilities and also the dynamic capabilities such as integration & reconfiguration, organizational learning are verified to bring meaningful positive effects on the business performance. On the other hand, unlike previous studies, ambidexterity has quite a weak effect on the business performance. Therefore, we expect that the resources of the project-based organization with VRIN lead to strengthen the firm’s business performance through organizational dynamic capabilities and produce high performance through the integrated model of RBV and dynamic capability one. The study has academic meanings that widely confirm the effects and characteristics of main elements of VRIN project organizational resources on the business performance of competitive advantage through the dynamic capabilities of the organization by the regression on the precedent studies regarding the project management resources and their relationship with the VRIO characteristics. The practical implication is that it is preferentially necessary for the organization to obtain VRIN resources and organizational dynamic capabilities, especially organizational learning to have sustainable competitive advantages.
Recently, PPP (Public-Private-Partnership) Projects, which private companies invest in, plan, design, construct and operate, have become more popular around the world. The construction industry environment is becoming increasingly competitive. The PPP project is composed of various organizations, so it is very difficult to carry out the project successfully. In this environment, the construction companies are trying hard to secure a competitive advantage. In this study, we tried to identify the role of project manager’s leadership and project citizenship behavior as a precedent for creating performance in PPP (Private-Public-Partnership) project. We examine the impact of PM’s transformational leadership and transactional leadership on project citizen behavior and examine the impact of project citizen action on project management performance and completion performance. For this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey on PPP project participants. As a result, the following results were obtained. First, transformational leadership and transactional leadership had a significant influence on project citizenship behavior. Second, project citizen behavior had a significant impact on both project management performance and project completion performance. The idealized influence of transformational leadership and the Active management by exception of transactional leadership were found to be very important in shaping PPP team’s project citizenship behavior. Therefore, this study has academic implications in studying the effects of PM leadership and project citizenship behavior on the performance of PPP project. And it is expected that it will help selection and training of PM to secure a competitive advantage for construction companies that implement PPP projects practically.
The use of Project Management Information System (PMIS) is increasing in project management industries such as construction, defense, manufacturing, software development, telecommunication, etc. It is generally known that PMIS helps to improve the quality of decision making in project management, and consequently improves the project performance. However, how much and which parts of project management performance are affected by PMIS still need to be studied further. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of PMIS quality on project management performance. We collected data from various project based industries such as construction, defense, manufacturing, software development and telecommunication by using survey questionnaire. PMIS quality was measured in three dimensions. They are system quality, information quality and service quality. Project management performance was measured in nine variables such as time reduction, work accuracy, cost management, etc. Statistical analyses such as multiple regression were used to analyze the data. The results showed that PMIS quality had significant impacts on the project management performance and user satisfaction. It was notable that only two dimensions out of the three PMIS quality dimensions, system quality and information quality, affected the project management performance. Also, it was found that PM performance played a mediating role between PMIS and user satisfaction, and between PMIS and reuse intention. The contribution of this research is that it helps to clarify what aspects of PMIS affect the project management performance and user satisfaction.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the efficiencies of project management offices in large information system construction projects using the data envelopment analysis. In addition, we tried to estimate the confidence interval of those efficiencies using bootstrap DEA to give a statistical meaning. The efficiency by the CCR model is analyzed as eight project management offices are fully efficient and 22 project management offices are inefficient. On the other hand, there are 15 project management offices are fully efficient, but 15 project management offices are inefficient in the BCC model. As the result of the scale efficiencies, of the inefficient project management offices, 13 project management offices are inefficient in scale. It is possible to eliminate the inefficiency in the CCR model by improving their project performances. And, the nine project management offices showed that the inefficiency was due to pure technical efficiency, and these companies should look for various improvements such as improvement of project execution system and project management process. In order that the inefficient project management offices be efficient, it is analyzed that more efforts must be made for on-budget and on-time as a result of examining the potential improvement potentials of inefficient project management offices.
In this paper, we identify risk factors that are likely to occur during the lifecycle of a new product development (NPD) project from the literatures, and identify the three objectives or three constraints that will ultimately be achieved for project success in the ICT industry : performance (scope/quality), schedule (time), and cost. Firstly, we interviewed the project experts to classify the risk factors according that the final project objectives are changeable based on scope/quality, time and cost budget constraints. Secondly, the survey for pairwise comparisons between the risk factors was asked to the project managers and members who had ever actually participated in the NPD projects of ICT industry to determine the priority ranks on relative importance using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). The risk factors negatively affecting the goals of projects were analyzed by using the AHP respectively in four project stages during the life cycle of the project. The comparison of risk factors within each stage is a different approach unlike the literatures which have covered project’s overall risk assessment. There is an advantage that risk management can be effectively performed with priorities according to each stage from the start to the end of the project. In other words, it is necessary to identify what risk factors will occur in each stage, and to have ideas at each stage with the priorities so that they can be mitigated and eliminated before actual occurrence. As a result, risks on scope & quality changes were found to be the most important considerations for initiative stage of NPD projects in the ICT industry, whereas in the final stage, risks on schedule (time) changes were the most important priorities. Among the ICT industry product categories, ‘communication and broadcasting devices’ and ‘IT and communication based devices’ generally have a high priority in terms of risks on scope & quality changes when initiating the project. At the closing stage of the project, however, considering that schedule (time) changeable risk is getting higher, these products tend to target at B2B market rather than B2C because the new products must be delivered and launched in time as customer firm required.
In the SW industry, the diversification of global markets and technology trends are changing due to the emergence of new services, and IT companies are in need of strategic change different from the previous one. In this study, SWOT analysis was performed by extracting the internal environmental factors and external environmental factors through the previous studies to improve the project performance competence of small IT companies, and the SWOT Matrix was reconstructed through the pairwise comparison. Based on this, the purpose of this research was to propose the project performance competency improvement plans for small IT companies based on importance and priority, and the following four strategies were derived from the result of SWOT-AHP analysis. SO strategy was drawn in direction to invest R & D in new SW industry to enhance technology competitiveness of SMEs in order to develop SMEs, and in order to secure competitiveness of SW industry, WO strategy is drawn the cultivation of professional technical manpower through SW policy. ST Strategy presented technical management through SW system improvement policy to improve SW environment, and WT Strategy presented awareness training on the construction and necessity of project management system construction. Using the strategies presented in this study, it is expected that the managers of small IT firms will be presented as references to measure the performance competence factors of current organizations and company organizations.
This paper proposed data driven techniques to forecast the time point of water management of the water reservoir without measuring manganese concentration with the empirical data as Juam Dam of years of 2015 and 2016. When the manganese concentration near the surface of water goes over the criteria of 0.3mg/l, the water management should be taken. But, it is economically inefficient to measure manganese concentration frequently and regularly. The water turnover by the difference of water temperature make manganese on the floor of water reservoir rise up to surface and increase the manganese concentration near the surface. Manganese concentration and water temperature from the surface to depth of 20m by 5m have been time plotted and exploratory analyzed to show that the water turnover could be used instead of measuring manganese concentration to know the time point of water management. Two models for forecasting the time point of water turnover were proposed and compared as follow: The regression model of CR20, the consistency ratio of water temperature, between the surface and the depth of 20m on the lagged variables of CR20 and the first lag variable of max temperature. And, the Box-Jenkins model of CR20 as ARIMA (2, 1, 2).
The purpose of this study is to verify the mediating effect of pay satisfaction on the relation between procedural justice and organizational commitment. A survey was conducted to examine the mediating effect of pay satisfaction on the responses of 529 employees. The study chose sex, age, education, position, job type and career as control variable, and the regression model which treated procedural justice as independent variable and organizational commitment as criterion variables were set. A pay satisfaction was supposed as mediating variable of these relationships. The data analysis was conducted by SAS 9.4ver and LISREL 8.80. The results of this study confirm underneath the followings. First, the relation of procedural justice and organizational commitment are significantly unique. Second, procedural justice are positively related to pay satisfaction. Third, pay satisfaction is significantly positively related to organizational commitment. Fourth, the pay satisfaction is partially mediated on the relationship between procedural justice and organizational commitment. This means that the pay satisfaction mediates the relation of procedural justice and organizational commitment. These results are different from the prior researches which had treated pay satisfaction as mediating variable of procedural justice and organizational commitment. Based on the findings of the study, this study presented managerial implications and suggestions for future studies.
One of the most performed action in daily life is standing up from sitting position. As the population of the world is aging at the high rates, people may face problems with reduced muscle strength as well as psychological changes. This can lead elderly people having difficulties with standing up from chair. Now, with the aging trend worldwide, products are being developed that can support the lives of the elderly. This study examines the distribution of hip pressure in relation to the seating positions of the standing assistance seats under development to prevent standing up accidents in older adults. The currently developing standing assistant chair designed to tilt to a maximum angle of 25 degrees. At over 25°, design considers that older people are at risk of thrown back out of that force and that the forces exerted on their arms and legs can be a significant burden to older people. By considering danger of higher than 25° for older people which is experimented in the basis of static capturing approach in previous papers, it is experimented people with age group of 20~60 on 0° to 25° tilting angle on the basis of dynamic capturing method in order to pick convenient angle of inclination. Moreover, tried to find the optimum angle by comparing the hip pressure distribution when seated at the edge of the seat and at the center of the seat with the pressure distribution sensor.
Defining and measuring non-rigid or flexible parts has been controversial in industry for many years. There are two primary areas of controversy. The first is agreeing on what exactly a non-rigid part is. The second is agreeing on how to define and measure a non-rigid part. The subject of non-rigid parts is further complicated by the brief coverage it receives in the national and international standards. This leaves each company to improvise or create its own rules for non-rigid parts. There are some who believe that Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) should not be used on non-rigid parts. This is not true. The ASME Y14.5M standard applies to rigid parts as a default condition. However, there is no definition given for a rigid part. The term rigid part has been used in industry for so long that it has gained a definition by its general use. When most people in industry say rigid part, they are referring to a part doesn’t move (deform or flex) when a force (including gravity) is applied. How much force is relative based on the part characteristics. In reality, all parts will deform (or flex) if enough force is applied. Using this logic, all parts would be considered non-rigid. However, we all know that this is not how parts are treated in industry. Although GD&T defaults to rigid parts, it should also be used on non-rigid parts with a few special techniques. Actually 50~60% of all products designed contain parts or features on parts that are non-rigid. Therefore, we try to suggest the definitions of rigid and non-rigid parts and method to measure non-rigid parts.
OLED Display fabrication system is one of the most complicated discrete processing systems in the world. As the glass size grows from 550×650mm to 1,500×1,850mm in recent years, the efficiency of Automated Material Handling System (AMHS) has become very important and OLED glass manufacturers are trying to improve the overall efficiency of AMHS. Aiming to meet the demand for high efficiency of transportation, various kind of approaches have been applied for improving dispatching rules and facility layout, while simultaneously considering the system parameters such as glass cassettes due date, waiting time, and stocker buffer status. However, these works did not suggest the operational policy and conditions of distribution systems, especially for handling unnecessary material flows such as detour. Based on this motivation, in this paper, we proposed an efficient algorithm for improving detour transportation in OLED FAB. Specifically, we considered an OLED FAB simplifying OLED production environment in a Korean company, where four stockers are constructed for the delivery of Lot in a bay and linked to processing equipments. We developed a simulation model using Automod and performed a numerical experiment using real operational data to test the performance of three operation policies under considerations. We showed that a competitive policy for assigning alternative stocker in case of detour was superior to the current dedicated policy using a specified stocker and other considered policies.
VOCs have been used as the most definitive resource to reflect customer feedback when developing products and services. However, due to the development of the Internet and the emergence of SNS, VOC is no longer the only channel that represents customer opinions. There are also a number of studies showing that many customers express complaints through channels other than VOCs. In this paper, we analyze the difference between the official VOC data and the data collected through the external channel, and suggest ways to reflect the various opinions of customers. To do this, this study uses keyword analysis that can identify differences according to frequency through social network, modular analysis to distinguish topics according to centrality and similarity, and emotional analysis to confirm word polarity (positive and negative). The results of this study show that the opinions of the customers were different depending on channels such as VOCs and external channels. Therefore, the collected data through VOC as well as external channels should be used in order to reflect the opinions of customers. In particular, this paper confirms that the results of one channel may vary depending on the channel characteristics even for the same channel. This confirms that collecting voc only on certain channels may differ from what real customers require. Therefore, data collected through VOCs as well as external channels must be used to reflect various customer feedback.
Inventory inspection is an important task to eliminate the inconsistency between real assets and inventory management systems, and it is performed periodically at the site. In the case of a large-sized property, it is mainly managed in an outdoor workshop or a warehouse. However, due to the large area of the outdoor area, it is relatively difficult to identify the quantity and location of the property and is also vulnerable to theft. To solve this problem, we proposed a method and system for performing a warehouse inventory inspection using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacons. The proposed method has the following advantages. First of all, if we carry out inventory inspection by utilizing UAV, we can minimize user’s effort compared to existing methods. The method of recognizing the asset by attaching the BLE beacon is more costly than using the existing RFID technology, but it is advantageous because the recognition distance is increased and the battery life of the tag is drastically increased. We also designed a BLE beacon reader for the system and implemented a prototype to show the feasibility of the proposed system. The prototype is based on Genuino 101, which is a kind of arduino, and adds HM-10 and Neo-6m modules to provide Bluetooth and GPS functions. The BLE beacon reader was tested in outdoor, and attached in drone. We also developed an inventory checking system based on the web to display results of inventory checking. The proposed approach enables the users to automate the operation of inventory checking on an outdoor warehouse.
Taguchi regarded the concept of quality as ‘total loss to society due to fluctuations in quality characteristics from the time of supplied to the customer.’ The loss function is a representative tool that can quantitatively convert the loss that occurs due to the deviation of the quality characteristic value from the target value. This has been utilized in various studies with the advantage that it can change the social loss caused by fluctuation of quality characteristics to economic cost. The loss function has also been used extensively in the study of producer specification limits. However, in previous studies, only the second order loss function of Taguchi is used. Therefore, various types of losses that can occur in the process can’t be considered. In this study, we divide the types of losses that can occur in the process considering the first and second loss functions and the Spiring’s reflected normal loss function, and perform total inspection before delivering the customer to determine the optimal producer specification limit that minimizes the total cost. Also, we will divide the quality policy for the products beyond the specification limits into two. In addition, we will show the illustration of expected loss cost change of each model according to the change of major condition such as customer specifications and maximum loss cost.
This study conducted to predict the stock market prices based on the assumption that internet news articles might have an impact and effect on the rise and fall of stock market prices. The internet news articles were tested to evaluate the accuracy by comparing predicted values of the actual stock index and the forecasting models of the companies. This paper collected stock news from the internet, and analyzed and identified the relationship with the stock price index. Since the internet news contents consist mainly of unstructured texts, this study used text mining technique and multiple regression analysis technique to analyze news articles. A company H as a representative automobile manufacturing company was selected, and prediction models for the stock price index of company H was presented. Thus two prediction models for forecasting the upturn and decline of H stock index is derived and presented. Among the two prediction models, the error value of the prediction model ① is low, and so the prediction performance of the model ① is relatively better than that of the prediction model ②. As the further research, if the contents of this study are supplemented by real artificial intelligent investment decision system and applied to real investment, more practical research results will be able to be developed.
Net neutrality, which has not been a problem, has recently become a problem for ISPs (Internet Service Providers), and their complaints have been paid by domestic platform companies, but overseas global IT companies such as Google and YouTube, generate huge revenues from domestic markets. In this situation, domestic IT companies claim that it is natural to impose more expensive charges or restrict speed on users who generate huge traffic. On the other side, however, the telecommunication network has become an essential public good that is essential to our everyday life, and because it has been given a monopoly position by a private company to efficiently respond to the explosive demand for telecommunication services, It is necessary to provide equal and universal service and fulfill public duty. In this paper, we deal with the network neutrality problem, focusing on the price elasticity between the CP (Contents Provider) and the ISP, rather than the user who is one side of the two-sided market for the already saturated satellites communication market. We present a game model that determines the optimal price for each platform by Nash equilibrium and analyze how the net neutrality affects CP according to the change of exogenous variables through the proposed game model.
While the term online shopping refers to all online transactions, cross-border online shopping means shopping activities purchasing products or services over the internet for the customers abroad. As Internet use for the international shopping activity increasing, cross border online shopping has grown substantially for last decade. This study is about the problem regarding the cross border online shopping for two different countries and the variables that influence their shopping behavior. The cross border online shopping has been increased by the growth of Internet access. However, the growth of the Internet use does not guarantee a successful development of cross border e-commerce for every country. To find out the perception for cross-border online shopping for two different cultures, shoppers from two countries with different cultural background were chosen, and the perception for cross-border online shopping from each culture is contrasted. For statistical Analysis, ANOVA is used to find the relationship between a single non-metric independent variable, and multiple metric dependent variables. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model is adopted for this study as a tool to find out the patterns of cross border online shopping. This study showed what the variables would affect the perception in cross border online shopping. The results of this study indicated that cross border online shoppers with different culture were notably different on two variables identified-timeliness and ease of use.