Recently, underground pipes are utilized in various fields of applications such as sewer lines, drain lines, water mains, gas lines, telephone and electrical conduits, culverts, oil lines, etc. Most of pipes are installed for long-term purposes and they should be safely installed in consideration of installation conditions because there are unexpected various terrestrial loading conditions. In this paper, we present the result of investigation pertaining to the structural behavior of glass fiber reinforced thermosetting polymer plastic (GFRP) flexible pipes buried underground. The mechanical properties of the GFRP flexible pipes produced in the domestic manufacturer are determined and the results are reported in this paper. In addition, ring deflection is measured by the field tests and the finite element analysis (FEA) is also conducted to simulate the structural behavior of GFRP pipes buried underground. From the field test results, we predicted long-term, up to 50 years, ring deflection of GFRP pipes buried underground based on the method suggested by the existing literature. It was found that the GFRP flexible pipe to be used for cooling water intake system in the nuclear power plant is appropriate because 5% ring deflection limitation for 50 years could be satisfied.
Concrete filled steel tube (CFT) columns have been widely used in moment resisting frame structures both in seismic zones. This paper discusses the design of such members based on the advanced methods introduced in the 2005 AISC Specification and the 2005 Seismic Provisions. This study focuses particularly on design following both linear and nonlinear methods utilizing equivalent static and dynamic loads for low-rise moment frames. The paper begins with an examination of the significance of pseudo-elastic design interaction equations and the plastic ductility demand ratios due to combined axial compressive force and bending moment in CFT members. Based on advanced computational simulations for a series of five-story composite moment frames, this paper then investigates both building performance and new techniques to evaluate building damage during a strong earthquake. It is shown that 2D equivalent static analyses can provide good design approximations to the force distributions in moment frames subjected to large inelastic lateral loads. Dynamic analyses utilizing strong ground motions generally produce higher strength ratios than those from equivalent static analyses, but on more localized basis. In addition, ductility ratios obtained from the nonlinear dynamic analysis are sufficient to detect which CFT columns undergo significant deformations.
This study deals with an enhanced assumed strain (EAS) three-dimensional element for free vibration analysis of laminated composite and sandwich structures. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) formulation based on the EAS method for composite structures shows excellence from the standpoints of computational efficiency, especially for distorted element shapes. Using the EAS FE formulation developed for this study, the effects of side-to-thickness ratios, aspect ratios and ply orientations on the natural frequency are studied and compared with the available elasticity solutions and other plate theories. The numerical results obtained are in good agreement with those reported by other investigators. The new approach works well for the numerical experiments tested, especially for complex structures such as sandwich plates with laminated composite faces.
Under the huge seismic loads, there are too many risks about which high-rise buildings lost their lateral stiffness caused by plasticity on frame members. Because of earthquake is important cause to bring the collapes countinue to human’s life, many reports examined these phenomenons in various angles. And some of them reported the high possibility about building collapse by deformation concentrations under huge earthquakes. For preventing these phenomenons, researchers suggest some items-such as adding damping devices or strengthen their ductility or stifness. This report suggests choose the method of strengthen building stiffness and suggests the alternative designs using high strength steel-SM570TMC, and provides the results of time-history analysis about the alternative designs for investigation
The method based on various mathematical characteristic equations for identifying tensile forces in the cable structure system are used as response data to reflect the properties of the dynamic sensitivity. The vibration tests have been conducted with respect to levels of applied weight for the sagged cable. In this study, a set of natural frequencies are extracted from the measured dynamic data. Next, existing characteristic equation methods based these extracted natural frequencies are applied to identify tensil forces of the sagged cable system. Through several verification procedures, the proposed methods could be applied to a sagged cable system when the initial material data are insufficiency.