Flexural capacity of a Textile Reinforced Mortar(TRM) was investigated by an experimental study. The test program was accomplished on reinforced concrete(RC) slabs consisted of concrete(average compressive strength of 22.23 MPa) and rebar(strength class of SD400). RC slab had 450 mm and 150 mm in size and 2,600 mm in clear span. Strengthening was accomplished by applying carbon-fiber mesh in layers of mortar. Control slab(unstrengthened) and six slabs strengthened with TRM were fabricated to confirm the reinforcing performance in this study. Test variables considered amount of reinforcement and use of anchorage. As a results, it was validated that the flexural capacity of slabs strengthened with TRM increased from 159.9% to 285.2% according to the amount of TRM compared with unstrengthened slab. Experimental results indicated that there are increase in ductility as well as load carrying and deformation capacities when using multiple layers of textile.
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have advantages as a construction material, including corrosion resistance, lightweight and high tensile strength. However, FRP rebars have shortcomings, such as low elastic modulus comparing to the steel rebar. With these reasons, FRP bars have not been widely used to reinforced-concrete (RC) structures. To overcome these shortcomings, the steel-hybrid GFRP rebars were developed by the authors at Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT). Mechanical properties of the developed steel-hybrid GFRP rebars were experimentally evaluated through this study. Both tensile and bonding tests were conducted and the mechanical performance was investigated as well as corrosion resistance. As a result of all tests, elastic modulus, tensile strength and boding strength of the steel-hybrid GFRP rebars were all improved in comparison with fully GFRP rebars.
A huge amount of waste oyster shells are being produced in the southern coast of South Korea. In order to find the possibility to recycle the waste as construction materials, mechanical characteristics of oyster-shell such as compressive strength and modulus of elasticity, were investigated. Compressive strength tests for mortar specimen with varying blending ratio of cement, water, fine aggregate, and oyster-shell were compared with normal cement mortar. There was continuous decreasing tendency in compressive strength as increasing dosages of oyster-shell when used as a replacement of cement, however strength and stiffness were increased around 10% of dosages of oyster-shell when used as a replacement of fine aggregate. The experiment results demonstrate that oyster-shells can be recycled and effective in replacement of not only cement but also fine aggregates.
This study mainly evaluate the aseismic performance of the existing intake tower structure, which is one of the national important infra structures, on the basis of the refined finite element (FE) analysis results. The realistic evaluation for structural damage was conducted by using the nonlinear material model that takes tension and compression strength of deteriorate concrete into consideration during FE modeling. In addition, not only tension crack but also compression crushing was analyzed by utilizing field contour functions provided in the program during nonlinear dynamic analyses when peak ground acceleration (PGA) occurred. After observing FE analysis results, it can be shown that the damage of the intake tower is the most likely to occur at the water level and the base support.
This report offers an economically reasonable seismic reinforcement to non-seismic mid/low reinforced concrete structures. Installed a slit in between the reinforced concrete frame and masonry infilled wall then inserted twist bar to prevent inversion and attached to the lower/upper beam. Confirmed the seismic reinforcement effect through static loading test. Total of 4 specimens were produced for the test, a masonry infilled wall without seismic reinforcement and with seismic slit or twist bar applied. As a result, applying the seismic slit and twisted bar was economically reasonable and seismic reinforcement effect was confirmed by showing stable failure, increase of maximum strength and yield displacement, increase of accumulated energy dissipation.
Recent decades, maintenance and reconstruction have been paid attention to old buildings. Especially, it has been recognized that seismic retrofit measures are necessary for non-reinforced masonry buildings which are used for prevailing building constructions. However, such applications can be limited due to its excessive costs, long-period, and inherent difficulty in securing construction spaces. For this reason, different reinforcement methods have been proposed by previous researchers in the economic manner. This study carried out an adhesive retrofit material upgrading low workability and excessive costs of existing reinforcement methods and, in turn, verified the level of seismic reinforcement throughout experimental studies. In order for the objectives, masonry walls with an aspect ratio of 1.0 were designed and manufactured. Also, effective parameters which are affected by openings, adhesive material types, the number of reinforcement layers, and lateral load levels were established. Experimental results showed that MW specimens without openings were collapsed for low-seismic resistances resulting from rocking failure modes, while strength and displacement capacities were improved for reinforced openings. Also, R-MWO-3F specimens with opening which was enhanced for three layers of stiffener showed displacement, ductility capacities, and energy dissipating capacities in the stable manner, even satisfying the collapse prevention level proposed in the current seismic codes.
In general, polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and ductile cast iron pipes are widely used in the water supply pipeline system. However, they have some disadvantages such as reduced durability due to material degradation, defects in connections, breakage of pipelines, and difficulties in continuous maintenance. To mitigate such problems, recently, research on durable and outstanding corrosion resistant glass fiber reinforced polymer plastic (GFRP) pipe is being actively conducted. GFRP is classified into the flexible pipe and when soil pressure and live load act on buried GFRP pipe, the load acting on the pipe is transferred to the surrounding soil. So, it should review the structural behavior and interaction between buried pipe and its surrounding soil because pipe will support the load with the surrounding soil together at the same time. To apply GFRP pipe for the water supply pipeline system, the structural reliability of GFRP water supply pipe buried underground should be investigated by examining the mechanical properties of GFRP pipe as well as the soundness of the pipe under buried state. The field test of buried pipe is conducted and the results are analyzed and discussed.
Abstract: In this study, finite element analysis modeling is proposed to evaluate middle- and low-rise steel-frame buildings constructed in South Korea. Two steel-frame joint specimens with welding joint parts were constructed and evaluated. Two types of displacement load, monotonic and cyclic, were used to evaluate the steel-frame joint specimens. According to the experimental results, the maximum moment of the cyclic test results was 80% smaller than that of the monotonic test results. Local buckling was observed in the compression area of the H-beam flange. A finite element analysis model based on the experimental results was proposed to analyze the steel-frame joint specimens. The numerical results predicted the experimental behavior of the steel-frame joint specimens well. Therefore, it is possible to use the proposed finite element analysis model to evaluate middle- and low-rise steel-frame buildings constructed in South Korea.
This study dealt with truck crash performance evaluation of new guardrails made of PosMac steels considering the ground bearing capacity effect. Subsequent crash simulation results for SB2 and SB4 grades present that the developed model performs much better in containing and redirecting the impacting vehicle in a stable manner. In this paper, the existing finite element crash analysis of guardrails using the LS-DYNA program is further extended to study the nonlinear dynamic response of the guardrail structures with new type poles supported by external stiffeners. The numerical results for various parameters are verified by comparing different grades with displacements occurred in the barrier from the crash simulation.
In this study, refined finite element (FE) analyses intended to evaluate the capacity of the existing water purification plant structures against seismic force are conducted with an aim to predict possibility generating tension crack and compression crushing. The FE models for three types of main plant structures were constructed to take ground condition, boundary condition, and water interaction into consideration for advanced simulation. The nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed by using ground motion data which have been used for seismic design. Both compression crushing and tention crack, which are distributed over concrete plant structures during peak ground acceleration (PGA), are investigated by analyzing failure possibility controlled with the strain limits. After observing FE analysis results, it is possible to predict tenstion cracking which can be found at some parts of the main structure.
FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) reinforced lightweight concrete structures can offer corrosion resistance and weight reduction effect simultaneously, so practical use of the structures may be expected afterwards. But, to construct the concrete structures using lightweight concrete and FRP bar, one of many important things to be previously investigated is to study bond characteristic between the lightweight concrete and the FRP bar. So, bond characteristics between lightweight concrete and two types of GFRP bar (helically deformed GFRP bar and sand coated GFRP bar) were investigated in this study. To do this study, literature review and bond strength test using a number of bond strength specimens were conducted. As a result, it could be seen that the bond strength of helically deformed GFRP bar and sand coated GFRP bar in the lightweight concrete were 49% and 81%, respectively, for the bond strength of steel reinforcement in the normal concrete.
In recent years, single layer latticed domes have attracted many designers and researchers's attention all over the world, because single layer latticed domes as space structure are of great advantage in not only mechanical rationality but also function, fabrication, construction and economic aspect. One of the most important factor, in building of single-layer single-layer lattice spherical dome with 300m span, is to ensure the structural safety. Network pattern of single layer latticed domes can be infinitely taken into account. The typical network patterns are triangle, square, hexagon etc. Especially triangular network pattern has mechanically more advantage than the other network patterns because of having not only a large equivalent shearing rigidity but also a large equivalent bending rigidity and axial rigidity. Among the triangular network pattern, that is, 3 way grid pattern, there are many mechanical differences according to the arranging methods of members. In order to ensure the structural stability of single-layer latticed dome with 3 way grid, designers are required to maintain a constant member length and the member angle. In order to achieve this, it is important to search the member array that the standard deviation of the member lengths and angles is the smallest. This paper is to develop the arrangement of member and to verify its validity for single-layer latticed spherical dome with 300m span.
In this paper, a 2-DOF electromechanical impedance model of PZT material-aluminum interface member is proposed. The primary motivation is to control the effective frequency range in impedance-based local health monitoring practices. The proposed method focuses on the predetermination of the effective frequency band and the wireless impedance sensing possibility for damage detection in structural connections like tendon anchorage, etc. Firstly, a 2-DOF impedance model is proposed for modelling the PZT interface-host structure system. Secondly, the prototype design of the PZT interface is developed based on the analysis of the 2-DOF impedance model and the local dynamic characteristics of the composite aluminum interface-host structure system. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed 2-DOF impedance model is numerically verified by predetermining the effective frequency band for the impedance monitoring in a cable-anchorage connection.
Coal Ash, a byproduct of coal combustion in power plants, is usually disposed in surface impoundments or wet disposal areas and landfill sites. Toxic substances contained in coal ash which slowly seep into the groundwater and aquifers in nearby impoundments, and which are also dispersed by wind and storm water in landfill sites, lead to serious health and environmental effects. The main focus of this study is to analyze the strength characteristics of the recycled coal ash mixed with dredged soil to test its capabilities from external forces such as in the stacking of geotextile tubes. The SEM and XRF analysis were carried out in order to grasp the grain size and composition of the coal ash and the dredged soil. To find the optimum mixing ratio of the coal ash and dredge soil, the type of deformation and the strength of the different mixtures were obtained by performing a uniaxial compression test. The relationship between the compressive stress and deformation of the uniaxial compression test and the tubular structure formed by injecting the coal ash into geotextile tube was confirmed and the applicability of the geotextile tube reinforced with the recycled and improved fill material is very high.
In this study, we studied the damage area detection of the composite tension specimens under fatigue loading by using image processing techniques. The aim of this study is to detect the area of the damage region on the basis of original image. Basically we have used Matlab program. This study analyzed a total of six specimens under cyclic loading and the results using a user algorithm and analysis procedures of step 7. The damaged area was well detected except 3,000 cyclic loading. Accuracy of damage area detection is determined to be excellent by 83.3%(5/6). In general, however, in order to automatically detect the damaged area must develop an algorithm for setting the number of multi-threshold automatically. This is to perform the studies in the future.
This research describes the impact of vertical earthquake components on the performance of typical non-ductile bridges. To achieve this goal, this research chooses a non-seismically designed reinforced concrete bridge typically found in the California area. Particularly, their columns with inadequate design have a higher possibility of shear failure. To consider this failure, the column model reflects shear-axial interaction effect and is verified by comparing simulated results and experimental data available in literature. Two computational bridge models having column shear model subjected to constant and varying axial load are then built to conduct inelastic dynamic analyses. The responses are employed to construct probabilistic seismic demand models for two bridge models. This results indicate that the consideration of shear-axial interaction effect increases the seismic demand of all bridge components in non-ductile bridges, resulting in their increased seismic vulnerability.
Recently, the fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) materials have been recognized as advanced materials for bridge construction. The FRP bridge deck system has advantages to construct rapidly, its durability. The FRP bridge decks have accepted as a method of deteriorated reinforced concrete bridge deck replacement. For application, design method details and connections for FRP bridge decks will be provided. In this paper, the design method, deck design and connections details on FRP decked precast, prestressed concrete girder bridges is presented. In this study, the design method of efficient connection between FRP deck and concrete girder is proposed with composite action. The schematic of proposed modular FRP panel deck-to-concrete girder connection is also presented, which is the flexible hybrid shear connection included steel reinforcements and FRP tubes. The FRP deck-to-concrete girder hybrid connection system should be improved with further refinement and experimental program. Finally, it is hoped that this paper will be guideline for research and development on this subject field for researchers and engineers
FRP composites bridge deck has advantages of structural characteristics and rapid construction in the replacements of the deteriorated bridge deck. Although FRP composites have many advantages, the application in the bridge design has been retarded so far due to the lack of design guidelines. In this paper, the design example for the FRP decked concrete composite girder bridges is presented to verify the proposed design method. The design of connection in the design example is the flexible hybrid shear connection included steel reinforcements and FRP tubes. Finally, this paper may be design guideline for FRP decked concrete composite girder bridges required the composite action.
Theories of advanced composite structures are too difficult for such field engineers and some simple methods are necessary. In this paper, Simple method of vibration analysis is presented. This method presented in this paper is studied self-weight and other loads. The result of the 2~3 times iteration is good enough for field engineering purposes. In the case of cantilevered composite materials beams with different cross section, increase of mass near the support does not significantly affect the vibration characteristics. As a calculations of the simple method of vibration analysis for cantilevered composite materials beams with different cross section, it is noted that the result of the second cycle at the point of free end (actually 5L/6 span) is only 2.2% away from the ‘exact’ solution.