Railroad ballast materials tend to degrade due to the increase of ballast abrasion and fracture that results in decreasing the capability of shock absorption, interlocking friction, and the resistance to track irregularity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a methodology to improve or maintain the structural condition of ballast materials which is in the middle of fouling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of reinforcement on the fouled ballast using ballast stabilizer. Field experimental program was conducted to compare the lateral ballast resistance in case of before and after application of ballast stabilizer. A series of laboratory repetitive load triaxial compression test was then performed to compare the accumulated plastic strain in case of before and after application of ballast stabilizer to the ballast materials having a different level of Fouling Index(FI). In the event of application of ballast stabilizer, the accumulated plastic strain decreased by 41.8 and 28.8 percent, respectively, when the FI was 14 and 21, which appears to indicate the ballast stabilizer is effective for the moderate level fouled ballast materials.
The steel I-girder inserted circular steel pipe is a new structural cable-anchorage system that the circular guide pipe is connected and welded to the web of the I-girder for cable-stayed bridge. This guide pipe-anchor system has many merits of the structural and aesthetic performances. However, there has been little research into the behavior mechanism with respect to anchor angles and the strengthening methods against the sectional area reduction caused by the penetration of guide pipe. Therefore, this paper investigates an experimental behavior of the steel I-girder with circular steel tube which is fabricated 1/3 scale model as fundamental study to examine the flexural behavior and failure mode in the laboratory. Based on the comparison of test results and nonlinear FE analyses, it is found that FEM is suitable to estimate the stiffness of I-girder with circular tube in order to design the cable-stayed bridge.
In this study, seismic fragility analysis are carried out for the water supply facilities. To consider the uncertainty of ground characteristics, the variability of soil in several cases is considered based on RSM and the winkler Foundation method is adopted to model the ground. Limit state of water supply facilities defined as two steps.: the collapse prevention level and the serviceability level. As an input ground motion for evaluating seismic fragilities, foreign surveyed real earthquakes and artificial earthquakes which can be generated in the Korean peninsula are used. The destruction ability according to peak ground acceleration of an earthquake for the water supply facility is evaluated in this paper. From the analysis results, the probability of failure of the ductile iron pipe and wrapped steel pipe under real earthquakes have shown as upper than the Korean artificial earthquakes. It could evaluate the damage of water supply facilities to an earthquake and could be applied as basic data for seismic design of water supply facilities.
Recent frequent occurrence of urban sinkhole brings a need for the periodic inspection of sewer pipelines. Sewer inspection using a CCTV device needs a lot of time and efforts. Many of previous studies which have focused to reduce the laborious tasks are mainly interested in the developments of image processing S/W and inspection H/W. Nevertheless, there has been no attempt to find meaningful information from the existing CCTV images stored by the sewer maintenance manager. In this paper, we carried out a study about the construction of unfolding image of sewer video image. In general, the analysis results show that the image development is judged to have been well represented. It is expected to be a reference to the basic research of panoramic image.
Bridge inspection structures are the structure which is installed on the piers, abutments, and copings for the inspection and maintenance of substructure. In this study, the structural performance of the bridge inspection structures using aluminum members manufactured by extrusion process is evaluated. The bridge inspection structures can be installed regardless of the shape of concrete surface through the simple cutting process. The structural performance of bridge inspection structures is evaluated using FE analysis. Moreover, experimental studies are conducted for the estimation of the structural safety of the members for the design load.
FRP Hybrid Bar, composite structures composed of synthetic resins, deformed bar and glass fiber, was invented in order to solve corrosion of rebar in reinforced concrete structures. In order to bond deformed bar and glass fiber to FRP Hybrid Bar, synthetic resins is used. Curing time of the synthetic resins greatly affect productivity. If curing time of synthetic resins is short, cost of facilities is reduced and productivity is increased. Also, If this curing time is shorter or omitted, FRP Hybrid Bar can be commercialized. So, it can cause mass-production and substantial economic effect. Therefore, in this paper, optimum mix proportion is observed in order to increase economic efficiency of FRP Hybrid Bar and reduce curing time of synthetic resins. Total 9 variables are set, adjusting ratio of hardener ratio, and 3 resin moulds on each variables are fabricated. Optimum mix proportion is suggested based on data measured by temperature sensor.
Measuring the exact cable tension force is important to cable supported bridge under construction and on service. This study was planned to propose EM(electro-magnetic) sensor-based method for measuring the tension force of MS(multi-strand) cable in cable-stayed and extradosed bridge. The tension force in each strand is the same due to MS cable construction using Iso-tensioning system. Therefore, In this prosed method, EM sensor was installed directly at a strand and the measurement model was established for estimating the tension force of strand via EM sensor by experiments. The measurement model was derived from the relation of tension force and magnetic permeability. Also, the magnetic permeability is shown to be different according to the magnetization characteristic of 1860MPa and 2200MPa high-strength strand. The difference is increased as tension force increases. Additional experiment was conducted to verify the measurement model. As a result, the distribution of strand tension calculated upon the EM sensor is similar to those of tension measured by load cell. This proposed approach can be an effective tool for monitoring and measuring the cable force of MS cable.
Two types of connection between the abutment and CFT pile were proposed for the sub-structure of the integral abutment bridge. One was a bolt connection (Type-A) and the other was a hook connection (Type-B). To analyze the performance of connection Type-A and Type-B, a quasi-static experiment was carried out. According to experimental results, the destruction occurred at the connection point and so both type A and type B need to have a reinforced design as the link between the abutment and CFT pile. However, when the load resistance performance and energy dissipation capacity was analyzed, the performance of connection Type-B was superior to the performance of connection Type-A.
Recently, many people have become interested in seismic stability enhancement and a chain of research and development be proceed for application of nuclear power plant according to increase the frequency and magnitude of earthquake event. Such as seismic isolation system is applied to general structure (architecture, bridge and LNG tank etc.) from ancient times. But the application results is limited for Nuclear power plant. In this paper, we proposed a stability of variable axial load from beyond design basis earthquake in Nuclear power plant. Also, the change of stiffness in isolator from the application of generally design equation is not equal to according to change in axial load compare with the experimental result in variable axial load. Therefore we proposed the empirical formula of design equation from test result of full-scale multi-lead rubber bearing for seismic analysis with real behavior (variable axial load) in the earthquake motion.
This paper dealt with the applicability of GFRP materials as reinforcements for a steel box girder bridge deck. The purpose of this study is to provide detailed design procedures with a code-based text for GFRP composites for civil engineering structures. From the example design, the deck was optimized from a serviceability perspective but was quite overdesigned with regard to flexural strength and creep rupture stress, due to its relatively low longitudinal modulus but high strength. We may conclude from these results that it is advisable to check the serviceability limits before optimizing the design for strength or starting the design from the serviceability calculation.
The present study analyzes the flexure behavior of the circular CFT member through experiment and numerical analysis. Through comparison between experimental and numerical results, whether or not the member was a full composite have little effect on the behavior. There circular CFT’s flexure behavior when considering pure moment is almost similar regardless of the interface characteristics between the steel and concrete. This is because there is no difference in the neutral axis of the full-composite and non-composite circular CFT member.
In korea, only small amount of nonstructural lightweight concrete is being used through indirect effects such as heat insulation property and soundproofing rather than structural elements due to lack of structural lightweight aggregates and lack of understanding about lightweight concrete development, etc. That`s why structural lightweight concrete to reduce weight has not been put to practical use. This study is a part of high strength lightweight aggregate concrete researches using lightweight aggregates and the purpose of this study is to find out the basic physical characteristics and tension cracking fracture characteristics of lightweight concrete. Crack Mouth Opening Displacement is measured through 3 point flexure experiment about notch beam. Load-CMOD characteristics are examined through rules of countries, characteristics of lightweight concrete and tension cracking fracture experiments. The degree of tensile characteristic alteration according to size changes of specimen and the characteristics about crack surface are analyzed. The changes of softening curve are analyzed and fracture energy is drawn through inverse analysis by the obtained Load-CMOD curve. To decide fracture energy and analysis parametric, inverse analysis is conducted and Ant Colony Method is conducted for optimization and then a way to find out optimal parameterization fracture energy is suggested.
Thermographic imaging based non-destructive evaluation proceeds measuring the defect or internal condition of civil structures. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, the infrared camera system is applied to various specimens. The technique described in this paper may allow us to find their numbers, locations, and the extent of damaged steels from the measurement in the long distance. In addition, a reinforced concrete specimens with different penetration depths is tested using the active thermography method, and to study the influence on the detecting internal rebar in cooled and heated conditions. The experimental results demonstrate that thermographic imaging method is useful for detecting the damage of steel structures and the unknown rebar in the concrete.