To provide information needed for managing fish resources and protecting the ecosystem of Cheonsu Bay, bimonthly variations in species composition and abundance of fish eggs and larvae were investigated. The samples were collected by using bongo net at three different stations from February 2020 to December 2021. Fish eggs were divided into Engrualis japonicus and unidentified eggs, of which Engragulis japonicus accounted for 85.6% of the total eggs collected. A total of 21 species representing 17 families and 6 orders were collected. The three dominant species were Gobiidae spp, Thryssa hamiltonii and E. japonicus and these three species accounted for 74.1% in the total number of individuals. The number of species was highest in August, 2020 and lowest in February, 2020 and 2021; the number of individuals was highest in August, 2020 and lowest in February, 2020. Temporal changes in the abundances of pelagic eggs and larval fishes corresponded with temperature.
In this study, the effects of Co content on the microstructure and Charpy impact properties of Fe-Cr-W ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened (F/M ODS) steels are investigated. F/M ODS steels with 0–5 wt% Co are fabricated by mechanical alloying, followed by hot isostatic pressing, hot-rolling, and normalizing/tempering heat treatment. All the steels commonly exhibit two-phase microstructures consisting of ferrite and tempered martensite. The volume fraction of ferrite increases with the increase in the Co content, since the Co element considerably lowers the hardenability of the F/M ODS steel. Despite the lowest volume fraction of tempered martensite, the F/M ODS steel with 5 wt% Co shows the highest micro-Vickers hardness, owing to the solid solution-hardening effect of the alloyed Co. The high hardness of the steel improves the resistance to fracture initiation, thereby resulting in the enhanced fracture initiation energy in a Charpy impact test at – 40oC. Furthermore, the addition of Co suppresses the formation of coarse oxide inclusions in the F/M ODS steel, while simultaneously providing a high resistance to fracture propagation. Owing to these combined effects of Co, the Charpy impact energy of the F/M ODS steel increases gradually with the increase in the Co content.
Basic reproductive biology of the daggertooth pike conger, Muraenesox cinereus were investigated based on the samples from August 2015 to December 2017 in Korean waters. A total of 2,328 samples was collected (1,593 females and 735 males) during the study period. The mean anal lengths (AL) were 33.5 ± 9.2 cm in females and 26.2 ± 7.3 cm in males respectively. The females were larger than males in AL (p < 0.05). Sex ratio was 2.2:1 in female to male (p < 0.05). The gonadosomatic index (GSI) varied monthly. GSI of female reached the maximum in July 2016 and June 2017 and the minimum in October 2016 and September 2017 respectively. The spawning period was from June to October. The size at sexual maturity (L50) of females was estimated at 24.9 cm in AL (63.5 cm in TL).
In order to manage and rebuild fishery resources, the fishing effort should be controlled effectively. Especially in the setting up of the proper level of fishing efforts, economic standards as well as biological standards must be carefully considered to promote the sustainable and economically viable development of fisheries. This study is aimed to estimate optimal fishing effort of giant octopus by combo fishing which uses longline in Gangwon with statistical data. The result showed that current fishing effort is 28% higher than EMEY. Unit fishing cost for each voyage will be 27% lower and unit fishing profit will be 17% higher than the current situation when the fishing effort meets EMEY. Although current fishing effort is similar to the EMSY, current catching is 16% higher than MSY and 22% higher than MEY.
매오징어 Watasenia scintillans 유생분포양상을 알아보기 위해 2015년 8, 9, 11월 R/V 탐구 21호로 동해 남서부연안 28개 정점 에 대해 CTD관측 및 IKMT(망목: 500 μm)를 사용하여 저층(최대 수심 100 m)에서 표층까지 경사채집을 실시한 결과, 채집된 매오징어 유생의 개체수는 총 238개체로 외투장(ML) 범위는 0.6 ~ 18.5 였다. 조사기간 중 8월이 9월과 11월보다 유생의 출현정점 수, 출현개체 수, 유생분포밀도에서 현저히 높았다. 특히 8월에 냉수괴가 분포하는 포항 ~평해까지의 동해연안에서 가장 높은 밀도를 보였다. 유생이 채집된 정점의 연직수온분포에서 매오징어의 부화수온(6 ~ 16 )은 주로 40 ~ 180 m의 수심에 위치하였다.
This study aims to suggest the methodology to improve to estimate back-calculated fish growth parameters using weighted average. It is to contribute to correct errors in the calculation of back-calculated growth equation with unequal numbers of sample by age. If the numbers of sample were evenly collected by age, each back-calculated length at age was equal between arithmetic and weighted averages. However, most samples cannot be evenly collected by age in reality because of different catchability by fishing gear and limitation of environment condition. Therefore, the estimation of back-calculated length by weighted average method is essential to calculate growth parameters. There were some published growth equations from back-calculated length using a simple arithmetic average with different numbers of samples by age when searching for back-calculated growth equations from 91 relevant papers. In this study, the process of deriving growth equation was investigated and two different average calculations were applied to a fish growth equation, for example of Acheilognathus signifer. Growth parameters, such as L∞, k and t0, were estimated from two different back-calculated averages and the growth equations were compared with growth performance index. Based on the correction of back-calculated length using weighted average by age, the changes by female and male were -14.19% and -5.23% for L∞, and 59.28% and 18.91% for k, respectively. The corrected growth performance index by weighted average improved at 7.05% and 2.46% by female and male, respectively, compared to the arithmetic averages.
This study analyzed annual catch trend during 45 years and monthly catch of the least 10 years (2005∼2014) for chub mackerel caught in the Korean coastal waters. To determine fishing status of chub mackerel, fork length measurements were conducted at least twice every week for 100 individuals randomly selected at the Busan Cooperative Fish Market from January of 2012 to December of 2014; and biological characteristics and proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, ash) were analyzed by length class (I∼IV) on a monthly basis from January to December of 2014. Monthly catch trend showed low level below 5,000 mt from February to July, whereas high level above 15,000 mt from October to December.
For the period between 2012 and 2014, annual average catch proportion of juvenile were relatively high at 68.1%, 53.1% and 53.2% from January to April, before spawning season, while those were low at 21.5%, 20.7% and 29.12% from June to November. As for the change in the proximate composition per 100 g of muscle, protein and ash did not change much by seasons and length class, whereas fat and moisture contents showed large fluctuations and complementary relationship between the two factors. Regardless of length class, monthly average fat content, containing Omega-3, showed the lowest at 7.18 g in April and highest at 19.27 g in December, which exhibited 2.6 times difference from one another.
Regardless of fishing seasons, fat content by length class were 19.06 g for the class I and 6.43 g for the class IV, which showed three times difference. Fat contents of the class I were high at 26.97 g and 27.19 g in November and December, while low at 8.37 g and 9.99 g in April and May. Especially, fat contents from January to May were 5.0 g, which was the lowest. Therefore, it is expected that consumer could indirectly contribute fisheries management through their understanding and wise consumption based on fishing status and fluctuation of proximate composition.
본 연구에서는 충남 연안에서 연안조망의 어획 특성을 파악하기 위하여, 2008년 3월부터 2009년 2월까지 매월 2∼4회 연안조망을 사용하여 어획조사를 실시하였다. 조사 해역은 동경 125도 50분∼126도 05분, 북위 36도 15분∼36도 25분의 해역이었고, 총 19목 63과 96종이 채집되었다. 그 중 어류가 54종, 갑각류가 27종, 복족류 및 이매패류가 9종, 그리고 두족류가 6종이었다. 생체량은 어류가 51.4 %로 가장 많았으며, 갑각류는 34.2 %를 차지하였다. 꽃새우는 7월~11월에 출현량이 많았고, 12월부터 5월까지는 적은 양이 출현하였다. 연안조망의 목표종인 꽃새우는 전체 어획물의 2.1 %로 낮은 채집 비율로 출현하였으며, 꽃새우 이외 어종의 부수적 어획물의 양적 비율이 높아, 꽃새우 어획이 부수어획으로 어획되는 종들의 수산자원에 미치는 영향이 클 것으로 판단된다.
Species composition and seasonal variation of aquatic organism in the marine ranchig ground of Taean, Korea were investigated using shrimp beam trawl from January to December 2010. A total of 99 species, 5,355,816ind./km2 and 84,697kg/km2 of aquatic organism were collected. Among them, fish include 9 orders 33 families 54 species, crustaceans include 2 orders 15 families 30 species, cephalopods consist of 3 orders 4 families 5 species, gastropods include 2 orders 3 families 4 species, echinoidea sp. include 1 order 2 families 2 species, bivalves were composed of 2 orders 2 families 2 species, and holothuroids include 1 family 1 order. According to the dominants by month, Palaemon gravieri was dominant in January, Cynoglossus joyneri was dominant in February, March, and June, and Hexagrammos otakii was dominant, in July. And Oratosquilla oratoria was dominant echinoidea sp. was dominant in April, May, and August and in September, October, November, and December. Cluster analysis based on species composition of the 38 most common species showed that the species were separated into 5 different groups. Group A was composed of species which were abundant in spring and summer, group B was composed of year-round residents, and group C was composed of species which were abundant in autumn.
Species composition and seasonal variation of aquatic organism in the coastal waters off Taean, Korea were investigated using catches by commercial fishing of the pot and gill net from April 2010 to January 2011. A total of 58 species, 10,602 individuals and 547,569g of aquatic organism were collected during the study. Aquatic organism were composed of 22 species of Pisces, 20 species of Crustacea, 8 species of Gastropoda, 3 species of Echinodea, 2 species of Cephalopoda and Bivalvia, and 1 species of Holothuroidea. 41 species in 9 orders and 22 families were collected by the pot, and 28 species in 15 orders and 22 families were collected by the gill net. Volutharpa ampullacea was the most dominant in the pot, while Okamejei kenojei was the most dominant in the gill net. These two species accounted for 73.9% in the number of individuals, and 64.4% in biomass. The number of species was high in spring in the pot, and autumn in the gill net. The number of individuals and biomass were highest in winter and summer respectively in the pot, and summer in the gill net. The number of species of the consignment quantity caught by commercial fishery of the pot and gill net in Mohang was 12 and 14 respectively. Cluster analysis based on species composition of the 18 most common species showed that the species were separated into 3 different group. Group A was composed of species which were abundant in spring, group B was composed of species which were abundant in summer and autumn, and group C was composed of year-round residents.
1985년부터 1987년까지 황해 32˚ 30'N, 122˚E-37˚ 30'N, 127˚E 해역에서 오징어채낚기어업으로 어획된 살오징어(Todarodes Pacificus Steenstrup)를 매월 1회 채집하여 생물학적 특성치를 조사하였다. 황해에서 어획된 살오징어의 주 발생군을 판단하기 위해 Tanaka(1956)의 방법을 사용하여 가을과 겨울발생군으로 분리하였다. 겨울발생군의 비율이 가을발생군의 비율보다 높았다. 생식소 숙도지수(GSI) 월변화에서 암컷은 1985년에는 7월에, 1986년에는 10월에, 1987년에는 8월에 최고값을 나타낸 후 감소하였다. 수컷은 1985년에는 6월에, 1986년에는 7월에, 1987년에는 6월에 최고값을 보였다. 암컷의 50% 군성숙체장를 분석한 결과 1985년에는 외투장(ML) 20.7 cm, 1986년에는 17.9 cm, 1987년에는 17.2 cm로 나타났다. 암수비율은 ML 24 cm 이상 체급에서는 암컷의 비율이 높았으며, 24 cm 미만 체급에서는 수컷의 비율이 높았다. 살오징어의 군성숙체장은 개체군 상태에 의해 영향을 받는 것으로 판단된다.
Catches, CPUE, fishing season, disc width composition and fishing ground were studied to rebuild skate ray, Raja pulchra resource by the offshore longline fishery in Heuksan-do, Korea. Annual catches and CPUE of skate ray were increased from 2003 to 2010 (CPUE: from 2007 to 2010) continuously. The main fishing season of the skate ray was from December to next May. Disc width at 50% maturity for Raja pulchra by sex were estimated to be 65.83cm, 57.01cm by female and male respectively. The range of disc width was 22.3-112.0cm and the average disc width was 66.9cm, 60.0cm by female and male of Raja pulchra respectively during 2007-2010. Annual average of disc width of female skate ray was decreased from 2007 to 2010. The fishing grounds were formed from the coastal water off Hong-do to the coastal water off Gyeogyeolbiyeol-do, Korea. The center of fishing ground in October was formed in the northwestern coastal water off Gyeogyeolbiyeol-do and separated from that of the other months.
The forming of fishing ground and the population ecological characteristics of yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, in the coastal waters off Gim-nyeong of Jeju Island were investigated. The stock of yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, between Jeju Island and coastal areas of the East Sea is probably the same. Water temperature probably is a major factor for controlling distribution of yellowtails in deeper, offshore areas off Jeju Island. However, the major factor that determines aggregation of yellowtails in coastal areas of Jeju Island, especially off Gim-nyeong is probably strong tidal currents driven by distribution of yellowtails rather than hydrological conditions such as Yellowtails collected off Jeju Island were from 1 to 4yrs old and about 50% of them were 1-yr old, probably indicating overfishing. Jack mackerel was the major prey item for yellowtails off Gim-nyeong from October to March, suggesting concurrence of the two species.
Side scanning sonar (SSS) provides valuable information for robot navigation. However using the side scanning sonar images in the navigation was not fully studied. In this paper, we use range data, and side scanning sonar images from UnderWater Simulator (UWSim) and propose measurement models in a feature based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) framework. The range data is obtained by echosounder and sidescanning sonar images from side scan sonar module for UWSim. For the feature, we used the A-KAZE feature for the SSS image matching and adjusting the relative robot pose by SSS bundle adjustment (BA) with Ceres solver. We use BA for the loop closure constraint of pose-graph SLAM. We used the Incremental Smoothing and Mapping (iSAM) to optimize the graph. The optimized trajectory was compared against the dead reckoning (DR).